This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Mike Kizer OSU Extension Biosystems & Agricultural Engineering
Typical Waste Water System
Wastewater System Regulation
Regulatory agency in Oklahoma is: Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) 707 N. Robinson, OKC (Tel: 405-702-6100) 405-702 DEQ field offices in many counties
Check local listing under: Oklahoma ± State of ±
Regulations are outlined in Title 252 of Oklahoma Administrative Code, Ch. 641 DEQ wastewater system website:
Minimum Lot Size for Wastewater Disposal Systems
Disposal System Type
Aerobic w/ sprinklers ET/Absorption Trench Subsurface (fast perc.) Subsurface (slow perc.) Lagoon
Water Supply Source Private Well Public Supply
¾ acre 1 acre ¾ acre 1 acre 2 ½ acres ½ acre 1 acre ½ acre 1 acre 2 ½ acres
pump. aeration) Perforated Pipe or Chamber Solid Pipe Lagoon Sprinkler Head Spray Head Private Well Public Well Buildings Other Structure Water Line Property Line Stream/Lake Drains 50 / 100 300 5 NA 5 5 15 15 50 / 100 300 5 10 15 5 15 15 50 / 100 50 NA NA 10 5 NA NA 50 / 100 300 50 NA 15 10 15 15 50 / 100 300 NA NA 15 5 15 NA 15 15 NA NA NA 5 15 15 .Wastewater System Separation Distances (distance in feet) Tanks (septic.
Wastewater System Components Water-tight sewer lines Water Septic tank Disposal system ± Subsurface drain field Absorption trenches Infiltration chambers ± ET/Absorption trenches ± Aerobic system with sprinkler ± Total retention lagoons ± Pre-approved alternative disposal systems Pre- .
. toilets and wall/floor drains prevent sewer gas from entering the house. tubs. squirrels. Main Sewer Pipe Screen vent pipe opening to prevent blockage by birds. showers. etc.Household Plumbing Sewer and Vent System Sewer lines in the house collect waste water for conveyance to the septic tank Roof vents and the traps under sinks.
Septic Tank All household wastewater systems will have a septic tank Microbial action digests solid wastes Liquids flow through tank to disposal area Tank size ± 1000 gallon liquid capacity (4-BR house or less) (4± Add 250 gallons per additional bedroom .
Typical Septic Tank Installation TwoTwo-Chamber Tank Baffles House Foundation .
40 is preferred weight) ± Transite (asbestos-cement) (asbestos± Orangeburg (paper-tar product: old houses) (paper- Drain Field Lines ± Perforated PVC ± Polyethylene infiltration chambers ± Clay tile (old houses) .Wastewater Piping Materials Water Water-tight Sewer Conveyance Lines ± Cast iron ± PVC (Sch.
Effluent Disposal Area Options Absorption field ± Absorption trenches ± Infiltration chambers ± ET/Absorption trenches Lagoons Aerobic systems Authorized alternative systems .
clay pan) (2) water saturated soil (discoloration) (3) loamy coarse sand or coarser soil. or (4) sandy clay or finer soil .Subsurface Absorption Field Approval Percolation Test ± 3 test holes in drainage area perc at a rate of 60 min/inch of water or faster Soil Profile Description ± 3 test holes without any of the following: (1) impervious material (bedrock.
The size and type of waste water disposal system is very dependent on the soil at the building site. . Even before a percolation test or soil profile evaluation you can get an idea of site suitability from the county soil survey.
CrossCross-Section of Subsurface Absorption Trench 8-ft minimum distance to center of next trench Perforated Pipe .
length .Lateral lines following the slope contour 150 max.
Infiltration Chambers Polyethylene infiltration chamber has 100% open volume vs. 50% for gravelgravelfilled absorption trench Corrugated design gives strength to support ground traffic over its 2-ft width 2 Chamber cost per unit length is approximately equal to unit cost of perforated PVC pipe. plus gravel and installation .
ET/Absorption Trench System Used when soil percolation rate is too slow for ordinary subsurface absorption trenches Uses evapotranspiration (ET) of grasses plus soil absorption to dispose wastewater Plant a mix of cool and warm season grasses for year-round ET year- .
CrossCross-Section of ET/Absorption Trench Cool-Warm Season Grass Mixture Perforated Pipe .
Lagoons Used when soil percolation rate is too slow for soil absorption systems Require 2 ½ acre minimum lot size Fencing required around the lagoon Size based on house size. and rainfall and evaporation of geographic zone Must retain all wastewater (no overflow) .
lagoon size based on house size and local rainfall 4 ft 3 1 7 ft 5 ft max.Typical Lagoon Installation . Concrete Pad .5 acre minimum lot size required .2. 1 ft min.4-ft high fence required .
.Location & Lagoon Size The required size of total retention waste water lagoons (because of their annual hydraulic balance) makes them less desirable the farther east you build in Oklahoma.
Aerobic Systems Used to treat septic tank effluent where subsurface disposal is not possible Bubbling air through effluent supports aerobic bacteria for further digestion Exposure to oxygen kills most pathogens Chlorination allows surface land application of wastewater through sprinklers .
Onsite Aerobic Treatment System Onsite aerobic treatment systems treat septic tank effluent further by aerobic digestion. chlorination to kill pathogens. (Septic Tank) . and surface application through a spray head sprinkler system.
EFFLUENT FROM SEPTIC TANK WASTEWATER TO CHLORINATOR & SPRINKLERS DIFFUSER Typical Aeration Chamber of Aerobic Treatment System .
StackStack-Feed Contact Tablet Chlorinator Chlorine Tablet Feed Tubes Effluent Outlet Effluent Inlet Ca(OCl)2 Tablets .
Pump Chamber and Surface Application System Access Hatch Spray Heads Pump Pump Control & Alarm Floats .
and is normally no more than 50 feet from house Two-way sanitary sewer clean-outs located: Twoclean± Within 5 feet of the house ± Within 5 feet of every bend greater than 45º 45º ± Every 100 feet of straight sewer line Grass over septic tank may be brown in summer Grass over drain field will be greener in summer .Finding Waste Water System Components Waste water components are normally downhill from the house (gravity flow) Septic tank can be no less than 5 feet.
Locating Waste Water System Components CleanClean-outs on main sewer line .
Locating Waste Water System Components 2 1/2-inch roof vent on branch line 4-inch roof vent on main sewer line Sewer system roof vents .
Locating Waste Water System Components Largest roof vent on main sewer line CleanClean-outs on main sewer line exiting house .
Regular green stripes in a dry lawn are the lateral lines .
Household Water Use 50gallons/person Typical Usage: 50-100 gallons/person-day ± Clothes washer: 30-50 gallons/load 30± Dishwasher: 7-15 gallons/load ± Garbage Disposal: 4 .5 gallons/flush ± Water softener: 50-100 gallons/regeneration 50- .6 gallons/day ± Shower/Bathtub: 25-60 gallons/use 25± Ordinary toilet: 1.6 .
Septic System Additives Biological Bacteria Yeast Enzymes Combination Chemical Acids Bases Organic Solvents Flocculants .
added bacteria will die also Normal population is restored in 30-60 30hours even if 99.99% has been killed .Biological Additives Will not eliminate need for tank pumping 20% of sludge is inorganic (indigestible) Billions of bacteria live in septic tanks-tanks-a few million more have little effect If natural bacteria have been killed.
Maximum Safe Levels of Cleaners (Single dose in 1000-gallon septic tank) 1000 Bleach (5.25% Cl): Cleansers/Disinfectants: Drain Cleaners: 1.3 gallons 2.65 ounces .5 gallons 0.
Chemical Additives Strong Acids and Bases Disrupt normal tank biological activity Harm soil structure in drain field Organic Solvents Clean thin layers of sewer line build-up build Contaminate ground water .
MA Retailers Study .75/yr $78.Annual Cost of Additives Amherst.00/yr $13.48/yr .1989 (using manufacturer¶s recommended rates) Biological (11): Solvents (3): Acid/Base (8): $19.
00/yr $37.50/yr $18.Annualized Pumping Cost (USPHS Pumping Frequency Estimate) $150 Pumping Cost for 1000-gal tank 1000Family Size 2 3 4 5 6 Pumping Freq.50/yr $12. 20 yrs 12 yrs 8 yrs 6 yrs 4 yrs Annual Cost $ 7.75/yr $25.50/yr .
Septic System Additives Conclusions Biological additives are harmless but of little use Chemical additives can damage septic system and contaminate ground water Don¶t use if active ingredients are unspecified Annualized cost of additives is about the same as for tank pumping on recommended schedule ³These products make a lot of money for the people that sell them.´ .
Waste Water System Failures Common Causes Hydraulic overloading (too much water) Solids migration to drain field ± Failure to pump tank on schedule ± Baffle failure Root intrusion into sewer lines Traffic damage to drain field Garbage disposal overuse .
bath ± Distribute laundry loads throughout week ± Distribute bathing morning & evening ± Full loads only for washer & dishwasher .Reducing Hydraulic Loading Equipment Adjustments ± Low flow toilets (1.6 gpf and 0.6 gpf) ± Water-saving showerheads Water± Front-loading washing machines Front- Lifestyle Adjustments ± Shower vs.
Root Damage Plant no trees or shrubs near sewer lines Copper sulfate to kill tree/shrub roots ± Treatment is not toxic to plants ± Once intruding roots are killed. absorption ends ± Add ½ cup of crystals to distribution box or to cleanout downstream from septic tank ± If added through toilet. 2 pounds of crystals are needed (not harmful to tank bacteria) See OSU CR-6428 for more information CR- .
Traffic Damage No vehicle parking over drain field No vehicle traffic except lawn mowers No traffic at all if ground is saturated .
cheap to fix) .Solids & Drain Fields Solids must be retained in septic tank Baffles should be inspected when tank is inspected or pumped Use of additives that ³liquefy´ sludge and scum can lead drain field failure Septic tanks: like fuses in electrical wiring (failure in controlled location.
Garbage Disposals Add to hydraulic load (running water) Add to solids (more frequent pumping) Poorer digestion environment ± (Carbon:Nitrogen ratio is more unfavorable) .
Water Softeners & Septic Systems Salt does not affect septic tank functioning Added hydraulic load (regeneration water) ± Use water meter or sensor controlled regeneration rather than time clock alone Added sodium can affect marginal drain fields (dispersal of clays slows perc rate) ± Use potassium chloride (KCl) salt if a problem .
ok.deq.us OnOn-Site Wastewater System Resources .MWPSMWPS-24 Onsite Domestic Sewage Disposal Handbook Home*A*Syst Worksheet #3 OK DEQ Ch. 641 www.state.
If you don¶t maintain your on-site wastewater system. it onwill demand your attention when it is most inconvenient. .