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EXAMPLE:GOENKA KNITWEAR LTD.
COMPANY NATURE: 100% export oriented garment unit. It receives the buyer order and executes it in its own factory. From receiving the inquiry of the buyer and manufacturing, to shipment of the product to the buyer, all activities are taking care of by the company. Their international standard production unit is equipped with modern quality control procedure and microbiological lab with latest technology and a group of top professionals. Each stage of production undergoes rigorous testing and quality control process. The finished products are again tested to ensure the desired standard of quality before placing products in the market..
Business Lines/ Products Manufacturing and Exporting: Ladies T-Shirt Gents T- Shirt Polo shirt
Export Partners: Germany France Turkey South Africa Canada
The raw materials and active ingredients of products are imported from reputed manufactures of Malaysia, Indonesia, Italy, France, Germany, Japan, Singapore, England, Switzerland and USA.
OBJECTIVES OF GOENKA KNITWAER LTD: To manufacture HIGH QUALITY products at COMPETITIVE price. No compromise with Quality is the key policy of the Top Management. They believe that, they are reasonable and accountable to all concerned with whom they deal; namely: their employees, their business associates, their consumers and their buyers.
PRODUCTS OF FOUR KNITWAER LIMITED: Ladies T- Shirt Gents T -Shirt Polo shirt Child shorts pant Ladies hooded jacket
Various Departments of Goenka Knit Wear LTD: Merchandising Department: this department is very much important for every garment industries. Merchandiser is a data bus between buyer and seller. Merchandising department perform the activities from collecting order to reaches the product on buyer. This department is responsible for providing all the raw materials needed for all kinds of garments products. Accounts Department :all the accounts of the organization are controlled by the accounts and administration department. Accountant record all the accounts, calculate profits or losses, prepared financial report . Finance /Commercial Department:. Import-export, L/C open, or any other banking activities performed by commercial department. Commercials manager cover all the activities. Shipping Department: transportation solutions for the export order are streamlined by this department. Human Resource Department: this department is very much important managing staff and employee of the company. It looks after the problem and opportunities of the company s employee. Production Department
VARIOUS DIVISIONS UNDER PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT: 1. which form a structure/fabric called knitted structure/knitted fabric. Knitted Fabric for clothing Single jersey Double jersey Rib category Double jersey La-coste .Knitting and dyeing division: Here the fabric is manufactured by converting yarn into loop form and than these Loop are locked/intermeshed / inter looped together.
Fire extinguisher (at every corner of the factory) .2. Shoe bag (one for each operator & helper) 10. Drawing / Marking table (Three for every line) 6. Rack for cut fabric keeping (for every line) 2. Toilet Card (one for every line) 11. Desk (one for every operator) 8. Desk for trims keeping (with lock for every line) 3. First Aid Box (for every floor) 12. Supporting table for bigger components operation (as per required) 7. Issue register (one for every line) 4.Cutting section 3. Sewing section Tools & equipment of sewing section are given below: 1. Basket (five to six for each line) 9. Attendance Register (one for every line) 5.
Bodkin 20. Iron section 6. Pencil 4. Small Scissors / clipper (for every operator & helper) 17. Hand needles 19. Are puncher / gimlet 18. They verify the quality as per the buyers specifications and their purchase order. Z punch plunk 15. Quality control department: This department keeps a check on quality through the Q. Store section . Managers.13. Wash room 5. pre-production to packing & final audit. Hammer 14. 8. They audit all the process. Big scissors 16. Manila board /paper board 21. Finishing section 7.C. Tailor chalk 22.
MAJOR RAW MATERIALS OF GOENKA KNITWEAR LTD: Fabric Threads Labels Buttons Zippers Cartons Tags Poly bags Folders Strikers Eye lets .
Sewing: In sewing section. In Goenka Knit wear ltd. It depends on the buyers requirement.Garment Wash: After sewing the garment might require a particular wash effect.LIST OF WORK-IN-PROCESS: 1. different type of printing may be needed. So we need to outsource the printing to various printing units as per our requirement.Cutting: Fabric is cut in the cutting section according to the size and design. At the time of cutting the fabric the Cutting master have to keep a check on the following: Shrinkage percentage Shade variation GSM and DIA Knitting pattern direction Dyeing variations 2. 4. 3.Printing: After cutting the fabric. Printing is done by third party. Since 1978 garment prewash has become extremely popular. cut fabrics are sewed . .
If we wish to have a more pronounced washed look on the garment we should add some sodium to wash. Pigment wash needs 50. However. such as the seams and pocket corners. Pigment Wash: Pigment wash is actually same as normal garment wash. timing is very important because any garment over bleached can not be corrected or reversed back to a lesser bleached condition. . we have adjust the water temperature. the amount of detergent or sodium and the length of time to wash. Sometimes we add bleach to the wash to make the color fade more seriously. you just have to add bleach to the water in the tumble for washing.c to wash the garment in order to ensure that the color spreads evenly over the garment. To achieve the pronounced washed effect through abrasion on the exposed areas.c-60.following are different prewash techniques for garments: Normal Wash: Wash in hot water added with detergents and softener. Depending on what kind of fabric the garment is made of and the extent of washed look needed. Stone Wash: The idea of washing with porous volcanic stones is to give the garment a strong and rough wash. Bleach Wash: In bleach wash.
Enzyme Wash: Enzyme is a of live cell. sanded or preached effect. we wash them with caustic and hot water. .Washes (cont. We use it to the wash because we want it to break some of the fibers on the surface in order to give the fabric a soft. Caustic Wash: When garments are stitched and ready for wash.) Acid Wash: .
B . mending and ironing. Design quality: Design quality is concerned with material. the stitching quality and measurements are important aspects. style.Quality control: A quality controller checks the finished garments and ensures that they qualify according to the spec sheet of the buyer. rectifying small mistakes. There are two main aspects to consider when discussing the quantity of a garment. Satisfactory quality can only be ensured through: Knowing the customers needs Designing to meet them Faultless construction Certified performance and safety Clear instruction manuals Suitable packaging Prompt delivery Feed back of field experience . fit and construction aspect. Manufacturing quality: Manufacturing quality is concerned with the degree to which the garment produced agrees with the sample or specifications.Finishing: Thread cutting. 6. A .5.
Main Mark (AS per buyers Instruction) 2.Polybag packing: It is used in order to ensure product stays clean and free from dust and protect it from any damage. we need to attach a packing list to each cartoon which contains the details of product assortment. It includes.the product needs to be put in a cartoon for shipping. 10. Cartons/Packing: once the garments are put in a poly bag . The number of pieces in a poly bag varies according to the buyers specification. After packing the product. Packing list Shipping Mark: 1.7. Taping.Tagging: Finishing product is tagged here here by the hangtag 9. Strapping each carton . Side Mark Merchandise Description (Assortments) 11.
Quality of Carton: 1. B. The inspection must be marked on the carton to avoid any unaccepted situation. Inspections: It is an important part of merchandising. The inspection procedure is given below: Carton Check: during inspection the inspector generally checks following: A. Color of the merchandise 2. Ply of carton 2. Before the shipment is dispatched from the export house the buyer or buying house inspect the product to ensure that it meets the specifications ordered in terms of garment quality. Size of carton 3. N.12.B.C selects a sample Carton and picks out merchandise from those Carton to be inspected in terms of quality.Construction of the merchandise. Cartons Selection for merchandise inspection: From the shipment Lot Q. quantity . Strength of Carton etc. Carton should be picked randomly. 3. . Points to be considered: 1. packaging requirement etc. Size of the merchandise 3. Quantity of Carton (As per packing list).
Airport. Protector check 4. Inner carton/inner box 3. . Sea port b. Position of garments inside the carton 2. It only depends on buyer decision.): Packing and packaging check: After carton selection we check the packing methods used for the shipment order Following points are emphasized on: Packing: 1.. Poly bag Check 5.Shipments: After produced the products the company have to shipment the products in time. Inspection(Cont. Generally products are shipment in two way: a. Assortment Check 12.
MERCHANDISING IN EXPORT SET UP .
CONCEPT OF MERCHANDISING: The term merchandising is well known to the person specially involved in garments trade. The term merchandiser may be defined as the person who merchandises the goods especially for export purposes. buying and selling activities required to have the right fashion oriented merchandise at the right time. producing required garments. . at the right prices. Garments merchandising means buying raw materials and accessories. It refers to the planning. Merchandise means goods that are bought and sold . maintaining required quality level and exporting the garments within schedule time frame. in the right place. The term merchandising has been derived from the term merchandise . in the right quantities.
Negotiation 3. Calculating costing of the product 6. costing. negotiations. Production 4. fabric and trim orders. Factory Scheduling . sampling. Order sourcing 2. Calculating Yarn/Fabric consumption 5. Product development 8. Sources of information are limited as compared to buying house merchandiser Is directly responsible for the merchandise Ensuring inspections and quality levels. Customers & Factory 9.MAJOR RESPONSIBILITIES OF A MERCHANDISER ARE GIVEN BELOW Coordinator of all activities at the manufacturer's end Correspondence with buying Agencies Could be handling many buyers at a time Takes care of PD. Monitoring Quality aspect 7. Liaison with Buyers .delivery schedules. regular follow up. 1. production planning.
printing. E. finishing . duty rate . dyeing. shipping and banking documentation etc. Knowledge of the EXPORT PROCEDURE used in each of the producing countries . Clear conception of the usual potential quality problems in garments manufacturing. . B. C . garments production etc. Good command over English and adequate knowledge of technical terms for accurate and efficient communication.QUALITY OF A MERCHANDISER: From the above definitions we can assume that a garment merchandiser needs a wide range of knowledge and skill: A. custom regulation. fabric . Good knowledge of yarn . Good knowledge of the usual raw materials inspection systems and garments inspection systems. D .
8. Garments production planning and a constant check on the time and action plan.Interacting with the buyers to get the various sample and accessory approvals. 2. 6. Shipment documentation . Ensuring that the fabrics and accessories are in-house in the factory as per production schedule. a merchandiser has to schedule the following : 1. 7. Pre shipment inspection schedule. 4.FUNCTIONS OF A MERCHANDISER : It is the responsibility of the merchandiser to ensure that the order is executed in the right quality.Forwarding Accessories requirements to the accessories purchase department . When an export order is placed.Forwarding fabric requirement to the purchase department. 3. quantity and delivered at the right time.
Garments Merchandising CHRONOLOGICAL PROCESS OF MERCHANDISING Sample Sample is the physical form of buyer s specification or style/design. . Sequence Of Sampling 1ST Pattern 2ND Pattern Counter Sample Salesman Sample Photo Sample Approval Sample (Size Set. It is a Reference garment that corresponds to: · The artwork (styling) done by designer and/or developer · Particular purchase order. · Confirm to any specific requirement.Production Sample Production Sample Shipping Sample. · Any revision to the style work. Mock-Up) Pre.
Human Mind Sketch Paper Pattern Sample Purpose : See the design work & test the fitting Status : Nothing specific Material : Available Price : Not confirmed Quantity : 1 (for customer) + 1 (for merchandiser) Delivery : As per urgency .First Pattern First pattern is the first physical version of any garment as per the artwork done by designer and for developer.
Second Pattern Usually designer /developer always ask for some changes to the first pattern. Counter Sample Where first pattern is made on designers artwork. Purpose : See the workmanship &test the factory skill Status : Nothing specific Materials : Available Price : Not confirmed Quantity : 1 (for customer) + 1 (self keeping) Delivery : As per request . Counter sample is to be made not on designer's artwork . Second pattern is made as per their comments. but has to follow another sample given by the merchandiser according to buyer s specification.
And finally places an order to their vendor. market appraisal & Demand / order forecast Status : Final stage of the order confirmation Material : Actual Price : Confirmed Quantity : There is minimum quantity per color combination Delivery : Very. usually in one size in all color combinations of expected order. . These samples are paid for by the buyer Buyer holds meetings with its customers and record their response on order quantity per color. important to meet the delivery date. Purpose : Sales meeting by retailers. size etc.Salesman Sample Salesman sample is made when price is confirmed and orders are being considered .
a new sample is made (some times mock-up is worked on too) as per new specifications. It is sent to buyer for his approval for the conformation that-the revision is done correctly. Approval Sample In any discrete period of time. SIZE SET: Consists of 1 pc of each size of the garment for each color combination . MOCK UP: Any PART of the garment to be made -for PARTICULAR purpose. not complete garment .Photo Sample Photo samples are made as per actuals with actual color and material to be worn by the models on the event of shooting for catalog. whenever any revision is required in the sample.
the factory makes a sample with the actual material and sends to buyer.Production Sample When material for bulk production is in house in the factory. Buyer wants to be assured that correct material is sourced & line workmanship conformed to the quality level. . Production Sample It is a reference to the buyer that the bulk is being produced as per specifications.Pre. It is the first garment produced in the production process of that order. Shipping Sample A sample is kept from every Pre-Shipping inspection to be referred for the buyer and the exporter. Claim) shipping samples is important. after the order has been shipped.g. Usually for any disputes (e.
Concerned merchandiser should confirm/approve the swatch. There are hundreds of items used to manufacture the garments.Swatch Swatch is a presentation of all the materials is (Fabric & Accessories) used for any specific style /order. . Usually small piece of fabric and each piece of accessories are attached in board paper in a systematic manner. Trims Trims cover all the items used in the garment except the basic fabric. otherwise the garment may be rejected or returned by the customers. Swatch is very important for production line to make the correct construction of a garment and QC department ensures it. Proper selection of trims and its quality are very important for styling.
Sample controlling. Classification of order: Study order Specification Details Order details/Style details Quantity Fabric Trims/Accessories Delivery terms & Conditions. 2. 3. Sourcing of supplies. Monitoring Import export procedures Banking procedures Customs procedure Warehouse arrangement .ORDER FOLLOW UP PROCEDURE Just after the placement of the order a merchandiser has to study the requirement in the order sheet: 1. Monitoring of contract: Opening and maintaining files Distribute the order specification to the relevant dept.
Arrival of purchased Materials Completion of custom procedures Inspection/Identification Storing of clothing materials 5. Co-Ordination with Buying Agents Liaison with buying office personnel for related manufacturing issues 7. Logistical and distribution Arrangements Freights forwarding (sea/air) 8.4. Financial Transactions Follow up Final payment . Factory production: Execution of order Meeting the Quality standards Checking work in progress 6.
To complete merchandiser activities successfully a merchandiser has to follow some procedure or sequence that are given below. Advertising 4. Fore casting:It is an important term for merchandising. The stages of sourcing: 1. To exhibition Factor for sourcing: Sourcing decision depends on some factors- . All country of Embassy 6. Order Sourcing: Sourcing is a term use to describe the process of determining how and where item will be procedure. There are various products in textile sector. At first a merchandiser have to decide in what type product he will produce. Internet 2. It includes the decision on the selecting supplier for material procurement and vendors for apparel production.Merchandising is an important task of a textile company. Business directory (yellow pages) 3. Buying house 5. After deciding the product then he will start for order sourcing.
previous history. price reference. morality. transport cost . 2. and service ability 3. religious factor. Product factor: Style. Geographical: Distance. Company/vendor factor: Company goodwill. ability of speaking English education. previous history. facilities or tax free or others opportunities Cultural & language: In time delivery. design. quality standard. minimum order quality. Country factors: Political: The present political stability Economical: financial. banking. insurance etc. quality standard.Factor for sourcing: Sourcing decision depends on some factors1.
Information s: 1. (which products they experienced) 5. Production facilities 11. Location of production 10. . 7. Physical size of the plan. Number of employees 8. Major products. Major market of customers (which customer they deal) 4. Contact number and person 3. Financial status 9. Minimum order quantity. 2. Name and address of the company. Capacity (monthly or annually) 6. Quality standard 12.
negotiation is a stimulating way to arrive at acceptable solution to the need for something whither it is a need to resolve the difficulties or to settle terms. Questioning skill 3. The aim of negotiation/approach Win Win solution Both parties are benefited. 6. The skill for negotiation: 1. 2. Its opportunity to establish good working relationship. Observation and judgment. Which obtaining a good deal.Negotiation: Its not contest. Influencing skills . 5. Listening effectively 4. Understanding body language. Discovering common interest and removal of personal issues. Or.
Both local and foreign it needs to open a L/C. Foreign source. Introducing may occur by two ways 1. Buyer to seller 2. sample photo. Buyer to buying house and buying house to seller. They also provide sample size.Introducing: Actually merchandiser activities started by introducing with the buyers. Source Fabric: After receiving the enquiry a merchandiser have to find from where fabric can be found as per buyers requirement. Local source 2. Enquiry: At the time of introducing the buyer send their requirements. There are two sources of fabric. Generally they communicate with them by email and telephone or mobile. In textile sector generally back-toback L/C is used to collect Fabrics . style etc. 1. he needs. which include which type s products.
35%Polyester. If buyer wants color size product then he need to send them for proper coloring.65%Cotton. S/J 180 GSM SL # Color Name Pantone/Shade Fabrics Remarks 01 Orange 158 C .Prepare Lab Dipping : It is an important part of sampling. After that lab test is send to the buyer for approve. Babul Knit Concern Ltd. For an example Letter that is send to lab is given below: Date: To Mr. Sub: Lab Dip Programmed Buyer Name: Info-united Art:-Zob-3 Fabrics.
print. After checking & necessary changes. the confirmation of labels. Start of label. print. Sending preproduction samples or size set in original fabric with all already Confirmed details. and patch production .Gets approval Lab dipping: Lab Dip confirmation & may be fitting & workmanship changes: 1. Start with dyeing the fabric (if necessary start tests bulk) 2. .
Source Prepare Trims & Accessories: for preparing a product a company need various types of trims and accessories. These are very much important for textile product. using textile dyes. If there is any need of print. so it is the duty of a merchandiser to sourcing accessories before starting production. the fabric is sent for dyeing. pin. scope tape etc. .Order Bulk Fabric Production FABRIC DYEING: Once the Lab dip is approved by the buyer for color. then it is sent for print. Fabric Printing : Fabric printing is the process that applies a single or multi colored/design on a white of dyed background fabric. Such as tag.
level. Sampling before confirmation price. Buyer wants to be assured that correct material is sourced and line workmanship confirm to the quality. 2nd pattern: Usually designer/ developer always asks for some changes to the first pattern. usually in L size in all color combinations of expected or 3.Develop a Sample: Sample is the physical form of buyer s specification or style/design.Production: It is a reference to the buyer that the bulk is being produced as per specification. 1. 2.Sales man sample: Sample is made when PRICE is confirmed and orders are on speculation. yarn. Types of sample/Stages of sample: 1. etc. For sampling a merchandiser need Fabrics. Second pattern is made as per comments. Sampling may be in two ways. . 2. 2.1st pattern: The first physical version of any garment as per the artwork done by designer and/or developer. Sampling after confirmation price. After draw a cache a sample is prepared for the buyers and sends to the buyers.
a new sample is made (some times mock-up is workable too) as per new specification. has to follow another sample given by the merchandiser 6.the revision is done correctly. Marketing/Developing sample: 5. Fit sample/red tag sample/ Proto type sample: Samples are made with actual color and material to be worn by the models on the event of SHOOTING for catalog. It is sent to buyer for his APPROVAL of the conformity that. whenever it required any revision in the sample. Approval sample: In any discrete period of time.Counter sample (Based on buyer requirement.) Where first pattern is made on designers artwork. . 7. Counter sample is to make not on designer s artwork.4.
. if required. 10. Shipping sample: A sample is kept from every Pre Shipping inspection to be referred. Preproduction sample/size set sample/ production sample: When material for bulk production arrived. such as sleeve. neck etc and some accessories. Sometimes it is necessary to send to the buyer any part of the garments. 9. not complete garment. factory makes a sample with the actual material and sends to buyer. Mock up sample: Any part of the garment to make for particular purpose.8.g. Usually for any disputes (e. after the order has been delivered. collar. Claim) shipping sample is important.
. Usually small piece of fabric and each piece of accessories are attached in board paper in a systematic manner. Swatch is very important for production line to make the correct construction of a garment and QC department ensures it.SWATCH: Swatch is a presentation of all the materials is (Fabric & Accessories) used for any specific style/order.
.Pricing: It is the most important factor for a merchandiser. A merchandiser is the person who fix or determining the price of the product. Deals will be done or not is totally depend on the price of the product.
2. * Sample controlling. Classification of test *Study order Specification Details *Order details/Style details * Quantity * Trims/Accessories * Delivery terms & Conditions. * Sourcing of supplies.ORDER FOLLOW UP PROCEDURE Just after the placement of the order a merchandiser has to study the requirement laid down in the order sheet: 1. 3. Monitoring of contract: *Opening and maintaining files * Distribute the order specification to the relevant dept. Monitoring Import procedures * Banking procedures * Customs procedure * Warehouse arrangement .
Logistical and distribution Arrangements * Freights forwarding (sea/air) 8.4. Financial Transactions * Follow up Final payment . Co-Ordination with Buying Agents * Liaison with buying office personnel for related manufacturing issues 7. Factory production: * Execution of order * Meeting the Quality standards * Checking work in progress 6. Arrival of purchased Materials * Completion of custom procedures * Inspection/Identification * Storing of clothing materials 5.
Confirmation of the production. Only if all confirmation has been given. Before shipment inspect the production by buyers nominee 5. 3. 4. Pay attention & special care to all further production instruction from the buyer. Ship the goods within shipment date . the production can start 2. 1. Send pre-shipment production to buyer.
the cutting muster started to cut the fabrics .Production Execution Tracking: A. Cutting the Fabrics:After confirmation of production and approve of the cutting the fabrics from the buyer.
O/L 3-6THREAD 4. There are various types of sewing machine that are given below: 1. ZIG ZAG 17.B. SNLS (PLAIN) 2. EYELET HHOLE 11. MULTI THREAD CHAIN STITCH 7.Sewing : In swing section the finish fabrics are sewing. THREAD RE-CONNING 15. BACK TAPE 18. EYELET ATTACH 12. DNLS (TWO NEEDLE) 3. FEED OF THE ARM 6. BUTTON ATTACH 14. FLAT LOCK 3. COLLARTURNIN 10. CUCLE MACHINE 8. SNAP BUTTON ATTACH 19. CREASE MACHINE . CUFFS ROLLING 9. BUTTON HOLE 13. 5 THREAD 5. BLIND STITCH 16.
Fabrics spot 5. Oil spot 2. Etc. Various spot we found in products that are given below: 1. In different stages of production.Washing: It is most important factor in textile sector. various spot we found in products that are needed to wash. . Dirty spot 3. Print spot 4.
It is a conditional undertaking of payment. Back-to-Back L/C: This type of L/C can be against a valid expert L/C. It is a document issued by a bank on behalf of an applicant undertaking to make payment to a beneficial up to a stated amount of moneys within a prescribed time limit and design stipulated documents. 4. It is so much popular in textile area. Revocable L/C: This type of credit can be amendment or cancel by the applicant without only prior notice to the beneficial. 3. Irrevocable L/C: This type of credit ca be amendment or cancel only to the agreement of all parties concern.L/C means Letter of Credit. .PAYMENT MONITORING: After getting order from buyer A L/C have to open by the buyer .So that the confirmation bank is responsible to make payment if the issuing bank to pay the beneficiary. 2. Types of L/C: 1. Master L/C. 5.Irrevocable & Confirmed L/C: This type of credit involves the undertaking of the advising bank in addition to that of issuing bank . Here all risks are involves for the seller but buyer has more flexible. Transferable L/C: This type of L/C that is transferable as per the need.It means that issuing bank request a 2nd bank to add its own confirmation to the credit .
IRC 5. C.P **Benefits of L/C Sellers End: 1. Membership certificate 4. Inspection Certificate 3.S. Factory Insurance 9. Agreement with the house owner ** L/C Export Document: 1.O 2. Guaranteed business without investing any cash involvement 3. G. Without having cash payment 2. Memorandum Certificate 3. TIN 6. U . Trade license 2.** If we open a L/C then need some things that are given below: 1.D 4. Bond license 7. Insurance 8. Risk free .
Without having cash payment 3. Same with quality product.Buyers end: 1. The buyer should be ensured that he would get the quality product . Guaranteed business without investing any cash involvement 2. Risk free 4.
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