WCDMA Radio Planning Fundamentals Deepak Yadav Jan’2008

Customer Confidential 2 © Nokia Siemens Networks

WCDMA Planning Fundamentals/Jan2008

Contents
Scope of 3G Network Planning WCDMA Planning Process Overview Input Parameters Link Budget Overview Site Selection Criteria Co Sitting and Interference Issues Nominal Planning Fundamentals NetAct Simulations Process Overview

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NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

Simplified Network Planning Flowchart
Initial network dimensioning CW Measurement Create nominal plan Define search areas Identify site options Site selection Site acquisition Detailed site design Site construction
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NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

Scope of 3G network planning

Packet Switched Core
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Network planning process & relation to business planning
Network dimensioning marketing

transmission plan

business plan coverage plan
traffic assumptions

Network optimization

parameter planning

Code & freq. & interference plan final NW topology/ architecture

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NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

New issues in WCDMA planning process wrt GSM
Coverage and capacity coupling PLEMENTATION
Coverage Planning and Site Selection Propagation measurements Coverage prediction Capacity Requirements Traffic distribution Parameter Planning Area / Cell specific Handover strategies Maximum network loading Other RRM

DEFINITION
Network Configuration and Dimensioning Requirements and strategy for coverage, quality and capacity,

O&M
Network Optimisation Survey measurements Statistical performance analysis Quality Efficiency Availability

Service distribution

Allowed blocking/queuing System features

per service Site
acquisition Coverage optimisation

External Interference Analysis Identification Adaptation

Multiple services

Multiple services

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NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

Radio networks Dimensioning
Overview

COVERAGE COVERAGE

CAPACITY CAPACITY

COMPROMISE BETWEEN COVERAGE AND CAPACITY COMPROMISE BETWEEN COVERAGE AND CAPACITY

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NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

UTRAN Radio Dimensioning
per Phase

 Number of NodeBs  NodeB Type  NodeB configuration: - Amount - BB dim - NDR annex - etc.  And NodeB Upgrade:

LINK BUDGET

Customer Requirements

Rel’99, CPICH, HSDPA, HSUPA

RF Planning DIM TOOL Parameters Air Interface • NodeB interf marg Dimensioning • HO gain Dimensioning (Capacity: Rel’99 • environment CHC, DRIC, FSM) + HSPA ) • etc. DIM TOOL

System Parameters • Eb/No • TX power • etc.

System Parameters • spectral efficiency • etc.

- #CHC / #FSM - #Carrier - Sectorisation -…

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NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

-Output toward Access planning

Infrastr. Parameters Traffic • #Demand of sectors antennas •• per bearer • req of subs • # cov area etc. •• GoS • etc.

Per area and

Coverage VS Capacity Dimensioning: Cell Breathing
This diagram shows when some cells are loaded

• This diagram shows cells
are unload

CellA CellA CellB CellC CellC

Cell breathing

CellB

Results => Coverage Holes!

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NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

Coverage VS Capacity Dimensioning: Fixed Uplink Load - To avoid Coverage holes
"actual" Loading, (ie from the traffic inputs defined in dimensioning) This diagram shows a Fixed Uplink Load design
• No (or minimum) coverage holes problems

CellB CellA CellB CellC CellA CellD CellH CellE CellG CellF CellC

• More cells required • Traffic mobility taken into account. (Note: dimensioning assumes uniform traffic distribution)

eg. Actual UL load = 8%
Customer Confidential 11 © Nokia Siemens Networks

eg. Fixed UL load = 30%

Results => No or Min Coverage Holes!

NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

Input parameters – overview
Input Categories
 CAPACITY RELATED  CAPACITY RELATED
 Spectrum Available  Spectrum Available  User Profile and Traffic Growth  User Profile and Traffic Growth Forecast Forecast  Traffic Density Map  Traffic Density Map  Coverage Regions  Coverage Regions  Area Type Information  Area Type Information

 COVERAGE RELATED  COVERAGE RELATED

 QUALITY RELATED  QUALITY RELATED
 MS Class  MS Class  Indoor Coverage  Indoor Coverage  Location Probability  Location Probability  Blocking Probability  Blocking Probability

 Gives an Estimation of the Equipment Necessaryof the Gives an Estimation to Equipment Necessary to Meet the Network Meet the Network Requirements Requirements  Network Dimensioning Activities Dimensioning Network Activities  Radio Link Budget  Radio Link Budget Calculation Calculation  Cell Size Calculation  Cell Size Calculation  Capacity Calculation  Capacity Calculation  Transmission Network  Transmission Network Estimate Estimate

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NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

Summary of Dimensioning Inputs
Dense Urban Voice CS data PS data Urban Suburban Rural
# of subs & mErl per sub # of subs & mErl per sub # of subs & mErl per sub # of subs & mErl per sub # of subs & mErl per sub # of subs & mErl per sub # of subs & mErl per sub # of subs & mErl per sub # of subs & kbps per sub # of subs & kbps per sub # of subs & kbps per sub # of subs & kbps per sub

Coverage area Location probability Standard deviation Fade margin Penetration loss Area correction factor MS / Node B antenna height Customer Confidential
13 © Nokia Siemens Networks

km2 % dB dB dB dB

km2 % dB dB dB dB

km2 % dB dB dB dB

km2 % dB dB dB dB

m
NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

m

m

m

Link Budget Overview
Soft handover gain, antenna gain s Mar

Noise figure

gi n

PA T

H (L LOS ) S

Body loss

Cable losses Building Penetration loss

Customer Confidential 14 © Nokia Siemens Networks

Max = Tx Signal + All Gains – Other Losses – Rx Allowed Sensitivity Path Loss (L)
NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

Path loss = Tx signal + all gains - losses - ( SNR + Noise)

Bit rate

Total TX power
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TX antenna ga

Site Selection Criteria

Customer Confidential 16 © Nokia Siemens Networks

WCDMA Planning Fundamentals/Jan2008

Site Selection Criteria
Proper site location determines usefulness of its cells Sites are expensive Sites are long-term investments Site acquisition is a slow process Hundreds/thousands of sites needed per network

Base station sites are valuable long-term assets for the operator

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NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

How do I asses a site option?
Each site needs to be assessed on several grounds.
Radio Transmission Access Power Planning

Ideally every site option reported by the surveyor would
pass in each of the areas listed above.

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NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

Bad GSM Sites
In GSM, there were two types of bad sites.
 Donkeys - Low sites which provide very little coverage.
 Donkeys carry so little traffic that they often never pay for themselves.

 Boomers - High sites which propagate much further than is needed.
 A boomer will cause localised interference and prevent capacity being added to
some other sites in the area.

Small “Donkey” site

Large “Boomer” site

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NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

Bad UMTS Sites
Good radio engineering practice doesn’t change much for UMTS.
 It just becomes more important.

In UMTS
 A “Donkey” will never pay for itself.  A “Boomer” will reduce the range and capacity of surrounding sites.

Two major factors determine whether a site is considered good, a

“Donkey” or a “Boomer”, They are:  Site location.  Antenna height. Other parameters can be used in an attempt to control booming sites but it is far better to avoid building them in the first place.

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NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

Importance of Controlling 'Little i'
WCDMA is an interference-limited network. I.e. capacity of the network is
directly linked to how interference is maintained/controlled. From the Radio Network Planning point of view, the "little i" - other-to-own cell interference- is the only thing that can really be influenced by the Planner during the site selection and planning stage. WCDMA RF planning is all about having good dominance in the desired coverage area. Unlike in GSM, that there is no frequency plan to "play" with in order to minimise the effects of bad sites.

Uplink Load Equation Uplink Load Equation
ηUL = (1+ pw_ risei )⋅ ∑ ⋅
1 W k=1 1+  Eb  ⋅ R ⋅ v  N k k o k 
K

Downlink Load Equation Downlink Load Equation

(Eb / Nok ) η DL = ∑ ⋅ [ (1− α k ) + i ] ⋅ vk k=1 ( / R) W k
K

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NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

Importance of Controlling 'Little i'
BTS TX power MS TX power Ec/Io BTS Eb/No MS Eb/No 43 dBm
17 0

1 2 8 kb p s
i i i i i i i i = = = = = = = = 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.8 0.8

21 dBm

1.5 5.5

Maximum propagation loss (dB)

-16.5 dB

16 5

16 0

Other to own cell 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, interference ratio i 0.8 Orthogonality Channel profile MS speed MS/BTS NF Antenna gain 0.6 ITU Vehicular A, 3 km/h 3 km/h 8 dB / 4 dB 16 dBi

15 5

15 0

14 5

14 0 0

500

1000

1500

D L thro ug hp ut in kb p s

Customer Confidential 22 © Nokia Siemens Networks

Planners have to select the sites diligently so that the otherto-own cell interference ratio is MINIMIZED by planning clear dominance areas during site selection / planning phase.
NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

RESULT: Doubling of the "little i" will cause throughput to decrease to 70% of the original value

i = Coverage Overlap
Some overlap is required to allow soft handover to occur Need to control amount of interference since the network
capacity is directly related to it. Soft handover helps to reduce interference. (Soft HO Gain) Too much overlap:
– Increases interference to other cells --> reduce capacity – Increases Soft Handover overhead --> reduce capacity

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NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

Bad Site Location
Avoid hill-top locations for BS sites (same for GSM)
 uncontrolled interference  interleaved coverage  no sharp dominance areas  awkward Soft/Hard HO behaviours  BUT: good location for microwave links ! (TNP jurisdiction)
wanted cell boundary uncontrolled, strong interferences

interleaved coverage areas: weak own signal, strong foreign signal
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Good Site Location
Prefer sites off the hill-tops
 use hills/high rise buildings to separate cells  contiguous coverage area  well defined dominance areas  needs only low antenna heights if sites are slightly elevated above valley bottom

wanted cell boundary

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NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

Characteristics of a good site
It has good clearance, no obstacles around, and it overlooks the surrounding rooftops. This site will give good macro coverage. Bad site; blocked by neighbour building

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NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

Characteristics of a good site
Uplink Load Equation Uplink Load Equation

ηUL = (1+ pw_ risei )⋅ ∑ ⋅

1 W k=1 1+  Eb  ⋅ R ⋅ v  N k k o k 
K

η DL = ∑

K

Downlink Load Downlink Load Equation Equation

k=1

(Eb / Nok ) ⋅ [ (1− α k ) + i ] ⋅ vk ( / R)k W

BAD: In a urban/dense urban area, too high a site is a bad site since it will introduce too much interference to other sites in the network (remember the little i)

while for a rural area it's a good si

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NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

Examples of Bad Sites

Typical mess! => GSM1800 antennas with space div. between CDMA (IS-95) antennas and pointing directly at the high building Customer Confidential
28 © Nokia Siemens Networks

These situations can easily be avoided!!

GSM1800 and GSM900 antennas are too close => Not enough isolation => Intermodulation and spurious emission.

NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

Time consuming and costly to fix.

Examples of Bad Sites
Little i, Little i, Little i !!!

Arghhh… note how far you can see Well shit happens … who could have oughly 10km = TOO FAR. There is a river known s well, so interference is enormous. Site that they were going to build this distance is about 700meters in this high building one year after phase!! Site was good in phase 1 installation ?! when distance between sites was 4km! Planners should have anticipated this during initial Customer Confidential site surveys! 29 © Nokia Siemens Networks NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

Examples of Bad Sites

Is this installation OK? The satellite dish is in near field of the GSM900 antennas -> some effects for sure. Definite interference to sate TX/RX and Rx div antennas are not system. But could not be tested because the pointing satellite system was not in use! he same direction! Installation problem. Avoid installing antennas in close proximity t other objects since its radiation pattern will be altered.
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Examples of GOOD Sites

ough space between the two Tx/Rx and Rx Div., AND pointing in the same direct e survey point of view: Provides clear dominance to the desired coverage area.

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NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

Summary of Site Selection Guidelines
The objective is to select a site location which covers the desired area but
keeps emissions to a minimum. The site should be located as close to the traffic source as possible. – The closer the site is to the traffic, the less output power will be required by

the user equipment and node B. This will minimise the noise affecting other users on both the serving cell as well as other nearby cells.

The antenna height selected will depend largely on the type of

environment in which the site is to be located. Eg Dense Urban, Urban, Suburban, Rural. The key factor to be considered is how well can the emissions be controlled.

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NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

Summary of Site Selection Guidelines
 You can "feel" the site only if you are there!  If one or more of these characteristics are not fulfilled by the
examined site, the Field Planner should REJECT the site and choose another site  Be flexible, even creative! Try to think of all the possible implementation solutions that the site could support: different pole heights, split poles for different sectors, etc.  Always check neighbouring sites, to be sure your chosen candidate is "fitting" well into the surrounding, e.g. for coverage, SHO zones,etc.

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NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

Using Existing Cellular Sites
Most UMTS networks will be built around an existing GSM network. Many GSM networks were built around existing analogue sites. In the early days of analogue cellular sites were often located to give

maximum coverage. No thought was given to capacity issues. Despite causing problems in high capacity networks, many of these high sites are still in operation today. Most cellular networks contain these nightmare sites. When rolling out UMTS around an existing network it is vital to avoid these sites.

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NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

UMTS Configurations
Most vendors support the same basic configurations. • Omni • 3 sector • 6 sector Each vendor supports their own variations on these configurations. • Some solutions eliminate the need for RF plumbing. • Some require similar amounts of equipment to a GSM BTS. • Some increase the number of antennas on a site. The configuration can be affected by the wide variety of UMTS antennas.

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NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

Co-locating a Node B at a GSM site
Isolation requirements between UMTS and GSM systems can be derived from
UMTS and GSM specifications.  In many cases equipment performance will exceed the requirements in the specifications.  Each vendor should be able to provide information which can be used to improve the isolation requirements. The isolation requirements will affect – Choice of antenna configuration – Filtering at both the GSM and UMTS sites. Isolation is the attenuation from the output port of a transmitter to the input port of the receiver.

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NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

Interference Issues
Wideband Noise - unwanted emissions from modulation process and
non-linearity of transmitter Spurious Emissions - Harmonic, Parasitic, Inter-modulation products Blocking - Transmitter carriers from another system Inter-modulation Products - Spurious emission, specifications consider this in particular – Active: non-linearities of active components - can be filtered out by BTS – Passive: non-linearities of passive components - cannot be filtered out by
BTS

Other EMC problems - feeders, antennas, transceivers and receivers

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NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

Interference Issues
Nonlinear system transfer function can be expressed as a series expansion

x

System

y = a0 + a1x + a2x2 + a3x3 + ...

In the case of one input frequency, vin = cos ω 1t, output will consist of

harmonics, mω 1 – Fundamental (m = 1) frequency is the desired one. – If m > 1, there are higher order harmonics in output => harmonic distortion. – Can be generated both inside an offender or a victim system. In the case of two input frequencies, vin = cos ω 1t + cos ω 2t , output will consist of harmonics mω 1 + nω 2, where n and m are positive or negative integers. – Intermodulation is the process of generating an output signal containing frequency
components not present in the input signal. Called intermodulation distortion (IMD). – Most harmful are 3rd order (|m| + |n| = 3) products. – Can be generated both inside an offender or a victim system.

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NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

Interference from Other System
GSM spurious emissions and intermodulation results of GSM 1800
interfere WCDMA receiver sensitivity

WCDMA spurious emissions interfere GSM receiver sensitivity GSM transmitter blocks WCDMA receiver WCDMA transmitter blocks GSM receiver

GSM 1800 UL
1710-1785 MHz

GSM 1800 DL
1805-1880 MHz 40 MHz

UMTS UL
1920-1980 MHz

UMTS DL
2110-2170 MHz

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NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

M Distortion

from GSM1800 DL to WCDMA UL • GSM1800 IM3 (3rd order intermodulation) products hits into the WCDMA FDD UL RX band if: • 1862.6 ≤ f2 ≤ 1879.8 MHzIM f 3 • 1805.2 ≤ f1 ≤ 1839.6 MHz • For active elements IM products levels are higher than IM products produced by passive components • Typical IM3 suppression values for power amplifiers are -30 … -50 dBc depending on frequency spacing and offset • Typical values for passive elements are -100 … -160 dBc

= 2f2 - f1

f1

f2 X dBc fIM 3

GSM1800 UL

GSM1800 DL

WCDMA UL

WCDMA DL

1710 - 1785 MHz 1805 - 1880 MHz MHz 40 1920 - 1980 MHz 2110 - 2170 MHz
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Harmonic distortion
Harmonic distortion can be a problem in the case of co-siting of GSM900 and WCDMA. GSM900 DL frequencies are 935 - 960 MHz and second harmonics may fall into the WCDMA
TDD band and into the lower end of the FDD band.

2nd harmonics fGSM = 950 - 960 MHz GSM900 935 - 960 MHz

2nd harmonics can be filtered out at the output of GSM900 BTS.

... WCDMA WCDMA FDD TDD 1920 - 1980 1900 -1920 MHz

f

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NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

Isolation Requirements
GSM 900 GSM 1800 UMTS
1920 – 1980 MHz 2110 – 2170 MHz Receiving band 890 – 915 MHz 1710 – 1785 MHz (UL) Transmitting band935 – 960 MHz 1805 – 1880 MHz (DL)

For example - To prevent UMTS BTS blocking: with transmit power = 43 dBm Max level of interfering signal for blocking = -15 dBm in UMTS

Isolation required = 58 dBm

1805 MHz 1710 MHz 1785 MHz

1880 MHz 1920 MHz

2110 MHz 1980 MHz

2170 MHz

GSM 1800 Rx

GSM 1800 Tx

UMTS Rx

UMTS Rx

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NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

Achieving Isolation Requirements
GSM

Isolation can be provided in a variety of different ways.  By antenna selection and positioning.  By filtering out the interfering signal.  By using diplexers and triplexers with

UMTS GSM
Filter

shared feeder and multiband antennas.

UMTS GSM
Diplexer

UMTS

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NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

Co-siting - Antenna Installations
Difficult to calculate isolation between two antennas and measurements are
required. Best configurations - antennas pointing in different directions or where there is vertical separation between antennas The following configurations will should all give 30dB isolation.

d

d 90º

d 120º

d 180º d

d

d = 0.3 - 0.5 m

d=1-3m

d = 0.5 - 2 m

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NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

Site sharing with third party systems
Some UMTS sites might be co-located
with other non GSM operators.  PMR  Broadcast Minimum separation  Navigation Some of these systems use older equipment which might be more vulnerable to EMC issues. Need to define minimum antenna separations between systems Better to avoid sites used for safety critical applications.

UMTS antennas

Other systems

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NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

Antenna installation issues: Clearance angle

h (m rs) ete C learance an gle d (m rs) ete

Side view Rules of thumb: • h ≥ d/2, d < 10 m • h ≥ d/3, 10 < d < 20 m • h ≥ d/4, d > 30 m

Antenna d (meters)

Top view
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Antenna installation
Safety margin of 15° between the reflecting surface and the 3 dB lobe

d has to be > 3.2 m

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NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

Antenna installation: Other RF-systems

DOCUMENTTYPE

1 (1)

Not Acceptable TypeUnitOrDepartmentHere TypeYourNameHere

TypeDateHere

Be careful with back-lobe!

Acceptable

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NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

Nominal Planning for UMTS

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WCDMA Planning Fundamentals/Jan2008

What is a nominal plan?
A nominal plan is initially a hypothetical
wireless network. The nominal plan is the starting point for the cell rollout process and will evolve into the final network design. As physical sites are identified and acquired, the nominal plan is amended.

Nominal Plan
Rollout process

Final Network Design

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NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

Initial Network Dimensioning
Spreadsheet based analysis. Used in the license application. Identifies the approximate number
Typical cell radii estimates
Voice 64 kb/s 384 kb/s Urban 1.8 km 1.6 km 1.1 km
Service supported Maximum range to support all services Service not supported in this environment

of sites required. Identifies the approximate site radii required for:  Urban/Suburban/Rural areas  Voice/Data services Used as a major input to the nominal plan.

Suburban 3.1 km 2.7 km 2.4 km

Rural 4.4 km 3.5 km 3.2 km

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NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

Create Nominal Plan
Position a hexagonal grid of sites
over the desired coverage area. The radius of each hexagon can be determined from the previous slide. The capacity of the network can then be analyzed to detect:  Hot spots that require cell splits.  Under used cells that could be
removed from the plan.

Example nominal plan for Jersey

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NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

Define Search Areas
The sites in a nominal plan are only imaginary. To become a real network, physical sites are required. A suitable physical site must be found for each nominal site. A suitable physical site must amongst other things:
 Give adequate radio coverage.  Have connectivity into the transmission network.  Be aesthetically and politically acceptable to the local community.  Have power nearby, good access and a co-operative owner.

A survey of each nominal site is normally carried out to identify possible
site options which meet the above criteria.

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NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

Define Search Areas
Guidelines have to be given to the surveyor so the options give
appropriate radio coverage. The guideline is given in the form of a search area. Could be: – Radius from the nominal site. – One or more polygons following height contours.

Or

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NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

Identify Site Options
Surveyor visits each search area and identifies potential site options. The first sites to be considered should be
– Existing radio sites. – Sites offered from major site owners (MSO) E.g. Utilities & Railways. All options should meet certain criteria to ensure that they are – Technically acceptable. – Build able A good idea to consult with the planning/zoning authority during the survey. Good training of surveyors will save time later in the build process.

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NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

Identify Site Options
The surveyor will prepare a report
listing the options. Report will include: – Accurate grid reference. – Accurate height of structures or
A D C B

available antenna windows. – Photographs of the site. – 360º panoramic photos from site or if obstructed from nearby location/structure.

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NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

Site Selection
Normally a desk study. Evaluate radio coverage and

transmission.  Quickly eliminate unsuitable

A3rd D1st C2nd

options.  Rank the remaining sites in order of preference.

Nominate a preferred option and
possibly a backup option.

B - Unsuitable

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NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

Detailed Site Design
Prior to commencement of
construction work, a detailed site design is required. Includes  Antenna and feeder requirements.  Antenna azimuths and tilts.  Equipment capacity requirements Can’t be completed in isolation. Must take into account other sites.
300º Ant 6 300º Ant 5 60º Ant 1 60º Ant 2 Ant 4 180º Ant 3 180º

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NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

Evaluate Nominal Network Coverage
Run a coverage array for the nominal
network. Check that the coverage is in line with your expectations. Adjust site locations and add additional sites if improvements to coverage is necessary. Check for excessively high sites.

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NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

Thank You

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WCDMA Planning Fundamentals/Jan2008

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