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Steven Wilson Preetham Gopalaswamy
Brocade Communications Systems, Inc.
– Storage Area Networks – Fibre Channel Technology – Fibre Channel Management – Common Information Model (CIM)
The Server-to-Storage Bottleneck
1990’s Technology Does Not Scale
What is a SAN? Open Systems Model for Network Storage Enhanced Storage Management Flexibility to add or reconfigure storage as needed without downtime Independent Scaling of CPU and Storage capacity De-couples servers and storage so that either can be scaled separately Easy Migration Current applications run without software changes Incremental deployment allows flexible adoption .
delete storage on the fly Cost Savings – Shared Storage .SAN Benefits Dynamic Allocation of Resources (storage and applications) High Data/Application Availability Non-disruptive Maintenance – Continuous operations if server or storage has to be removed from cluster – Add.
– Single technology for server-storage area networking. VI.What is Fibre Channel – Open standard. clustering (server-server) . IP. Etc. ratified in 1993 – Optimized for large block transfer with built-in reliability – Distancefor disaster tolerant configurations – Independent scaling of servers and storagecreating the virtual private data center/Virtual Private SANs – Adopts legacy environments and applications – Concurrency of networking and storage protocols on single NICreducing costs of ownership: SCSI. FICON.
security.discovery. Not yet an accredited standards body. but provides input to other standards bodies – IP related standards and MIBs and Storage over IP efforts – SCSI storage protocols for Fibre Channel and others – Fibre Channel work group. Common Information Model (CIM) – Fibre Channel technology road maps. interoperability specifications and plug-fests .Fibre Channel Standards Activities T11 SNIA IETF T10 DMTF FCIA – Fibre Channel transport. management Standards.Topology. Generic Services. physical. media standards – SAN Application.
FC HBA API – FC-SP – Security Protocols. Policy Management. FC-PH-2. Describes the WellKnown Server Architecture and Related Transports – FC-BB-2 – Backbone. Authorization. Replaces FC-PH. Confidentiality . Interoperability Profile.Important T11 Standards – FC-FS – Framing and Signaling. Describes How Fibre Channel Frames are Transported Over WAN Connections – FC-MI – Methodologies for Interconnects. Authentication. and FC-PH-3 – FC-SW-2 and FC-SW-3 – Switch Fabric Standard. Describes How Switches Communicate with One Another – FC-GS-3 and FC-GS-4 – Generic Services.
Fibre Channel .Hybrid Transport System - .
Multiple Protocols On Common Fibre Channel Transport Multiple Mapping Standards Streams Transfer FICON VI CT Single Transport Standard 10 GB .
LED) • Copper (Coax. Twisted Pair) • Single Mode vs Multi-mode Fibre .FC-0 – Physical Variants • Optical (Laser.
FC-1 – 8B10B Encoding – Running Disparity • Ensures Virtually An Equal Number of 1’s and 0’s – DC-Balanced • Facilitates Amplifier Design – Lower Power • Ensures Synchronization For Clocking Purposes – IBM Holds the Patent .
Fibre Channel Information Transfer FC-2 LayerFraming and Protocol Sequence 3 Sequence 2 “Packets” (Large Blocks) Sequence 1 Exchange (Protocol Operation) Sequence Buffer S O F Buffer Data C R C E O F (server/storage/WS) Device 2 Header FC Frame (Max. 2112 Bytes) (server/storage/WS) Device 1 .
FC-4 Mappings – Maps Upper Level Protocols to Fibre Channel – Examples are SCSI. FICON – FC-CT is Mapped for Inband Management Use . VI. IP.
F_Port. Ports Also Login to the Fabric – A Node is a Collection of Ports – Each Node Has a Unique WWN . FL_Port. NL_Port.Fibre Channel Ports and Nodes – N_Port. E_Port. B_Port – Each Nx_Port Has a Fabric Unique 24 Bit Address – Each Nx_Port Has a Unique WWN – Nx_Ports Must Login With One Another Prior to Data Transfer – When a Fabric Exists.
full bandwidth Fixed routing Guaranteed inorder frame delivery Confirmation of both delivery and nondelivery of frames End-to-end flow control Multiplexed frame delivery at the frame boundary Adaptive routing No guaranteed inorder frame delivery Confirmation of both delivery and nondelivery of frames Both end-to-end and link-level flow control Multiplexed.Meet Different Application Needs Class 1 Service characteristics Class 2 Class 3 Dedicated.Data Transport Services . frame delivery at the frame boundary Datagram service No confirmation of delivery or non-delivery of frames Only link-level flow control Communication mode Connectionoriented Circuit-switched Connectionless Frame-switched Connectionless Frame-switched .
Fibre Channel Topologies – Point-to-pointtwo devices connected together .
Fibre Channel Topologies – Arbitrated loop • Up to 126 devices on a shared media for small systems at reduced cost and reduced performance level .
which allows concurrent communicating pairs – Highest performance level – High scalability – Good fault isolation – Embedded management and services .Fibre Channel Topologiesthe Fabric – Large connectivity on non-shared media.
Fibre Channel Services Login Server Fabric Controller Common Transport – – – – Name Server Alias Server Time Server Management Server .
Port Interfaces NL_Port F_Port N_Port .
Point-to-Point Remote Connection between Fibre Channel Systems Through WAN Fibre Channel switch Fibre Channel switch Fibre Channel switch WTU ATM/ SONET/IP network WTU Fibre Channel switch FC-BB-2 and FCIP Standards Remote Backup sRemote Mirroring sDisaster Recovery s WTU: Wan Tunneling Unit .
Characteristics of FC Switches – Switches Connect to One Another Using E_Ports and Inter Switch Links (ISLs) – Switches Route Frames Based on the 24 Bit DID • • DID Consists of: 8 Bit Domain ID. 8 Bit Area ID. and 8 Bit Port ID Each Switch Has a Unique Domain ID (239 Max) – Switch to Switch Communication Uses Class F Which is Similar to Class 2 – Switches Implement a Fabric Controller and other Well-Known Servers – Switches Allow Inband and Out-Band Management .
Functions of the Fabric – – – – – – Switch Port Initialization Fabric Configuration FSPF Zoning Distributed Server RSCN .
g.Zoning – Similar To VLANs in the Networking World – Provides an Access Control Mechanism – Allows End-Devices to Only Communicate With End-Devices in the Same Zone – Two Types of Enforcement • Hard • Soft – Affects the Discovery Process – May Eventually be Applied to Resources Behind the N_Port (e. LUNs) .
_P o _ t Na m e r 02 .Zoning Structure Z o n e A Z o n in g O S e t t t r ib u t e s : O M n e o r o r e A t tri b u te s : Z o n e ( s ) M O n e o Z o n e r M o r e A ttr ib u te s : e m b e r s b je c t T y p e a m O e O b je c t s h e x ‘0 1 ’ Z o n e S e t N N u m b e r L is t o f Z o n e Z o n in g O b je c t T y p e h e x ‘0 2 ’ P ro t o c o l Z o n e N u m b e L is t o f o f Z o n e b j e cF t l sa g s Z o n e M e m b e r T y p e 0 1 N .D o m a i n _ I D a n d P o r t 0 3 N.Z o n e A l i a s N a m e r o f Z o n e M e m b e r s F la g s Z o n e M e m b e rs L e n g th Z o n e M e m d be e rt if ie r I n Z o n A e l i a( s s ) A Z h Z N L Z o n e A l ia s M e m b e r s A t t r ib u t e s : ttr ib u te s : Z o n e A lia s M e m b e r T y p e o n in g O b je c t T y p e 0 1 N .D o m a i n _ I D a n d P o r t o n e A lia s N a m e u m b e r o f Z o n e A l i a s O Mn ee m o b r e0 r 3s N ._ P o r t _ I D N a m e 04 ._ P o r t _ I D F la g s M i s t o f Z o n e A l i a s M e m bo e r re s L e n hg t Z o n e A l ia s M I d e n bt ie f i re r e m ._ o r_ t Na m e P e x ‘0 3 ’ 02 .
Fabric ports and their attributes. Configuration Management Fabric Device Management Zone Management Integrated with Fabric and distributed Node Registry and directory service to discover nodes and their attributes (connected to Fabric) Integrated with Fabric and Distributed Operational in Nature Node N_Port Discovery of Physical topology Discovery of Logical association between devices Acquires topology information from Simple Name Service and Management service Node Fibre Channel Fabric (Distributed Services) Node Node Node N_Port FC-GS-3 FC-GS-4 Standards Node N_Port Node .Fibre Channel Generic Services Management Service Simple Name Service Discovery Service Registration and discovery of Switches.
Brocade Software Stack Management Applications Management Services Critical Services Manageability Services and Applications S A M S Core Services Kernel Drivers OS Kernel Fabric Services Group Platform Group Hardware .
Traditional Fibre Channel Management – Common Transport (FC-CT) • • • • • • Standardized Native Inband Management Proprietary In-band Management Out of Band Proprietary Management Standardized (Almost) Out of Band Management Proprietary Out of Band Management Proprietary Management Out of Band Management – IP over FC: – WEB Based Management – SNMP – Telnet/CLI – API Based Management .
Post Modern Fibre Channel Management Object Based Management CIM/WBEM (Web-based Enterprise Management) Combines Management Capabilities Exposed Through Other Interfaces CIM Capabilities Can be Provided By Agents or Integrated Directly Into SAN Products .
Managing Brocade Fabrics WebTools SNMP API Fabric Manager Management Agent Brocade Data Model Fabric RPCd SNMPd HTTPd Switch Unified Data Access Layer .
CIM – Common Information Model It is a Data Model.2) describes the language. Meta Schema (a formal definition of the model) Formal definition of the CIM Schema is expressed in a Managed Object File (MOF) . not an implementation There are two parts to CIM – The CIM Specification – CIM Schema CIM Specification (currently 2. naming.
Everything about CIM that you really did not want to ask .
…) – Extension Schema CIM 2.7 has simplified the Fibre Channel model and added Zoning . Devices. Network.Everything about CIM that you really did not want to ask Objects have inheritance – Abstract and Concrete Objects have methods: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Objects can maintain backward compatibility and support deprecation Associations are objects which means they can have properties Events are Objects CIM Schema provides the actual model descriptions – Core Schema – Common Schema (System.
Instance Provider deleteInstance createInstance getInstance setInstance enumerateInstanceNames enumerateInstances PropertyProvider setProperty getProperty Method Provider invokeMethod Query Provider invokeQuery .Everything about CIM that you really did not want to ask The methods supported by a class vary with what interfaces/interface methods a given provider supports for that class.
CIM-based Management Solution Access Protocol and Data Format Customer Deliverables Client I/F Data Information Model Agent Higher Level Services Object Manager Provider I/F Device Provider Fabric Data Access Fabric Layer Object Model .
Server . Monitoring Mgmt.Peeking under the hood To Provider Host Fabric Http Daemon RPC Daemon SNMP Agent Name Server Zoning Routing/Pathing Fabric Watch Perf.
e. java and other compilation environments) – Agent can support multiple applications simultaneously Delivers a “standards-compatible” interface (e. CIM) .g.Why move to a CIM-agent solution? Looser linkage between application and Brocade library – Less integration headaches – More flexible application interfaces (i.
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