Gas Exchange in Plants

Chptr 10, pages 191 ± 193 Chptr 36, pages 759 - 762

Diffusion in media
‡ Movement along concentration gradients ‡ Gases diffuse faster in atmosphere than water ‡ Rate of diffusion dependent on square root of the mass of molecule: H2O diffuses 1.56 times CO2

Crossing barriers
‡ Surfaces must be moist ‡ Concentration gradient must be present ‡ Short pathway important for rapid exchange

Tradeoffs ‡ Selectivity does not occur ‡ Enhancing the exchange rate of one gas enhances exchange of another gas unless change in concentration gradients occur .

Exchange pathways ‡ Cuticle ‡ stomata .

Leaf epidermis with stomata Guard cell stoma Subsidery cell .

Stomate structure .

Distribution of Stomata ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Amphistomatous .lower surface No stomata .both surfaces Epistomatous .upper surface Hypostomatous .

000 cm2 Total opening per leaf surface consistently 1-2% .000 ± 60.Size of stomata ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Width: 3 ± 12 Q Length: 10 ± 40 Q Density: 1.

Boundary layer structure and relationship to leaf size gtot = (gleaf x gbl)/(gleaf + gbl) gbl = 1/rbl rbl = blmm/Dj blmm = 4 x ˜(Lm/Vms-1) .

‡ When somata near wide open. rs is large relative to rbl and increase in flux is linear.Gas Flux in Leaves ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ FluxH2O = ([H2O]in .[CO2]out)/rtot rtot = rbl + rs Thus fluxgas = ([gas]in .[gas]out)/(rbl + rs) When stomata just open.[H2O]out)/rtot FluxCO2 = ([CO2]in . rs is small relative to rbl (constant) and flux levels off. .

Change in flux with increasing stomatal aperture flux 0 incr 1/rs .

Effect of leaf size on gas exchange .

Acacia koa leaves .

Effect of leaf width on boundary layer and comparison of conductance in juvenile leaves versus phyllodes blmm = 4 x ˜(Lm/Vms-1) .

Photosynthesis in phyllodes versus juvenile leaves and effect of light intensity on photosynthesis .

Water relations in guard cells runs counter to water relations in adjacent cells .

cell Guard cell Day Subs.6 +0.0 +0.8 -0.8 P +0.3 +0.2 Subs. cell .2 -0.6 -0.2 -0.9 -0.Water potential dynamics of stomata Cell Guard cell Night = -0.2 -0.6 T -0.

13 . 36.Fig.

Factors affecting stomatal operation ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Light CO2 Humidity Temperature Abscisic acid .

CO2 gained (A)/water lost (E) ‡ Quantum Efficiency (QE) .CO2 gained (A)/photon absorbed (Q) .Gas exchange efficiencies ‡ Water use efficiency (WUE) .

. ± When Ci is high (open stomata. high WUE). low WUE). ± When Ci is low (more closed stomata.Measuring WUE ‡ Spot measurements of CO2 uptake and water loss ‡ Long term using C13/C12 ratios in plant material ± RuBP discriminates against C13 in favor of C12. C13/C12 is lower in sugars and products. C13/C12 is higher in sugars and products.

[CO2]out)/([H2O]in . thus plant can only increase WUE by increasing it¶s affinity for CO2 and decreasing internal [CO2]in thus increasing driving force for uptake. ‡ Atmospheric carbon [CO2]out is constant. either CO2 gradient must be increased or H2O gradient decreased. WUE can be approximated by: ([CO2]in .[H2O]out) ‡ To increase WUE.Modifying WUE ‡ WUE = CO2 gained/H2O lost ‡ Since the resistances for both are similar. since plant is close to saturation. ‡ The gradient for water loss is dictated by the environment. .

10.17 . Fig.C3 RuBP requires =>50ppm CO2 RuBP can combine with O2 leading to photorespiration and depression of Ps at high light intensities.CalvinCalvin-Benson cycle .

18 . O2 present in low amounts in bundle sheath cells. 10. Fig.Hatch and Slack pathway C4 PEP requires <10 ppm CO2 and does not combine with O 2.

Internal Anatomy of C3 and C4 leaves C3 leaf C4 leaf .

19 .Crassulacean Acid Metabolism CAM Fig. 10.

.Changes in internal conditions for CAM over 24 hrs.

45 igh ame over all intensities ery high . O tim m ( WUE Qua tum Efficie cy o C3 Palisade layer ± small bundle sheath cells u P 50 ppm yes 600 C4 Kranz anatomy ± large bundle sheath cells PEP 10 ppm no 2000 C M arge vacuoles ± leshy leaves or stems Ru P in light PEP in dark 50 ppm in light 10 ppm in dark yes 600 ) 20 .Comparison of Photosynthetic pathways Characteristic Leaf str ct re Primary CO2 acceptor CO2 compensation Depression y O2 Light sat ration Q mol m-2 s-1 Tem .35 o Reduced in high light 30 .

The End .

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