Page 1

Jhansirani.R AP/ECE
Page 2
Causes, eIIects and control measures oI:
(a) Air pollution
(b) Water pollution
(c) Soil pollution
(d) Marine pollution
(e) Noise pollution
(I) Thermal pollution
(g) Nuclear hazards
Solid waste management: causes, eIIects and
control measures oI municipal solid wastes
Role oI an individual in prevention oI pollution
Pollution case studies
Disaster management:
Floods, Earthquake, Cyclone, and Landslides.
Page 3
Any undesirable change in the physical,
chemical, or biological characterstics oI any
component oI the environment (Air, Water, Soil )
which can cause harmIul eIIects on various Iorms
oI liIe or property.
(a) Air pollution
(b) Water pollution
(c) Soil pollution
(d) Marine pollution
(e) Noise pollution
(I) Thermal pollution
(g) Nuclear hazards
Page 4
Air poIIution
Page 5
Air poIIution
W Definition:
t is an atmospheric condition in
which certain substance are present in
excess concentration which can cause
undesirable eIIects on man and his
environment. These substances
includes gases, particulate matter,
radioactive substances etc.,
Page 6
Air poIIution
W aseous pollutants:
Oxides of sulphur (SO
, SO
Oxides of nitrogen (NO, NO
, NO
Carbon monoxide (CO)
Volatile organic compounds (hydrocarbons)
W Particulate Pollutants:
Smoke, Dust, Fumes
Liquid droplets
Pollen grains
Page 7
Air poIIution
W Radioactive pollutants:
Radon ÷ 222
Ìodine ÷ 131
Strontium ÷ 19
Plutonium ÷ 239
Page 8
CIassification of air poIIution
W n basis oI origin oI pollutants they can be classiIied as
W !7ima7!ollutants:
They are emitted directly into the atmosphere by the
sources (such as power-generating plants).
Eg: C, N
, S
, Hydrocarbons, radioactive
substances etc.,
W Seconda7!ollutants:
These are Iormed as a result oI reactions between
primary pollutants and other elements in the atmosphere
Eg: ozone (

), peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN),
photochemical Smog etc.,.
Page 9
Page 10
Causes/sources of Air poIIutants
W Natural sources:
Volcanic eruptions
Forest Fires
Sea salt sprays
Biological Decay
Photochemical oxidation of terpenes
Extra terrestrial bodies
Pollen grains of flowers, spores
Radioactive minerals present in earth crust
Page 11
Causes/sources of Air poIIutants
W an made sources:
Thermal power plants
Ìndustrial units
Vehicular emissions
Fossil fuel burning
Agricultural activities
W Thermal power plants is the major sources
for generating electricity in Ìndia
W The main pollutants emitted are fly ash, SO
Page 12
Causes/sources of Air poIIutants
W etallurgical plants also consume coal and
produce similar pollutants
W Fertilizer plants, smelters, textile mills,
tanneries, refineries, chemical industries, paper
and pulp mills are other sources of air pollution
W Automobile exhaust is another major sources of
air pollution
W Automobiles release gases such as
- CO (77%)
- Oxides of nitrogen (8%)
- Hydrocarbons (14%)
Page 13
Causes/sources of Air poIIutants
W Heavy duty diesel vehicle spew more No
and particulate matter than petrol vehicles
which produce more carbon monoxide and
Page 14
Ìndoor air pollution
W Radon gas: They are responsible for lung
cancer deaths
W Radon can be emitted from building
materials like bricks, concrete, tiles etc.,
which are derived from soil containing
W Radon is also present in ground water and
natural gas and is emitted indoors while
using them
Page 15
W any houses in under-developed
countries including Ìndia use fuels like
coal, dung-cakes, wood and kerosene in
W Complete combustion of fuel produces
carbon dioxide which may not be toxic
W Ìncomplete combustion produces the toxic
gas carbon monoxide
W Coal contains varying amount of sulphur
which on burning produces sulphur
W Fossil fuel burning produces black soot
Page 16
W The pollutants like CO, SO2,
formaldehyde, benzo-(a) pyrene (BAP) are
toxic and harmful for health.
W BAP is also found in cigarette smoke and
it causes cancer
W A housewife using wood as fuel for
cooking inhales BAP equivalent to 20
packets of cigarette a day.
Ìndoor air pollution
Page 17
Page 18
Effects on Human health
W Human respiratory system has a number
of mechanism for protection from air
W Bigger particles can be trapped by the
hairs and sticky mucus in the lining of the
nose .
W Smaller particles can reach
tracheobronchical system and there get
trapped in mucus .
W They are sent back to throat by beating of
hair like cilia from where they can be
removed by spitting or swallowing.
Page 19
W ears of exposure to air pollutants
(including cigarette smoke) adversely
affect these naturals defenses and can
result lung cancer , asthma, chronic
bronchitis and emphysema (damage to air
sacs leading to loss of lung elasticity and
acute shortness of breath.)
W suspended particulates can cause
damage to lung tissue and diseases like
asthma ,bronchitis and cancer especially
when they bring with them cancer causing
or toxic pollutants attached on their
Page 20
W Sulphur dioxide(so
) causes constriction of
respiratory passage and can cause
bronchitis like conditions.
W Ìn the presence of suspended particulates,
can form acid sulphate particles, which
can go deep into the lungs and affect them
W Oxides of nitrogen especially NO2 can
irritate the lungs and cause conditions like
chronic bronchitis and emphysema,
Page 21
W Carbon monoxide(co) reaches lungs and
combines with hemoglobin 210 times
more than oxygen.
W Hemoglobin is, therefore unable to
transport oxygen to the various parts of
the body
W This causes suffocation, long exposure to
CO may cause dizziness,
unconsciousness and even death
Page 22
W Benzene (from unleaded petrol)
formaldehyde and particulates like
polychlorinated biphenyls toxic metals
and dioxins (burning of polythene) can
cause mutation, reproductive problems or
W Asbestos, Beryllium, ercury, Arsenic
and Radioactive substances cause lung
diseases and affect other vital organs like
kidney, liver, spleen, brain & some cause
Page 23
Effects on Plants
W Air pollution affects plants by entering
through stomata (leaf pores), destroy
chlorophyll and affect photosynthesis
W During day time the stomata are wide
open to facilitate photosynthesis hence
pollutants affect them more during day
W Pollutants also erode waxy coating of the
leaves called cuticle
W Cuticle prevents excessive water loss and
damage from diseases, pests, drought
and frost
Page 24
Effects on Plants
W Damage to leaf structure causes
W Necrosis (dead areas of leaf)
W Chlorosis (loss of chlorophyll causing
W Epinasty (downward curling of leaf)
W Abscission (dropping of leaves)
W Particulates on leaves can form encrustations
and plug the stomata and reduce the
availability of sunlight, which results in death of
the plant.
Page 25
W So
Bleaching of leaves
Necrosis of leaves
Ìncreased abscission and suppressed growth
W O3 causes
Flecks on leaf structure
Premature aging
Page 26
W Preoxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) causes
W Silvering of lower surface of leaf
W Damage to young and sensitive leaves
W Suppressed growth
W Fluorides causes
W Necrosis of leaf tip
W Ethylene results in
W Epinasty
W Leaf abscission, Dropping of flowers
Page 27
Effects on Aquatic life
W Air pollutants mixing up with rain can
cause high acidity (lower pH) in fresh
water lakes
W This affects aquatic life especially fish
W Some of the fresh water lakes have
experienced total fish death.
Page 28
Effects on materials
W Particulates causes damage to exposed
W So
and moisture causes corrosion of
metallic surfaces due to formation of sulfuric
W etal parts of buildings, vehicles, bridges,
wires & railway tracks are affected
W Sulfuric acid causes disfigurement of statues
made of marble & limestone
W Sulfuric acid damages leather binding of
Page 29
W Pages of books also becomes brittle
W So
can affect fabric, leather, paint &
W Ozone causes cracking of rubber
W Nylon stockings are weakened and
W Tyres of vehicles also damaged
W Oxides of nitrogen & ozone causes fading
of cotton and rayon fibers
Effects on materials
Page 30
W Siting of industries after proper
environmental impact assessment
W By dilution of emission
W This can be done by increasing of
stack height beyond inversion layer
W inimize activities which causes
pollution like transpotation & energy
W odification of process and/or
Page 31
W Use of appropriate material
W Using low sulphur coal in industries
W Removing sulphur from coal
W Removing NOx during the combustion
process and controlling the flow of air &
fuel in industrial boilers
W Vehicular population can be checked by
regular tune-up of engines
W Replacement of more polluting old
W Ìnstalling catalytic converters
Page 32
W By engine modification to have fuel
efficient mixtures to reduce CO and
hydrocarbon emission
W Slow & cooler burning of fuels to reduce
Nox emission
W Using mass transport system, bicycles
W Shifting to less polluting fuels
W Using non-conventional source of energy
W Using biological filters and bio-scrubbers
W Planting more trees
W Reduction of pollution at source
Page 33
Reduce vehicle emissions:
Drive less
Keep cars well maintained and tires properly inIlated
Turn oII the engine when your vehicle is not in motion
Purchase low-emitting and Iuel eIIicient vehicles
Share a ride, take public transportation bike, or walk
Cut your grass aIter 6 p.m.
ReIuel your car aIter 6 p.m.
Combine errands into one trip
at Can You Do?
Page 34
Reduction of air pollution at source
W Gaseous poIIutants:
W They can be reduced by physical adsorption
on porous solid materials like activated
charcoal, silica gel, Fullers earth etc.,
W Effluent gases can be absorbed in liquid
W Eg: SO2 absorbed in ammonia solution
W They can be removed by condensation which
is carried out by cooling medium in tubes
where the gases in contact condense and can
be collected thereafter
Page 35
W Combustion can be used to reduce pollution
by burning the pollutants in combustion
equipment at optimal conditions of oxygen
and temperature.
W ParticuIate matter:
W any devices are available now-a-days,
choice of which depends on characteristics
of particulate, flow rate, collection efficiency,
costs etc.,
Cyclone separator
Baghouse filter
Wet scrubber
Electrostatic precipitators
Page 36
Cyclone separator
W Ìt consist of a cylinder with an
inverted cone attached at the
W Dirt gas enters tangentially at
the top of the cylinder & spins
forming a vortex
W Due to centrifugal force, the
particles strike the wall of the
W The particles then fall in the
hopper due to gravity from
where they are removed.
Page 37
Cyclone separator
W The spinning gas forms an inner
vortex and leaves from the top
W The cyclone is very efficient for
larger particles
W Smaller particles are not
removed efficiently
W Therefore cyclones are
employed before the use of
other costly devices
Page 38
Bag ouse fiIter
W Ìt contains a large number of filter bags made of
W They are hung upside down in several compartments
of bag house filter
W Dirty gas is passed through the filter bags which
leaves the bags through their pores
W Dust particles get deposited on the inner surface of
the bag filters and forms a cake which can be
removed by shaking
W Efficient for removal of very small particles
W Ìt is expensive and cannot be operated for moist
W Corrosive gases may damage the material of the bag
Page 39
Page 40
Wet scrubbers
W Dirty gases are passed
through water in the
chamber or water is sprayed
on the gas
W Particles are made wet and
are removed from the gas
stream which leaves from
the top of the scrubber
W Efficient for removing the
W Used for removal of toxic
and acidic gases also.
Page 41
Electrostatic precipitator
parallel plate type
Dust discharge
Clean gas
Dirty gas
Page 42
Electrostatic precipitator
W Vertical wires are placed between the parallel
plates or wire is hung along the axis of the
W High negative voltage is applied to the wire
W Dust particles while passing from the lower
end get negatively charged (ionized) and are
collected on the positively charged surface
(plates/cylindrical body)
W Clean gas leaves from the top
W Dust particles fall down in the dust collector or
removed by scrapping or by liquids
W Can efficiently remove even submicroscopic
Page 43
Electrostatic precipitator
wire and pipe type

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.