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UNIT II
ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
Presentation
By
Jhansirani.R AP/ECE
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Syllabus
DeIinition
Causes, eIIects and control measures oI:
(a) Air pollution
(b) Water pollution
(c) Soil pollution
(d) Marine pollution
(e) Noise pollution
(I) Thermal pollution
(g) Nuclear hazards
Solid waste management: causes, eIIects and
control measures oI municipal solid wastes
Role oI an individual in prevention oI pollution
Pollution case studies
Disaster management:
Floods, Earthquake, Cyclone, and Landslides.
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013943
Any undesirable change in the physical,
chemical, or biological characterstics oI any
component oI the environment (Air, Water, Soil )
which can cause harmIul eIIects on various Iorms
oI liIe or property.
%yp0s
(a) Air pollution
(b) Water pollution
(c) Soil pollution
(d) Marine pollution
(e) Noise pollution
(I) Thermal pollution
(g) Nuclear hazards
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Air poIIution
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Air poIIution
W Definition:
t is an atmospheric condition in
which certain substance are present in
excess concentration which can cause
undesirable eIIects on man and his
environment. These substances
includes gases, particulate matter,
radioactive substances etc.,
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Air poIIution
W aseous pollutants:
Oxides of sulphur (SO
2
, SO
3
)
Oxides of nitrogen (NO, NO
2
, NO
x
)
Carbon monoxide (CO)
Volatile organic compounds (hydrocarbons)
W Particulate Pollutants:
Smoke, Dust, Fumes
Aerosols
Liquid droplets
Pollen grains
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Air poIIution
W Radioactive pollutants:
Radon ÷ 222
Ìodine ÷ 131
Strontium ÷ 19
Plutonium ÷ 239
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CIassification of air poIIution
W n basis oI origin oI pollutants they can be classiIied as
W !7ima7!ollutants:
They are emitted directly into the atmosphere by the
sources (such as power-generating plants).
Eg: C, N
x
, S
x
, Hydrocarbons, radioactive
substances etc.,
W Seconda7!ollutants:
These are Iormed as a result oI reactions between
primary pollutants and other elements in the atmosphere
Eg: ozone (

), peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN),
photochemical Smog etc.,.
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Causes/sources of Air poIIutants
W Natural sources:
Volcanic eruptions
Forest Fires
Sea salt sprays
Biological Decay
Photochemical oxidation of terpenes
marshes
Extra terrestrial bodies
Pollen grains of flowers, spores
Radioactive minerals present in earth crust
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Causes/sources of Air poIIutants
W an made sources:
Thermal power plants
Ìndustrial units
Vehicular emissions
Fossil fuel burning
Agricultural activities
W Thermal power plants is the major sources
for generating electricity in Ìndia
W The main pollutants emitted are fly ash, SO
2
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Causes/sources of Air poIIutants
W etallurgical plants also consume coal and
produce similar pollutants
W Fertilizer plants, smelters, textile mills,
tanneries, refineries, chemical industries, paper
and pulp mills are other sources of air pollution
W Automobile exhaust is another major sources of
air pollution
W Automobiles release gases such as
- CO (77%)
- Oxides of nitrogen (8%)
- Hydrocarbons (14%)
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Causes/sources of Air poIIutants
W Heavy duty diesel vehicle spew more No
x
and particulate matter than petrol vehicles
which produce more carbon monoxide and
hydrocarbons
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Ìndoor air pollution
W Radon gas: They are responsible for lung
cancer deaths
W Radon can be emitted from building
materials like bricks, concrete, tiles etc.,
which are derived from soil containing
radium
W Radon is also present in ground water and
natural gas and is emitted indoors while
using them
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W any houses in under-developed
countries including Ìndia use fuels like
coal, dung-cakes, wood and kerosene in
kitchens.
W Complete combustion of fuel produces
carbon dioxide which may not be toxic
W Ìncomplete combustion produces the toxic
gas carbon monoxide
W Coal contains varying amount of sulphur
which on burning produces sulphur
dioxide
W Fossil fuel burning produces black soot
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W The pollutants like CO, SO2,
formaldehyde, benzo-(a) pyrene (BAP) are
toxic and harmful for health.
W BAP is also found in cigarette smoke and
it causes cancer
W A housewife using wood as fuel for
cooking inhales BAP equivalent to 20
packets of cigarette a day.
Ìndoor air pollution
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Effects on Human health
W Human respiratory system has a number
of mechanism for protection from air
pollution
W Bigger particles can be trapped by the
hairs and sticky mucus in the lining of the
nose .
W Smaller particles can reach
tracheobronchical system and there get
trapped in mucus .
W They are sent back to throat by beating of
hair like cilia from where they can be
removed by spitting or swallowing.
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W ears of exposure to air pollutants
(including cigarette smoke) adversely
affect these naturals defenses and can
result lung cancer , asthma, chronic
bronchitis and emphysema (damage to air
sacs leading to loss of lung elasticity and
acute shortness of breath.)
W suspended particulates can cause
damage to lung tissue and diseases like
asthma ,bronchitis and cancer especially
when they bring with them cancer causing
or toxic pollutants attached on their
surface.
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W Sulphur dioxide(so
2
) causes constriction of
respiratory passage and can cause
bronchitis like conditions.
W Ìn the presence of suspended particulates,
So
2
can form acid sulphate particles, which
can go deep into the lungs and affect them
severely.
W Oxides of nitrogen especially NO2 can
irritate the lungs and cause conditions like
chronic bronchitis and emphysema,
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W Carbon monoxide(co) reaches lungs and
combines with hemoglobin 210 times
more than oxygen.
W Hemoglobin is, therefore unable to
transport oxygen to the various parts of
the body
W This causes suffocation, long exposure to
CO may cause dizziness,
unconsciousness and even death
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W Benzene (from unleaded petrol)
formaldehyde and particulates like
polychlorinated biphenyls toxic metals
and dioxins (burning of polythene) can
cause mutation, reproductive problems or
cancer
W Asbestos, Beryllium, ercury, Arsenic
and Radioactive substances cause lung
diseases and affect other vital organs like
kidney, liver, spleen, brain & some cause
cancer
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Effects on Plants
W Air pollution affects plants by entering
through stomata (leaf pores), destroy
chlorophyll and affect photosynthesis
W During day time the stomata are wide
open to facilitate photosynthesis hence
pollutants affect them more during day
time
W Pollutants also erode waxy coating of the
leaves called cuticle
W Cuticle prevents excessive water loss and
damage from diseases, pests, drought
and frost
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Effects on Plants
W Damage to leaf structure causes
W Necrosis (dead areas of leaf)
W Chlorosis (loss of chlorophyll causing
yellowing)
W Epinasty (downward curling of leaf)
W Abscission (dropping of leaves)
W Particulates on leaves can form encrustations
and plug the stomata and reduce the
availability of sunlight, which results in death of
the plant.
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W So
2
causes
Bleaching of leaves
Chlorosis
Ìnjury
Necrosis of leaves
W NO
2
causes
Ìncreased abscission and suppressed growth
W O3 causes
Flecks on leaf structure
Premature aging
Necrosis
Bleaching
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W Preoxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) causes
W Silvering of lower surface of leaf
W Damage to young and sensitive leaves
W Suppressed growth
W Fluorides causes
W Necrosis of leaf tip
W Ethylene results in
W Epinasty
W Leaf abscission, Dropping of flowers
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Effects on Aquatic life
W Air pollutants mixing up with rain can
cause high acidity (lower pH) in fresh
water lakes
W This affects aquatic life especially fish
W Some of the fresh water lakes have
experienced total fish death.
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Effects on materials
W Particulates causes damage to exposed
surfaces
W So
2
and moisture causes corrosion of
metallic surfaces due to formation of sulfuric
acid
W etal parts of buildings, vehicles, bridges,
wires & railway tracks are affected
W Sulfuric acid causes disfigurement of statues
made of marble & limestone
W Sulfuric acid damages leather binding of
books
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W Pages of books also becomes brittle
W So
2
can affect fabric, leather, paint &
paper
W Ozone causes cracking of rubber
W Nylon stockings are weakened and
damaged
W Tyres of vehicles also damaged
W Oxides of nitrogen & ozone causes fading
of cotton and rayon fibers
Effects on materials
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CONTROL OF AÌR POLLUTÌON
W Siting of industries after proper
environmental impact assessment
studies
W By dilution of emission
W This can be done by increasing of
stack height beyond inversion layer
W inimize activities which causes
pollution like transpotation & energy
production
W odification of process and/or
equipments
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W Use of appropriate material
W Using low sulphur coal in industries
W Removing sulphur from coal
W Removing NOx during the combustion
process and controlling the flow of air &
fuel in industrial boilers
W Vehicular population can be checked by
regular tune-up of engines
W Replacement of more polluting old
vehicles,
W Ìnstalling catalytic converters
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W By engine modification to have fuel
efficient mixtures to reduce CO and
hydrocarbon emission
W Slow & cooler burning of fuels to reduce
Nox emission
W Using mass transport system, bicycles
etc.,
W Shifting to less polluting fuels
W Using non-conventional source of energy
W Using biological filters and bio-scrubbers
W Planting more trees
W Reduction of pollution at source
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Reduce vehicle emissions:
Drive less
Keep cars well maintained and tires properly inIlated
Turn oII the engine when your vehicle is not in motion
Purchase low-emitting and Iuel eIIicient vehicles
Share a ride, take public transportation bike, or walk
Cut your grass aIter 6 p.m.
ReIuel your car aIter 6 p.m.
Combine errands into one trip
at Can You Do?
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Reduction of air pollution at source
W Gaseous poIIutants:
W They can be reduced by physical adsorption
on porous solid materials like activated
charcoal, silica gel, Fullers earth etc.,
W Effluent gases can be absorbed in liquid
absorbent
W Eg: SO2 absorbed in ammonia solution
W They can be removed by condensation which
is carried out by cooling medium in tubes
where the gases in contact condense and can
be collected thereafter
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W Combustion can be used to reduce pollution
by burning the pollutants in combustion
equipment at optimal conditions of oxygen
and temperature.
W ParticuIate matter:
W any devices are available now-a-days,
choice of which depends on characteristics
of particulate, flow rate, collection efficiency,
costs etc.,
Cyclone separator
Baghouse filter
Wet scrubber
Electrostatic precipitators
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Cyclone separator
W Ìt consist of a cylinder with an
inverted cone attached at the
bottom
W Dirt gas enters tangentially at
the top of the cylinder & spins
forming a vortex
W Due to centrifugal force, the
particles strike the wall of the
cylinder
W The particles then fall in the
hopper due to gravity from
where they are removed.
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Cyclone separator
W The spinning gas forms an inner
vortex and leaves from the top
W The cyclone is very efficient for
larger particles
W Smaller particles are not
removed efficiently
W Therefore cyclones are
employed before the use of
other costly devices
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Bag ouse fiIter
W Ìt contains a large number of filter bags made of
fabric
W They are hung upside down in several compartments
of bag house filter
W Dirty gas is passed through the filter bags which
leaves the bags through their pores
W Dust particles get deposited on the inner surface of
the bag filters and forms a cake which can be
removed by shaking
W Efficient for removal of very small particles
W Ìt is expensive and cannot be operated for moist
gases
W Corrosive gases may damage the material of the bag
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Wet scrubbers
W Dirty gases are passed
through water in the
chamber or water is sprayed
on the gas
W Particles are made wet and
are removed from the gas
stream which leaves from
the top of the scrubber
W Efficient for removing the
particulates
W Used for removal of toxic
and acidic gases also.
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Electrostatic precipitator
parallel plate type
Dust discharge
Clean gas
Electrodes
Dirty gas
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Electrostatic precipitator
W Vertical wires are placed between the parallel
plates or wire is hung along the axis of the
cylinder
W High negative voltage is applied to the wire
W Dust particles while passing from the lower
end get negatively charged (ionized) and are
collected on the positively charged surface
(plates/cylindrical body)
W Clean gas leaves from the top
W Dust particles fall down in the dust collector or
removed by scrapping or by liquids
W Can efficiently remove even submicroscopic
particles
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Electrostatic precipitator
wire and pipe type

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