y Increasingly intelligent systems y Growing need for alternative sources of energy
y proposes several potentially inexpensive and highly effective
solutions y Reduce dependency on battery power
y Complexity of wiring y Increased costs of wiring y Reduced costs of embedded intelligence y Increasing popularity of wireless networks y Limitations of batteries
y Reduce environmental impact
y Ambient radiation sources y Pyroelectric energy harvesting y Photo voltaic energy harvesting y Energy harvesting using Electroactive Polymers y Piezoelectric energy harvesting y Electrostatic energy harvesting y Electromagnetic energy harvesting y Thermoelectric energy harvesting y Magnetostrictive energy harvesting
The phenomenon of generation of a voltage under mechanical stress is referred to as the direct piezoelectric effect. and the mechanical strain produced in the crystal under electric stress is called the converse piezoelectric effect.
Piezoelectricity is the ability of some materials (notably crystals and certain ceramics.
. including bone) to generate an electric field or electric potential in response to applied mechanical stress.
Of the 32 crystals classes 21 lack a center of symmetry. and with the exceptions of one class. is placed between two electrodes and a pressure causing a reduction of only 1/20th of one millimeter is applied. Such an effect is not fond in crystals with a center of symmetry.
.000-volt potential is produced. all of these are piezoelectric. a piezoceramic.
If lead zircon ate titan ate.The necessary condition for the piezoelectric effect is the absence of a center of symmetry in the crystal structure. a 100.
When the crystal is mechanically compressed in XY plane or is elongated along Z axis. and is some what displaced along the Z. surrounded by an almost regular octahedron of negative oxygen ions. which generates electric field.
. The positive µTi¶ ion. This structure already has a dipole moment or spontaneous polarization. in the absence of externally applied stress. the additional polarization associated with the deformation is the piezoelectric polarization.axis. is not located at the centre of the octahedron.For understanding the mechanism of generation of piezoelectricity the crystal structure of unit cell of tetragonal barium titan ate (BaTiO3) as shown on fig may be referred.
It is cheap and physically quite strong.
y In 2001 researchers found that PVDF becomes supersensitive to
pressure when impregnated with very small quantity of nanotubes. It is one of the most widely used piezopolymer from which substantial electricity can be generated. which are durable and can generate large quantity of electricity economically. a piezoelectric plastic was
y In 1961 polyvinylidene fluoride. thus PVDF with its inherent superior mechanical properties when upgraded with nano-technology produces a new generation of piezopolymer.
. ip (t) in parallel with its internal electrode capacitance Cp. The magnitude of the polarization current Ip varies with mechanical excitation level of the piezoelectric element.ENERGY HARVESTING CIRCUIT
A vibrating piezoelectric element can be considered as sinusoidal current source at a particular time (t).
and hence the optimal rectifier voltage.
. This creates the need for flexibility in the circuit. i.. the ability to adjust the output voltage of the rectifier to achieve maximum power transfer. During this time all diodes are reverse biased and no current flows to the output. the majority of the current will be delivered as output current. may not be constant as it depends upon the vibration level exciting the piezoelectric element.These waveforms can be divided into two intervals. the polarization current is chagrin the electrode capacitance of the piezoelectric element. interval 2 begins. and output current flows to the capacitor Crect and the load.e. By assuming Crect >> CP. The magnitude of the polarization current IP generated by the piezoelectric transducer. In interval 1. denoted as u. At the end of the commutation interval.
producing a sufficiently high voltage electric current that flows across a small spark-gap.APPLICATIONS
y y y y y y y y y y
The best-known application is the electric CIGARETTE LIGHTER: pressing the button causes a spring-loaded hammer to hit a piezoelectric crystal. car engines. aerospace. stairwells. Gas burners now have built-in piezo-based ignition systems PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS have been successfully used in medical. nuclear instrumentation. and pretty much any other high traffic area to power street lights battery-less wireless doorbell push button The nanogenerator could be used to harvest electricity from shoes. mostly in Europe have already begun to power their strobes and stereos using the force of hundreds of people pounding on piezoelectric lined dance floors The armed forces toyed with the idea of putting piezoelectric materials in soldiers boots to power radios and other portable electronic gear Several gyms. tires and other vibrations sources Piezoelectric microphones and pickups for Acoustic-electric guitars
. and as a pressure sensor in the touch pads of mobile phones Several nightclubs. notable in Portland and a few other places are powered by a combination of piezoelectric set ups and generators set up on stationary bikes Laying piezoelectric crystal arrays underneath sidewalks. thus heating and igniting the gas.
The device supplies about 1 to 10 mW of power
. There are two magnets and in between them is a coil of wire.Energy Scavenging with Shoe-Mounted Piezoelectrics
In this project the researchers lined the bottom of a shoe with piezoelectric transducers and saw what kind of power they got out of it. current is generated in the wire.
This little device about the size of two AA batteries contains an electromagnetic generator inside. This small energy source could be used in place of batteries or as a means to recharge batteries. The two materials they used were polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and lead zirconate titanate (PZT). When vibrations cause the coil of wire to move around in the magnetic field. They eventually attached an RF-transmitter to the shoe that was powered by the piezoelectrics.
.Piezoelectric Concept Backpack
Capitalizing on the friction and heat created by walking. running and even just wearing jeans. engineers from Michigan Technological University. Arizona State University devised a way to use this type of generated energy to charge portable electronic devices. like iPods and mobile phones.
Power wires are minimum or absent Requires less maintenance Environmental friendly Higher uptime( longer life cycle )
Strict power budget Performance is dependent on availability of sources Higher upfront cost Less mature technology
It is a great hope that energy harvesting will rule the next decade in the technical field
. This paper presents an adaptive approach to harvesting electrical energy from a mechanically excited piezoelectric element. it is quite clear that piezoelectric energy harvesting has great potential at micro level and some very important part of applications are still in the research and development stage. The ability of piezoelectric equipments to convert motion from human body into electrical power is remarkable.CONCLUSION
From the overview.