PRECISION AGRICULTURE

PRT 4002

PRT 4002
PRECISION AGRICULTURE

Dr. Anuar Abd. Rahim C 103 Jabatan Pengurusan Tanah Email: anuar@agri.upm.edu.my

Tel: 03-89466963 0122678842

PRT 4002

Semester 2 2004/05

LECTURE ± Tuesday & Thursday 2.00 pm BSP3

LAB. ² Friday 2.00 ² 5.00 pm JPTH A105

COURSE EVALUATION

TESTS ASSIGNMENTS

20% 40% 40%

FINAL EXAM

TESTS TEST 1 31st Disember 2004 TEST 2 04th March 2005 .

prinsip dan teknik dalam pertanian persis dan proses pembentukan sistem sokongan bagi membuat keputusan dalam pengurusan ladang .Di akhir kursus pelajar akan dapat memahami konsep.

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Holistic approach to micro manage agricultural landscapes based on information. and new technologies . knowledge.

based on the concept that agricultural field are subjected to infield variation and require varying methods of crop management on specific location in the field .Computer and sensors revolution for production agriculture.

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Use of high-tech equipment of assessing field conditions and applying inputs through the use of technology of satellite positioning systems. controllers and sophisticated softwares . electronic sensors.

state of the art technology that allows farmers to adjust for infield variability .An emerging.

and maintain the quality of the environment . increase profits.Managing each crop production input on a site specific basis to reduce waste.

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Components of Precision Agriculture Spatial Referring Crop and Soil Monitoring Spatial Prediction and Mapping Decision Support Differential Action .

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Technologies in Precision Agriculture Remote Sensing Geographical Information System Global Positioning System Variable Rate Sensors .

Remote Sensing .

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Yield Variability Due to: Environmental Factors Crop Factors Soil Factors .

Quantifying Variability GEOSTATISTICS SENSORS .

a branch of applied statistics that quantifies the spatial dependence and spatial structure of a measured property and in turn uses that spatial structure to predict values of the property at unsampled locations .

GEOSTATISTICS Sampling Variogram Intepolasi .

JUDGEMENTAL SIMPLE RANDOM STRATIFIED RANDOM SYSTEMATIC STRATIFIED SYSTEMATIC UNALIGNED TARGETED OR DIRECTED ADAPTIVE GEOSTATISTICAL .

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is the tabulated value of student·s t for two sided confidence interval at a given probability level S ² is a preliminary estimate for the standard deviation of the population d ² is the deviation desired between the population mean and the measured mean .N = (t2S2)/d2 t .

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GEOSTATISTICS Two main steps : 1. Spatial modeling (variography) 2. Spatial interpolation (kriging) .

Spatial dependence can be quantified and modeled using semivariogram .

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Sill Range .

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INTERPOLATION
a procedure for predicting unknown values of neighbouring location Methods: o Nearest neighbour o Local average o Inverse distance weighting o Contouring o Kriging

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Veris EC sensor system .

Veris EC sensor system Veris EC Probe .

Prepare the area for geostatistical sampling. choose an area of size more than one hectare and produce it on a map. . semivariogram and kriging. Insert as much information as you can on the map.With the aid of a hand held GPS.

Component of Veris EC sensor System

Veris EC Probe

GPS Antenna Data Logger GPS Receiver

Comparison Soil EC and Corn Yield

(Source: Boydell et al., 1999)

(Source: Veris Tech. 1999)

METHOD OF IDENTIFYING AND RECORDING LOCATION OF AN OBJECT OR PERSON

Types: 
land-based triangulation  satelite-base ranging

a satelite-based navigation system  space segment  control segment  user segment .

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GPS ACCURACY AND FACTORS AFFECTING IT Satellite clocks Sateliite orbits Earth·s atmosphere Multipath errors GPS receivers Selective availability .

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DIFFERENTIAL GPS (DGPS) o DGPS works by canceling out most of the natural and man-made errors that creep into normal GPS measurements o DGPS involves cooperation between two receivers. one that wanders around and another that is stationery o Stationery receiver is the key to the accuracy of DGPS. It ties all the satellite measurements into a solid local reference .

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storing.Geographic Information System (GIS) ‡ GIS involves collection. locational or spatial information . manipulating and displaying data OR ‡ GIS is an information system specially designed for handling geographic. entering.

Improvement in data quality .Eliminating duplication of data maintenance and update .Data sharing within organization and better processing methods ‡ Better decision making .Objectives of GIS ‡ Cost reduction .Acquisition of detail and comprehensive data .Data is more and easily accessible ‡ Revenue improvement .

Software: MAPINFO or ARCVIEW or ATLASGIS or WINGIS .Types of GIS ‡ Low end GIS -Desk top GIS or desk top mapping .Less expensive .Run on PCs .For simple GIS applications .

High end GIS .Run on unix platform .Many modules for a variety of applications .More complex .More expensive .Involves workstation .Software: SMALLWORLD or ARCINFO or GENASYS .

Sources of geographic data ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Field observations. aircrafts) Data loggers of various kinds Analytical stereo-plotters Digital tape discs with text or graphic files . in satellites. Printed maps Printed reports Sensors (eg. survey etc.

Workstations ‡ Secondary storage .Discs .Mainframes .Components of GIS (Hardwares) ‡ The CPU (computer) .Minicomputers .Magnetic tapes .Microcomputers (PC) .CD-ROM and related optical storage technology .

‡ Input devices .Plus secondary storage devices .Keyboard .Digitizers or scanners .Plotters .Film recorders .Line plotters .Monochromes (coloured monitors) .Plus secondary storage devices ‡ Output devices .

roads. Map of UPM: Buildings. .Digital mapping ‡ The technique of using digital computer to produce maps from spatial data in numerical form ‡ Digital features .Objects of interest in digital mapping .Feature: any item on earth¶s surface relevant for a task or project .Example. recreational zones etc.

Buildings: Academic complex Administrative block Residential zone ‡ The basic elements grouped as coverage features are: .Digital mapping ‡ Features can be grouped in to classes E.Annotation . .g.Label point .Node etc.Polygon .

Features and features analysis .Processes of digital mapping ‡ Data capture or acquisition .Feasibility study and analysis .Digitization .Feature property .Topology .Position .Manual (attributes through keyboard) .Manuscript preparation .Semi-automatic (laser beams to trace lines) .Attributes .Automatic (scanning or sensing device) .

Electronic .‡ Data processing .Checking for topological structure or building topological structure ‡ Simplification ‡ Data presentation .Transformation .Format conversions (raster to vector) .Editing to remove error .Hardcopy .

occupies less space (size).Each cell is addressed by the row and column it occupies ‡ Advantages . has no magnitude and direction .GIS data formats ‡ Raster format . most printers can make this format ‡ Disadvantages . located by coordinates . usually squares.Gives no accurate information.Faster to make.The space is divided into cells.Does not define the position of points by using a nearly continuous coordinate and direction .

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Defines position of points by using a nearly continuous coordinate system .The basic units for storing and displaying are points. correct and geo-referenced information .Occupies a lot of space (size) .Creating object with this format relatively takes time because it is detail .Not every printer is compatible with this format .Shows both magnitude and direction ‡ Disadvantages .Good for many grid sampling points .Vector format .Gives detail. lines or polygon for creating objects on a map ‡ Advantages .

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raster precision in graphics traditional cartography data volume topology computation update continuous space integration discontinuous vector x x x x x x x x x .

moderate yield or good yield in an area .g.g. in layer forms can be linked with yield of a crop to establish the cause (s) of poor yield.The power of GIS ‡ Able to process huge data (e. nutrients. soil moisture etc. organic matter. GPS readings or remotely sensed data) into layers of maps showing specific relationships that assists in fixing a problem (e. precision farming) Example Soil pH.

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Remote sensing (RS) ‡ A group of techniques for collecting information about an object or an area without being in physical contact with that object or area ‡ Distance from sensor to object or area being sensed can range from a few meters to thousands of kilometers .

What is REMOTE SENSING ? Source of Force Field Sensor System eg.g. Camera DATA ACQUISITION Reflection Resulting RS Data Set e. Image Object (generic) ..

What is REMOTE SENSING ? ‡ Remote Sensing (LookLook. We will concentrate on that part of RS dealing with ‡ EARTH LAND RESOURCES Vision Sound and Radio Wave Detection . No Touch) is a much wider field than we will Medical Imaging discuss in this lecture.

Examples of RS data .Satellite based sensors .Maps showing vegetation of an area .Aircraft based sensors or .Maps showing forest burn of a place .‡ Methods for data collection .Maps showing cloud coverage of a place .Maps showing precipitation of a place .

Flood prediction etc.Urban and industrial land use planning .Military surveillance . .Agricultural crop survey .‡ Uses of RS data .Navigation .Agricultural soil survey .

Advantages of using RS in Agriculture ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Covers large area rapidly and repeatedly Can be used throughout growing season Gives more timely information on crop condition Helps to identify potential problems before damage becomes irreversible in terms of crop yield and quality .

Basics of RS ‡ Involves the measurement of energy that is reflected or emitted from objects without coming into contact with the objects .

Blue (0.7 µm) .1 µm) ‡ Visible (1 µm) .Violet (0.6 µm) .8 µm) .The electromagnetic spectrum ‡ Ultraviolet (uv) rays (0.Red (0.3 µm) .Yellow (0.Green (0.3µm) .5 µm) .Orange (0.

Near red ((10 µm) .1 mm) .Far red (10 mm) ‡ Micro waves ‡ Radio waves .Thermal (0.‡ Infrared (10 µm-1mm) .

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plant) the 3 things that can happen to this energy are: .Absorption .Transmission .How objects interact with electromagnetic energy ‡ When electromagnetic radiation (e.Reflection .g.g. sunlight) strikes an object (e.

Radio waves are sent out by a transmitter and picked by a receiver after having been reflected by an object .They generate a signal.RS systems ‡ Active sensing systems . bounce it off an object and measure the characteristics of the reflected signal Example: Radar (radio direction and ranging) .

Uses of the reflected signals ‡ Can be used by radar systems to determine the distance and direction of a sensed object ‡ Can be used to create images of sensed object ‡ Can be used to monitor crop moisture status (works even in cloudy conditions) .

Passive sensing system ‡ The systems receive naturally-emitted and reflected signals from sensed objects to create images useful to agriculture .

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should be able to distinguish one plot from another .Should be able to distinguish row from another .Refers to the size of the smallest object that can be distinguished in an image produced by RS Examples: .Should be able to distinguish one plant from another .Measures of performance of RS systems ‡ Spatial resolution .

The visible range can give information like greenness or yellowness of a plant . and collect radiation measurements within a particular spectral band Examples: .Near infrared band can give information about soil organic matter content and moisture content .‡ Spectral response ‡ Refers to the ability of a sensing system to respond to.

It is the measure of how often a sensing system can be available to collect data from a particular site on the ground .‡ Spectral resolution .Refers to the ability of a sensing system to distinguish between electromagnetic radiation of different wavelengths ‡ Frequency of coverage .

RS systems¶ platforms: .Aircraft based Types of sensors used in RS platforms: .Electro-optical sensors .Satellite-based .Photographic camera sensors .

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Use of RS data: Site specific purpose ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Collect RS data Process data and images Carefully examine images & analyze the statistical data Perform ground thru thing of the remotely sensed data Incorporate RS and ground thru thing data into a GIS Identify cause-effect relationship between measured variables and crop condition ‡ Treat the fields based on the information generated .

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Issues to consider in applying RS in agriculture ‡ Information developed from remotely-sensed data must be accurate ‡ Remotely-sensed data should be processed and properly formatted to ensure it integrates with GIS that are use with other precision farming data layers like yield maps .

g.g. not beyond 1 or 2 days but in most cases.Cont. satellite to make an image and giving it to a customer should be short e. ‡ Data must be collected at appropriate times and delivered in a timely manner ‡ Use the right resolution for the right project ‡ The time taken by e. it takes about 2 to 3 weeks .

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software and procedures to facilitate the management. representation and display of georeferenced data to solve complex problems regarding planning and management of resources (NCGIA.Introduction to GIS Definition of GIS a GIS is a system of hardware. 1990) . modeling. analysis. manipulation.

retrieve. . model and map large areas with huge volumes of spatial data . analyse.‡ Geographic information systems have emerged in the last decade ‡ an essential tool for urban and resource planning and management ‡ capacity to store.

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to produce information which will be useful in decision-making a chain of steps leads from observation and collection of data through analysis an information system must have a full range of functions to achieve its purpose. explanation.WHAT IS GIS? a particular form of Information System applied to geographical data a System is a group of connected entities and activities which interact for a common purpose a car is a system in which all the components operate together to provide transportation an Information System is a set of processes. decision-making . measurement. including observation. executed on raw data. forecasting. description.

resources. for managing use of land. e. analysis. the common purpose is decision-making. spatial distribution ‡ can be seen as a system of hardware. management. transportation. modeling and display of spatially-referenced data for solving complex planning and management problems ² although many other computer programs can use spatial data (e. proximity. location. software and procedures designed to support the capture. oceans or any spatially distributed entities ² the connection between the elements of the system is geography. GISs include the additional ability to perform spatial operations . retailing.g.‡ uses geographically referenced data as well as nonspatial data and includes operations which support spatial analysis ² in GIS. manipulation. AutoCAD and statistics packages).g.

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physical dichotomies and other disciplines which use spatial information ‡ GIS integrates spatial and other kinds of information within a single system and offers a consistent framework for analyzing geographical data ‡ GIS allows us to manipulate and display geographical knowledge in new and exciting ways .WHY GIS IMPORTANT? ‡ "GIS technology is to geographical analysis what the microscope. and computers have been to other sciences ‡ the catalyst needed to dissolve the regionalsystematic and human. the telescope.

explanations ² these connections are often unrecognized without GIS. tax files. but can be vital to understanding and managing activities and resources ² e. utility cables and pipes .via their geographical positions .g.‡ GIS makes connections between activities based on geographic proximity ² looking at data geographically can often suggest new insights. we can link toxic waste records with school locations through geographic proximity ‡ GIS allows access to administrative records property ownership.

finding locations given street addresses ‡ vehicle routing and scheduling ‡ location analysis.MAJOR AREAS OF PRACTICAL APPLICATION STREET network-based ‡ address matching . site selection ‡ development of evacuation plans .

forests. wildlife ‡ Environmental impact analysis (EIA) ‡ viewshed analysis ‡ hazardous or toxic facility siting ‡ groundwater modeling and contamination tracking ‡ wildlife habitat analysis.NATURAL resource-based ‡ management of wild and scenic rivers. migration routes planning . floodplains. wetlands. aquifers. agricultural lands. recreation resources.

Land parcel-based ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ zoning. subdivision plan review land acquisition environmental impact statements water quality management maintenance of ownership .

Facilities management ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ locating underground pipes. cables balancing loads in electrical networks planning facility maintenance tracking energy use .

data must be input from source material to the digital database ‡ data storage . is it confidential? .GIS AS A SET OF INTERRELATED SUBSYSTEM Data Processing Subsystem ‡ data acquisition . how should it be updated. images or field surveys ‡ data input .from maps.how often is it used.

may be simple responses to queries.how to display the results? as maps or tables? Or will the information be fed into some other digital system . or complex statistical analyses of large sets of data ‡ information output .Data Analysis Subsystem ‡ retrieval and analysis .

planners. managers ‡ interaction needed between GIS group and users to plan analytical procedures and data structures .Information Use Subsystem ‡ users may be researchers.

System Operator. the Computer Center at many universities) offering spatial database and analysis services ‡ staff .extensive interaction is needed between the GIS group and the rest of the organization if the system is to function effectively .include System Manager. Database Manager.GIS section is often organized as a separate unit within a resource management agency (cf. Digitizer Operators ‡ procedures .Management Subsystem ‡ organizational role . System Analysts.

generalization procedures) in maps become "locked in" to the data derived from them ² such errors often become apparent only during later processing of digital data derived from them .GIS COMPARED TO MAPS Data Stores ‡ spatial data stored in digital format in a GIS allows for rapid access for traditional as well as innovative purposes ‡ nature of maps creates difficulties when used as sources for digital data ² most GIS take no account of differences between datasets derived from maps at different scales ² idiosyncrasies (e.g.

field survey ² maps can be designed to be easy to convert to digital form. accurate retrieval of data from maps is difficult ² only limited amounts of data can be shown due to constraints of the paper medium . e.g. e.Data stores (cont·d) ‡ however. consistent. maps still remain an excellent way of compiling spatial information. by the use of different colors which have distinct signatures when scanned by electronic sensors ‡ as well maps can be produced by GIS as cheap. high density stores of information for the end user ² however.g.

Data indexes ‡ this function can be performed much better by a good GIS due to the ability to provide multiple and efficient cross-referencing and searching .

Data display tools ‡ electronic display offers significant advantages over the paper map ² ability to browse across an area without interruption by map sheet boundaries ² ability to zoom and change scale freely ² potential for the animation of time dependent data ² display in "3 dimensions" (perspective views). special purpose products are possible and inexpensive . with "realtime" rotation of viewing angle ² potential for continuous scales of intensity and the use of color and shading independent of the constraints of the printing process. ability to change colors as required for interpretation ‡ one of a kind.

THE DATA MODEL ‡ ‡ geographical variation in the real world is infinitely complex it would take an infinitely large database to capture the real world precisely ² data must somehow be reduced to a finite and manageable quantity by a process of generalization or abstraction ² geographical variation must be represented in terms of discrete elements or objects current GISs differ according the way in which they organize reality through the data model each model tends to fit certain types of data and applications better than others the data model chosen for a particular project or application is also influenced by: ² the software available ² the training of the key individuals ² historical precedent there are two major choices of data model .raster and vector ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ .

. ² Thematic component ( attribute or variable) ² The variables or attributes can be studied considering the thematic aspect (statistics). geographic data can be broken up in two elements: and. ² A GIS is able to manage both while computer assisted cartography packages only manage the absolute one. Conceptually. Spatial component (observation or entity) ² The observations have two aspects in its localisation: absolute localisation based in a coordinates system and topological relationship referred to other observations.geospatial data Geospatial data has both spatial and thematic components. the locational aspect (spatial analysis) or both (GIS).

g.digital representation of geospatial data digital versus analogue data digital easy to update easy and quick transfer (eg via internet) storage space required is relatively small (digital devices) easy to maintain easy automated analysis slow transfer (eg via post) large storage space required (e. to measure areas and distances) analogue whole map to be remade .g. traditional map libraries) paper maps disintegrate over time difficult and innacurate to analyse (e.

tedious. maximize accuracy . error-prone ± there is a danger that construction of the database may become an end in itself and the project may not move on to analysis of the data collected ± essential to find ways to reduce costs.DATA INPUT ‡ need to have tools to transform spatial data of various types into digital format ‡ data input is a major bottleneck in application of GIS technology ± costs of input often consume 80% or more of project costs ± data input is labor intensive.

much research has gone into devising better input methods .‡ DATA INPUT as possible.however. but: need to automate the input process as much ± automated input often creates bigger editing problems later ± source documents (maps) may often have to be redrafted to meet rigid quality requirements of automated input ‡ because of the costs involved. few reductions in cost have been realized ‡ sharing of digital data is one way around the input bottleneck ± more and more spatial data is becoming available in digital form .

scales ± several stages of data transformation may be needed to bring all data to a common coordinate system ‡ attribute data is often obtained and stored in tables .DATA INPUT involves encoding both the locational and attribute data. the locational data is encoded as coordinates on a particular cartesian coordinate system ± source maps may have different projections.

digitizing ‡ automated devices ± automatically extract spatial data from maps and photography ± e.g.g. scanning ‡ conversion directly from other digital sources .Modes of data input ‡ keyboard entry for non-spatial attributes and occasionally locational data ‡ manual locating devices ± user directly manipulates a device whose location is recognized by the computer ± e.

g. land cover a raster model tells what occurs everywhere . the raster models are the simplest of the available data models therefore. . we begin our examination of GIS data and operations with the raster model and will consider vector models after the fundamental concepts have been introduced.THE RASTER GIS ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ raster model divides the entire study area into a regular grid of cells in specific sequence the conventional sequence is row by row from the top left corner each cell contains a single value is space-filling since every location in the study area corresponds to a cell in the raster one set of cells and associated values is a layer ± there may be many layers in a database.at each place in the area conceptually. e. elevation. soil type. land use.

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not all locations in space need to be referenced in the model based on vectors (as opposed to space-occupancy raster structures) fundamental primitive is a point objects are created by connecting points with straight lines ± some systems allow points to be connected using arcs of circles areas are defined by sets of lines ± the term polygon is synonymous with area in vector databases because of the use of straight-line connections between points very large vector databases have been built for different purposes ± vector tends to dominate in transportation. cities) are formed by connecting line segments a vector model tells where everything occurs . streams.Vector GIS ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ vector model uses discrete line segments or points to identify locations discrete objects (boundaries. utility.gives a location to every object vector objects do not necessarily fill space. marketing applications ± raster and vector both used in resource management applications .

overlaying layers. instead of counting cells ‡ some operations are more accurate ± estimates of area based on polygons more accurate than counts of pixels ± estimates of perimeter of polygon more accurate than counting pixel boundaries on the edge of a zone ‡ some operations are slower ± e. finding buffers ‡ some operations are faster ± e. finding path through road network .g.VECTOR GIS Capabilities ‡ analysis functions with vector GIS are not quite the same as with raster GIS ± more operations deal with objects ± measures such as area have to be calculated from coordinates of objects.g.

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raster precision in graphics traditional cartography data volume topology computation update continuous space integration discontinuous vector x x x x x x x x x .

Data bases The elements in a vector based GIS are then the DBMS (Data Base Management System) for the attributes and the system that manages the topological data. .

(c) (c) Relations or mechanisms that allow to relate entities. Some examples are: located in¶. etc. . contained in¶.e. i. crossed with¶. very good. In a GIS.entity-relation model Three elements are considered in this approach: (a) Entities as the relevant objects for the data base. (b) (b) Attributes or characteristics attached to the entities. good. Each attribute has a limited domain of possible values. an entity is any fact that can be localised spatially. average. the quality of a road can be bad.

‡usually composed of several tables and the relations between them is possible through a common identifier that is unique for each entity. .Database Management System relational data bases ‡data is stored in tables where rows represent the objects or entities and columns the attributes or variables.

It is very easy to implement it. which offers confidence in its capacity to evolve.DBMS cont¶d The advantages of using this kind of data base are The design is based in a methodology with heavy theoretical basis. network. specially in comparison with other models such as hierarchical. . and object oriented It is very flexible. New tables can be appended easily. Contains query languages (like SQL) which makes easy to include this tool in a GIS.

in the definition of an object. the objects belong to classes that can have their own variables and these classes can belong to super-classes. ‡ In addition. . it can be defined as an entity with a localization represented by values and by a group of operations. not only its attributes but also the methods or operations that act on this object. ‡ the advantage in comparison with relational data bases is based on the inclusion.object oriented data bases ‡ Based on objects.

VECTOR ANALYSIS ‡ GIS Overlay Concepts Cartographic Modelling and GIS Introduction to Overlay in GIS Topological Map Overlay Boolean Logic in GIS GIS Overlay Operations Vector based GIS Overlay Classification of Vector Overlay Operations .

‡ The thematic component of geospatial information is analysed via statistical operations on the data where the spatial characteristics of geospatial information are described through spatial analysis techniques (which are based on coordinate data). as Maps). . and as the term suggests. ‡ used to simultaneously analyse both the spatial and thematic characteristics of geospatial information. ‡ It is a technique used for both vector and raster based GIS. cartographic modelling involves models (ie.Cartographic Modelling and GIS ‡ well-defined methodology that is used to address diverse applications of GIS in a clear manner. of geospatial information) represented in cartographic form (ie.

Buffer Generation. specifically in reference to vector based systems. ‡ Six fundamental operations: ‡ Topological Map Overlay. . such operations can use any number of analytical processes. Feature Merging. and the two relational database operations . Feature Extraction. ‡ The main aim of this module is to clearly define and present the concepts and algorithms associated with topological map overlay processes.Introduction to Overlay in GIS ‡ Used to perform a number of fundamental spatial analysis operations.Join and Relate.

this intermediate layer is then combined with a third layer to form another intermediate layer. ‡ Attributes of each input feature are combined from the two input layers to describe each new output feature.two input layers are combined to form an intermediate layer. . and so forth until the desired resultant map layer is achieved. ‡ Features from each input layer are combined to create new output features. ‡ This is done in a stepwise fashion . thus creating new attribute relationships. ‡ Manipulation of multiple data layers is required to achieve the objective of the overlay operation.Topological Map Overlay ‡ Creates new features and attribute relations by overlaying the features from two input map layers.

. Consider two sets (set A and set B). as they can be applied to all data types. NOT to determine whether a particular condition is true or false.Boolean Logic in GIS ‡ Useful for performing operations on the attributes attached to geographic entities in a GIS. Interval. or Nominal. be they Boolean. ‡ Each attribute can be thought of as defining a set. Ordinal. OR. Ratio. ‡ Boolean Logic is especially useful in computing (or modelling) new attributes in topological overlay processing for both vector and raster based systems. ‡ Boolean algebra uses the logical operators AND.

‡ The AND operator is the intersection of two sets .for example those entities that belong to both set A and set B ( A AND B) ‡ The OR operator is the union of two sets for example those entities that belong to either set A or to set B ( A OR B) ‡ The NOT operator is the difference operator identifying those entities that belong to A but not B ( A NOT B) Cont¶d .

Cont¶d ‡ These simple relations can be visualised through the use of Venn diagrams. .

Vector based GIS Overlay ‡ Overlay operations are much more complex than in a raster-based system. or line features of another layer depending on the objectives of the Overlay operation . with their combined attribute values. ‡ This requires relatively complex geometrical operations to derive the intersected polygons. lines and/or polygons. point. because the topological data is stored as points. ‡ Allow the polygon features of one layer to be overlaid on the polygon. and the necessary creation of new nodes (points) and arcs (lines).

whether the layers contain point. or By operation type (for example. or some other boolean operation of the two input layers). line or polygon elements). .Classification of Vector Overlay Operations ‡ Classified via two methods: Through the elements contained in the layers to be overlaid (ie. Intersection. the user wants to generate a layer comprising of the Union.

Cont¶d ‡ The following table identifies which overlay options exist for each possible combination of element types contained in the two input layers. Input layer element types Points Points Coincide Point in Line Point in Polygon Lines Point int Line Line Intersection Line in Polygon Polygons Point in Polygon Line in Polygon Polygon Overlay Points Lines Polygons .

where the particular overlay operation a user wishes to perform defines which element types may be contained in the two input layers. .Cont¶d ‡ Complex databases such as GIS classify vector overlay operations via method two.

‡ Three following processing algorithms are fundamental: ‡ Point-in-Polygon Line-in-Polygon Polygon-on-Polygon VECTOR OVERLAY PROCESSING ALGORITHMS .

Point-in-Polygon Processing. The result of a Point-in-Polygon overlay is a set of points with additional attributes . ‡ Point features of one input layer can be overlaid on polygon features of another input layer ‡ Identify the polygon within which each point falls.

Line-in-Polygon Processing. ‡ The result of a Line-in-Polygon overlay is a new layer containing lines with additional attributes ‡ Sometimes a line segment falls directly on a polygon boundary instead of within the polygon. Line-in-Polygon analyses therefore identifies which polygon (if any) contains each line or line segment. ‡ A line can be made up of many segments.lying to the left and right sides of the line. . the additional line attributes will contain the attributes of both polygons . ‡ In this special case. ‡ Polygon features of one input layer can be overlaid on lines (arcs) of another input layer.

Polygon-on-Polygon Processing. ‡ This process merges overlapping polygons from two input layers to create new polygons in an output layer. ‡ The result of a Polygon-on-Polygon overlay is an output layer containing new polygons with merged attributes .

Raster Spatial Analysis ± Specific Theory Spatial resampling ‡ Spatial resampling involves the use of algorithms for changing grid cell resolutions and/or changing cell boundaries. . ‡ The resample function in a GIS assigns values to new cells based on the input grid cell values using resampling techniques.

Cont¶d .

cont.¶d These three techniques are: ‡ Nearest neighbour ‡ Bilinear interpolation ‡ Cubic .

‡ This method is appropriate for discrete data. as it will not change the values of the cells.The nearest neighbour ‡ method matches the output cell centre to the nearest input cell centre and transfers the input cell value. . It is used primarily for categorical data such as a land use classification. and in some situations for continuous data. The maximum spatial error will be one half of the cell size.

Cont¶d .

This option will cause some smoothing of the data. the output values are truncated to integer. ‡ . If the input grid is integer.Bilinear Interpolation ‡ determines the output cell value with a weighted distance average of the four nearest input cell centres. but not for discrete data because values are averaged. and hence the cell values may be altered. ‡ This method is appropriate for continuous data.

Cont¶d

Cubic
‡ is similar to bilinear interpolation, except that the nearest 16 cells are used. ‡ Like bilinear, cubic is appropriate for continuous data, but not for discrete data. This technique will generate a slightly sharper grid than through bilinear interpolation. The grid will be geometrically less distorted than the grid achieved by running the nearest neighbour resampling algorithm.

Mosaic
‡ Commonly used in raster GIS and remote sensing when two or more neighbouring raster layers must be joined into a larger unit. ‡ For example, multiple mapsheets that have been converted to digital elevation models can be combined into a single layer using mosaicing. ‡ uses resampling algorithms as new grid cell values are calculated where the maps join or overlap at the edges. ‡ Hence mosaicing can be performed using nearest neighbour, bilinear or cubic techniques depending on the scale of measurement of the input data.

Reclassification
‡ generalisation technique used to re-assign values in an input them to create a new input theme. ‡ Reclassification changes the value of the input cells using a remap table on a cell-by-cell basis within the area under analysis. ‡ commonly used to convert interval and ratio scale data into an ordinal rankings for suitability modelling using map algebra. ‡ Simple classifications are often made so that continuously varying spatial properties such as population density can be displayed in easy-to-understand maps.

. however it uses statistical measures to subdivide the region from interval/ratio scales to ordinal rankings.Slicing ‡ Slicing is a global function similar to reclassification. ‡ There are two different approaches to slicing: equal interval and equal area.

e. i. so that each zone represents a similar amount of area. .Equal area ‡ means that the input values will be divided into n zones with each zone having a similar number of cells.

equal interval ‡ slice determines the range of the input values and then divides the range into n zones. .

. neighbourhood operations define their area of interest as a function of individual grid cells. ‡ For example. ‡ commonly use zonal operations as a potential problem exists when we wish to analyse raster data that is not actually the shape of an individual grid cell. ‡ With zonal operations we can analyse spatial definitions of regions by clustering similar or like cell values into homogenous regions.Zonal Operations ‡ sometimes called region operations or region functions.

A DEM is a quantitative model of a topographic surface in digital form. or cost surfaces. temperature gradients. most often it is used to refer specifically to a raster or regular grid of spot heights. ‡ . or the distance between adjacent grid points. The data sets should be visualized as continuous surfaces. however. The resolution. It refer to any digital representation of a topographic surface. The best resolution commonly available is 30 m.Digital elevation model (DEM) ‡ ‡ The earths surface is a continuous phenomena. Digital elevation models are used as a way of representing surfaces. is a critical parameter of any DEM. The operators we will discuss here are designed to work on any continuous surface e.g. map elevations.

Digital data .

Elevation map .

Gridded DEM .

TIN model .

slope Slope is normally expressed in planning as a percent slope which is the tangent (slope) multiplied by 100 % Slope = Height / Base * 100 Deg Slope = ArcTan (Height / Base) .

Slope map .

aspect Aspect is calculated using the northsouth and east-west gradients as expressed using the following equation: Aspect = ArcTangent (dEW/dNS) .

Landsat TM Near IR Band ‡ Look-Look. NO Touch .What is REMOTE SENSING ? ‡ REMOTE SENSING includes all methods and techniques used to gain qualitative and quantitative information about distant objects without coming into direct contact with these objects.

What is REMOTE SENSING ? Remote Sensing (RS) methods try to answer four basic questions: ‡ HOW MUCH of WHAT is WHERE? ‡ What is the SHAPE and EXTENT of . ? Landsat TM Near IR Band (Area. . Boundaries.) ‡ Has it CHANGED? . Lineaments.....

. Water. Land. Eg.. Includes determination of generic object type. => DATA INTERPRETATION Landsat TM Near IR Band . Vegetation. . character and property as well as it·s abstract meaning. Species. Subtype. Temperature. Concentration. Characteristic and Properties of Object. State of Development.What is REMOTE SENSING ? HOW MUCH of WHAT is WHERE? ‡ WHAT: Type. Use of .

NOTE: WHERE also refers to a moment in time Landsat TM Near IR Band . ‡ WHERE: Relate locations and area covered to either a standard map or to the actual location on the ¶ground· where the object occurs.What is REMOTE SENSING ? ‡ HOW MUCH of WHAT is WHERE? ‡ HOW MUCH: determine by simple COUNTING. measuring AREA covered or percentage of total area coverage.

. . Lineaments. Fault Lines) Landsat TM Near IR Band . MAP PRODUCTION methods are to be applied to the analysis of RS information. Boundaries.What is REMOTE SENSING ? ‡ What is the SHAPE and EXTENT of .) ‡ This extends the ¶WHERE· to be a completely GEOMETRIC problem. These include: Photogrammetric Methods: Identification and Delineation of Boundaries and Lineaments (Roads.... Rivers. ? (Area.

Change may be detected through comparison of observed states at different moments in time. => CHANGE DETECTION .What is REMOTE SENSING ? ‡ Has it CHANGED? Landsat TM Near IR Band CHANGE may occur with progress of TIME.

We will concentrate on that part of RS dealing with ‡ EARTH LAND RESOURCES Vision Sound and Radio Wave Detection . No Touch) is a much wider field than we will Medical Imaging discuss in this lecture.What is REMOTE SENSING ? ‡ Remote Sensing (LookLook.

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What is REMOTE SENSING ? Source of Force Field Sensor System eg. Camera DATA ACQUISITION Reflection Resulting RS Data Set eg. Image Object (generic) .

What is REMOTE SENSING ? What makes it tick ??? (1) RS requires a CARRIER of information. which can bridge distances. (3) RS requires RECORDING. (2) RS requires a SENSOR which can detect changes in the carried Signal. Landsat TM Near IR Band . ANALYSIS. INTERPRETATION and REPRESENTATION of the sensed information in a purposeful way.

* Magnetic Force Fields and * Electro-magnetic Force Fields. which can bridge distances. The latter are of our main interest. These Carriers of Information are FIELDS of FORCES: * Pressure Wave Fields of Sound. * Gravity Force Fields.What is REMOTE SENSING ? (1) RS requires a CARRIER of information. since they include visible and invisible LIGHT. Landsat TM Near IR Band .

technology has provided us with a multitude of sensors operating in the detection of force fields: microphones. geophones. Landsat TM Near IR Band . photographic film. gravimeters and magnetometers.What is REMOTE SENSING ? ‡ (2) RS requires a SENSOR which can detect changes in the carried Signal. radio wave receivers. Apart from our own eyes and ears. video cameras and photo detectors.

What is REMOTE SENSING ? (3) RS requires RECORDING. This is a technique based topic. ANALYSIS. It is essential for the success or failure of RS in respect of it·s anticipated purpose. INTERPRETATION and REPRESENTATION of the sensed information in a purposeful way. This topic will be dealt with in it·s main aspects (but not completely) in the following lessons. Landsat TM Near IR Band .

Image Object(s) .What is REMOTE SENSING ? DATA PROCESSING Interpretation (secondary) Measurements Data Processing & Mapping (geometric) Presentation of Processing Results Explaining deduced OBJECT INFORMATION RS Data Set eg.

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WHY REMOTE SENSING ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ REPETITIVE COVER LARGE AREA WIDE RANGE OF SPECTRAL CHANNELS DIFFERENT SPATIAL RESOLUTION TIMELY INFORMATION DIGITAL DATA COST EFFECTIVE .

Application of Remote sensing ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Agriculture forestry range resources land use and mapping geology water resources oceanography and marine resources environment .

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