Weiten, Ch.

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The Evolution of Psychology From Speculation to Science: How Psychology Developed Psychology Today: Vigorous & Diversified Putting it in Perspective: 7 Themes

Have you ever wondered«

‡ Why do I like the people, food, or music that I like? ‡ Or, why do I not like certain things or have an irrational fear of certain things (like _____ (you fill in the blank))? ‡ Why do I get down or up when my favorite song comes on the radio? ‡ Why did I cheat on my test«my boyfriend«my girlfriend«? ‡ Why do I get so tired or maybe bored in a class?(of
course not in psychology though)

Or«Have you ever wondered??

‡ Are first-born children more driven to achieve? ‡ Does handwriting or the way I position myself in bed offer any clues to my personality? ‡ Do my dreams really mean anything? ‡ Does hypnosis really work? ‡ Why my family or my relationships look so dysfunctional at times and what to do about it?

What is Psychology?
‡ Psyche ± meaning the soul ‡ Logos ± referring to the study of a subject ³The study of the mind.´ Has a foundation in philosophy & physiology

³The American Crowbar Case´

The story of Phineas Gage: NPR ³All Things Considered´

Phineas Gage ± A song by Hank Green

Lyrics on the slides that follow

‡ Oh, Phineas Gage was 25 years old in 1848. And he liked his job, working at the railroad, but he had another fate. He was blasting rock when something distracted him. And he forgot to put the tamping sand in. He shoved the tamping rod into that little hole onto the blasting powder. And suddenly his entire left frontal lobe had been turned into clam chowder. Oh this is the story of Phineas Gage, who was stabbed in the brain. And once your frontal lobe has been destroyed, you can never go home again.

‡ A little while later Phineas Gage was sitting on his bed. He told the doctor the tamping rod had shot straight through his head. But the doctor could not believe what Phineas said. For if that were the case he surely would be dead. But then Phineas had a coughing fit. And a teacup full of brains fell out of his head. And that was more than the doctor could explain. Oh this is the story of Phineas Gage, who was stabbed in the brain. And once your frontal lobe has been destroyed, you can never go home again.

‡ Well the doctor told the family to prepare for Gage's death. 'Cause the one you take before your head gets stabbed is usually your last breath. And Phineas spent the next few months in bed. In and out of consciousness, with a swelling in his head. But mere months after the accident, he walked right down his stairs, as if having lost a quarter of his brain left him no worse for wear. Oh this is the story of Phineas Gage, who was stabbed in the brain. And once your frontal lobe has been destroyed, you can never go home again.

But unfortunately for Phineas, our story won't end there. The reason we still know his name is the strangest part of this affair. After his brain was scrambled his friends and family said, "Oh, this is no longer Phineas. There's a new man here instead." And thus we know that operating on the brain needn't not cause death. And that what makes a person who he is, is not the heart but the head. Oh this is the story of Phineas Gage, who was stabbed in the brain. And once your frontal lobe has been destroyed, you can never go home again. Oh Phineas Gage was 37 years old when he finally made his way. Back to his home and family, for he could tell the day of his death was fin'ly creeping up on him. 'Cause he forgot to put the tamping sand in. And as common in these cases, of severe head trauma, seizures took their toll and put an end to this drama.

What is Psychology?
Two competing views

Two figures in the history of psychology had different ideas on how to define it«
William Wundt what goes on inside our minds John Watsonnot what is in our heads, but what behavior do you display Observable behavior you cannot observe thoughts but you can observe how someone responds to situations

Inner sensations or mental processes - what feelings or thoughts does someone have?

Psychology¶s Big Issues
‡ Stability vs. Change ‡ Rationality vs. Irrationality ‡ Nature vs. Nurture

Stability v. Change
‡ Do we change over time in distinct and universal stages or do we basically remain the same drooling, slobbering, simple beings of our beginnings?
± Do these things change? Personality traits, sense of humor, tastes, etc« ± Can a shy child become the teenage class clown? ± Do we become adults or are we always just big kids? ± Do our personalities change in different situations?

Rationality vs. Irrationality
‡ Are we wise or not? ‡ Why do we do things that are bad for us when we know they are bad? ± We screw up, we make mistakes, and we lose sight of good judgment ± But, we often don¶t change behavior, we don¶t seem rational

Nature vs. Nurture
‡ Am I the way I am because I was born that way or because of my surroundings? ‡ Biology (genes) vs. Experience

Can I ever be like these people, or does nature give me limitations?

Example from Megamind
Nature vs. Nurture?

Philosophy was foundation for Psychology

Dualism ‡ Socrates ‡ Mind and body are separate

Monism ‡ Aristotle ‡ Mind and body are one

Descartes: natural instincts in the physical world However he believed that humans were different and they have a mind to guide the body. Hobbes: no mind/soul and that only energy and matter exists and that everything is shaped by brain machinery

Wave One: Introspection
Kickin it old school

Started with William Wundt¶s first psychological laboratory and his concept of introspection (structuralism). Then William James wrote The Principles of Psychology and discussed functionalism. In reality these ideas do not have much impact on how psychologists think today.

Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)
‡ German professor, mounted campaign to make psychology an independent discipline (rather than a portion of philosophy/physiology) ‡ 1879 ± psychology¶s date of birth, Wundt succeeded in establishing the first formal laboratory for research in psychology at U. of Leipzig. ‡ Declared it should be a µscience.¶ Used empirical methods ‡ Focus for Wundt ± consciousness (awareness of immediate experience) ‡ Wundt had a tremendous following in North America

Structuralism vs. Functionalism
Structuralism ± the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements & investigate how these elements related. (Edward Titchener)
± Dependent on introspection ± careful, systematic selfobservation of one¶s own conscious experience. ± Favored lab experiments

Functionalism ± psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure. (William James)
± Influenced by Charles Darwin¶s natural selection ± heritable characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations and thus come to be ³selected´ over time. ± Favored how people adapt to real world situations

Generally thought that functionalism won out and then spawned the more modern ± Applied Psychology & Behaviorism

Behaviorism
John B. Watson (1878-1958) A theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior. Proposed abandoning the study of consciousness altogether Instead focus on observed behaviors (any overt/observable response or activity by an organism. Watson also shined a light on nature versus nurture Behaviorists look for stimulus ± any detectable input from the environment. Behavior approach is often referred to as (S-R) Stimulus-Response

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
‡ ‡ Austrian physician & one of the most controversial intellectual figures of modern times. Developed psychoanalysis as an approach to delve into the mind of those with irrational fears, obsessions, and anxieties.

‡ Freud: unconscious contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior.
Noted that seemingly meaningless slips of the tongue would provide insight into someone¶s true feelings Psychoanalytic theory attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior. Very controversial for his observations on the importance of sexuality towards human behavior Freud focused on personality, motivation, and abnormal behavior and those concepts were later incorporated into mainstream psychology.

B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
‡ Championed a return to the Watson strict focus on observable behaviors ‡ Organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes, and they tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes. ‡ Working with lab rats & pigeons, he conducted experiments to show how he could control behaviors of the animals. ‡ Trained pigeons to play Ping-Pong! ‡ Wrote Beyond Freedom and Dignity (1971) ± asserted that all behavior is fully governed by external stimuli. ‡ People are controlled by their environment, not by themselves. Free Will is an Illusion ‡ Skinner is often thought to be the most or one of the most influential contributors to psychology

Humanism
‡ 1950s opposition to behaviorism and psychoanalytic theory ‡ Humanism ± theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth. ‡ More optimistic view of human nature. ‡ Carl Rogers (1902-1987) & Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) ± prominent humanists in psychology

Growth of Psychology
‡ World War I created a huge demand for mental testing of military recruits. ‡ Became a profession as well as a science after World War II ‡ 1950s and 60s saw advances in study of cognition led to renewal of interest in mental processes. ‡ 1980s saw a growth in cultural factors influencing behavior. Trend sparked by growing global interdependence and cultural diversity. ‡ 1990s witnessed emergence of new theoretical perspective called evolutionary psychology. Patterns of behavior are the product of evolutionary forces & natural selection favors behaviors that enhance reproductive success.

Psychology Today: Vigorous & Diversified ‡ Psychology ± the science that studies behavior and the physiological and cognitive processes that underlie it, and it is the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems. ‡ Contemporary psychology is multifaceted and spread throughout mainstream society that has seen rapid growth

Applied Psychology¶s 4 specialties:
‡ Clinical psychology (non-medical approach) ‡ Counseling psychology ‡ Educational & school psychology ‡ Industrial & organizational psychology Psychiatrists are physicians who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders

Weiten¶s 7 Themes
Each theme appears throughout the text in a number of variations Learning both behavior and scientific discipline that investigates it. 7 Themes are in 2 sets
± Statements high-lighting crucial aspects of psychology as a way of thinking and field of study. ± Broad generalizations about psychology¶s subject matter: behavior and the cognitive & physiological processes that underlie it.

Theme 1: Psychology is Empirical
‡ Psychologists base their conclusions on observation through research rather than reasoning or common sense. ‡ Empiricism ± knowledge should be acquired through observation ‡ Must be tested ‡ Healthy dose of skepticism

Theme 2: Psychology is Theoretically Diverse
‡ There are many competing schools of thought in the field ‡ Diversity has fueled progress and is also a strength rather than a weakness
± Theory is a system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations.

Theme 3: Psychology Evolves in a Socio-historical Context
‡ Psychology evolves in a socio-historical context, as trends, issues, and values in society excerpt influence ‡ Social trends, war, technology, and global interdependence are all examples

Themes Related to Psychology¶s Subject Matter
‡ Theme 4: Behavior is Determined by Multiple Causes ‡ Theme 5: Behavior is Shaped by Cultural Heritage ‡ Theme 6: Heredity & Environment Jointly Influence Behavior ‡ Theme 7: People¶s Experience of the World is Highly Subjective