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# Chapter 1 : MATTER

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## 1.1 Atoms and Molecules

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Learning Outcome
At the end of this topic, students should be able : (a) Identify and describe proton, electron and neutron as subatomic particle. (b) Define proton number, Z, nucleon number, A and isotope. Write isotope notation.

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(c) Define relative atomic mass, Ar and relative molecular mass, Mr based on the C-12 scale. (d) Sketch and explain the following main components of a simple mass spectrometer.

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(e) Analyse mass spectrum of an element. Calculate the average atomic mass of an element given the relative abundance of isotopes or a mass spectrum. (f) Name cation, anions and salt according to the IUPAC nomenclature.

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Introduction

Matter Anything that occupies space and has mass. e.g air, water, animals, trees, atoms, ..

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SOLID
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LIQUID
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GAS
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## 1.1 Atoms and Molecules

1.1.1 Atoms An atom is the smallest unit of a chemical element/compound. In an atom, there are three subatomic particles: Proton (p) Neutron (n) Electron (e)

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## Electrons move around the region of the atom.

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Subatomic Particles
Particle Mass (gram) 9.1 x 10-28 Charge (Coulomb) -1.6 x 10-19 Charge (units) -1

Electron (e)

Proton (p)

1.67 x 10-24

+1.6 x 10-19

+1

Neutron (n)

1.67 x 10-24

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Elements
A

An

## element is composed of atoms of only one kind.

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Isotope
Isotopes

are two or more atoms of the same element that have the same number of protons in their nucleus but different number of neutrons. Examples:
1 1

200 80

Hg

2 1

H(D)
238 92

200 80 3

H(T)

H g

235 92

U
12

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Isotope Notation

X= Z=

## element symbol Proton Number of X = p A = Nucleon Number of X = Z+n

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## Total charge on the ion

The number of neutrons =AZ = 202 80 = 122 Number of atoms that formed the ion

## proton number of mercury, Z = 80

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Exercise 1
Give

the number of protons, neutrons,electrons and charge in each of the following species: Symbol Number of : Proton Neutron Electr0n
200 80 63 29 17 8 59 27

Charge

Hg

Cu

O2 Co 3+
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Exercise 2
Write

## the appropriate notation for each of the following nuclide :

Number of : Proton A B C D 2 1 1 7 Neutron 2 2 1 7 Electron 2 0 1 10 Notation for nuclide

Species

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1.1.5 Ion
Two

types of ions :

a) cation

b) anion

Cation a positive charge ion formed when a neutral atom loses an electron(s).

Anion a negative charge ion formed when a neutral atom gains an electron(s).

Na
11 protons 11 electrons

Na+
11 protons 10 electrons

Cl
17 protons 17 electrons
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Molecule
A

## molecule consists of a small number of atoms joined together by bonds.

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A diatomic molecule Contains only two atoms Example : H2, N2, O2, Br2, HCl, CO A polyatomic molecule Contains more than two atoms Example : O3, H2O, NH3, CH4

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Relative Mass
i.

Relative Atomic Mass, Ar A mass of one atom of an element compared to 1/12 mass of one atom of 12 C with the mass 12.000

## Mass oneatomofelement of Relative atomic mass, = Ar 1 X Mass oneatomof 12C of 12

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Example 1

Determine the relative atomic mass of an element Y if the ratio of the atomic mass of Y to carbon-12 atom is 0.45 ANSWER: Ar (Y) = Mass of one atom of Y____ 1/12 x Mass of one atom of C-12

= 0.45 x 12 = 5.4

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ii)

Relative Molecular Mass, Mr A mass of one molecule of a compound compared to 1/12 mass of one atom of 12 C with the mass 12.000

## Mass of one molecule of a compound 1 X Mass of one atom of 12

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The relative molecular mass of a compound is the summation of the relative atomic masses of all atoms in a molecular formula.
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Example 2

## Calculate the relative molecular mass of C5H5N, Ar C = Ar H = Ar N = 12.01 1.01 14.01

ANSWER: Mr = = = =

## 5(Ar of C) + 5(Ar of H) + Ar of N 5(12.01) + 5(1.01) + 14.01 60.05 + 5.05 + 14.01 79.11

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Mass Spectrometer

A mass spectrometer is used to determine: i. Relative atomic mass of an element ii. Relative molecular mass of a compound relative

## iv. Recognize the structure of the compound in an unknown sample

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A Mass Spectrometer
Ionisation Chamber Vaporisation Chamber Accelaration Chamber

Magnetic Chamber

## Ion Beam Heated Filament Vacuum Pump Ion Detector

AMPLIFIER
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Recorder

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Vaporisation Chamber

## sample of the element is vaporised into gaseous atom

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Ionisation Chamber
A gaseous sample is bombarded by a stream of highenergy electrons that are emitted from a hot filament.
-

Collisions between the electrons and the gaseous sample produce positive ions

M s+
M
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M
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+ s
+

e +

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Vacuum Pump
A

pump maintains a vacuum inside the mass spectrometer to avoid any small particle that would block the movement.

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Acceleration Chamber
- the

positive ions are accelerated by an electric field towards the two oppositely charge plates

- the electric field is produced by a high voltage between the two plates - the emerging ions are of high and constant velocity.
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Magnetic Field
-

The positive ions are separated and deflected into a circular path by a magnet according to its mass / charge (m/e) ratio. Positive ions with small m/e ratio are deflected most Ions with large m/e ratio are deflected least.

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## Beam of 35 Cl+ and 37 Cl+

3 7 3 5

Cl+

Cl+

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Ion Detector

The numbers of ions and types of isotopes are recorded as a mass spectrum. Example : A mass spectrum of Mg
Relative abundance

63 8.1 24 9.1
m/e (amu)
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25 26
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## Mass Spectrum of Magnesium

Relative abundance

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The mass spectrum of Mg shows that Mg consists of three isotopes: 24Mg, 25Mg and 26 Mg. The height of each line is propartional to the abundance of each isotope. Mg is the most abundant of the three isotopes
24

8.1 24

9.1
m/e (amu)

25 26

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## How to calculate the relative atomic mass from mass spectrum?

Q iMi Ar = Q i
Q= the relative abundance / percentage abundance of an isotope of the element the relative isotopic mass of the element
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M=
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Example 1
Relative abundance
1.

18 7 85 87 m/e
(amu)

Fig 1.1 shows the mass spectrum of the element rubidium, Rb; a. What isotopes are present in Rb?
8 5

Rb and 87 Rb

b. What is the percentage abundance of each isotope? % abundance 85 Rb = 18 x 100 25 = 72 % % abundance 87 Rb = 7 x 100 25 = 28 % matter

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Example 1 (cont)
c. Calculate the relative atomic mass of Rb.

QiMi Average mass of Rb = Qi (18x85) + (7 x87) = 25 = 85.56 amu 85.56 amu A r of Rb = 1 x12.00 amu 12 = 85.56
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Example 2
Therelative atomicmassof 6Li and 7Li are6.01and 7.02 . 3 3 Whatis thepercentage abundance each isotope the of if relative atomic massof Li is6.94?

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Assume that, % abundance of 6Li % abundance of 7Li Ar Li 6.94 6.94 694 702 +8 X = = = = = =

= =

X% (100 - x) %

QiMi Qi X (6.01) + (100 X) 7.02 X + 100 X 6.01 X + 702 7.02 X 100 -1.01 X +1.01 X 7.92 % = =
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## So, % abundance of 6Li And % abundance of 7Li

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7.92 % 92.08 %
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Exercise 1
The ratioof relative abundanceof naturally occuringof chlorine isotopes as follow is : 35Cl = 3.127 37Cl Basedon thecarbon 12 scale, therelative atomicmassof 35 = 34.9689 Cl and 37 = 36.9659. Cl Calculate theAr of chlorine. (Ans: 35.45)

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Exercise 2
191 Naturally occuringiridium, is composedof 2 isotopes Ir and Ir 193 in the ratioof 5 : 8 . The relative Ir massof 191 and 193 are Ir Ir 191.021 and 193.025 respective Calculate therelative ly. atomicmass of iridium. (Ans:192.254)

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A)

## Cations i) For the metals of group 1 and 2 :

Name the metals followed by the word ions e.g :
ii) For

## Al3+ : aluminium ion

the metal with more oxidation states, group 13 and 14, Roman numerals are used to indicate the oxidation state. e.g : Cu2+ : copper(II) ion, Fe3+ : iron(III) ion
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B. Anions

Monoatomic ions have names that ended with ide e.g : F-: fluoride ion, O2- : oxide ion

## Other polyatomic [Oxoanions] anions have their own names ate

e.g : CO3 : carbonate ion, SO42- : sulphate ion, Cr2O72- : dichromate ion

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When a metal combines with a nonmetal element, the metal is named before the nonmetal Example : Fe2(SO4)3 - Iron(III) sulphate FeCl3 - Iron(III) chloride CuCl2 - copper(II) chloride

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