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Comparative Anatomy

Note Set 8 Chapter 10

Two muscle groups:  Somatic muscles
Operate head, trunk, limbs  Locomotion and orientation  

Visceral muscles
Operate visceral skeleton  Digestion and respiratory movements 

Cranial Nerves to Muscles

Figure 10.1: Facial nerves to muscles

Figure 10.2: Cranial nerves

Two Muscle Types 

Somatic muscles
Skeletal muscle  Striated and voluntary  

Visceral muscles
Smooth muscle  Non-striated and involuntary Non Exception- branchiomerics (unsegmented) Exception

Skeletal Muscles 


Trunk and tail Insert on girdles, fins, or limbs Attached to visceral skeleton 




Epaxial and hypaxial muscles  Body wall muscles  

Epaxials above transverse process  Hypaxials along body wall proper  

Epaxials subdivided  Hypaxials more complex 

Figure 10.3: Trunk muscles of vertebrates.

Hypaxial and Epaxial Muscles

Figure 10.5: Specific epaxial muscles Figure 10.4: Epaxial and hypaxial mucles

Abdominal Muscle Groups in Amniotes 


Transversospinalis, longissimus, iliocostalis 

Dorsomedials, laterals, ventrals  Laterals- external oblique, Lateralsinternal oblique, and transverse abdominus  Ventral- rectus Ventralabdominus 

Figure 10.6: Epaxial and hypaxial muscles

Head Region

Figures 10.7: Myotomes in the head, neck, and thoracic regions of the embryo.

Figure 10.8- Axial muscle origin and innervation in vertebrate embryo.

Head Region 

In branchial region, somites are broken down Ventral slips of postbranchial somites become hypobranchial musculature Hypobranchial muscles give rise to: 

Sternohyoid Sternothyroid Omohyoid Tongue muslces 

Geniohyoid Hyoglossus Styloglossus Genioglossus Lingualis propria

Appendicular Muscles 

Origin on axial skeleton or fascia of trunk  Insert on girdles and limbs  

Origin on girdles or proximal skeletal elements of appendages  Insert on more distal skeletal elements 

Intrinsic Muscles

Figure 10.9: Intrinsic muscles of pectoral girdle and forelimbs of mammals and their homologues in reptiles.


Arises from lateral plate mesoderm Mandibular (1st) arch Hyoid arch Arches IV to VI


Mandibular (1st) arch
IntermandibularisIntermandibularis- digastic  Adductor mandibulae- masseter, mandibulaetemporalis  

Hyoid arch
Sphincter colli  Platysma and mimetics  integumentary muscles  

Arches IV to VI 

Trapezius, sternomastoid, cleidomastoid

Figure 10.10: Branchiomeric muscles of gnathostomes.

Branchiomeric Muscles

Figure 10.11: Branchiomeric muscles and their innervations.

Extrinsic Eye Muscles 

Six eyeball muscles 

2 obliques 

and inferior on anterior portion 

4 rectus
in posterior portion of orbit  Innervated by oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens 

Figure 10.12: Innervation of eye muscle in embryo.

Extrinsic Eye Muscles

Figure 10.13: Dorsal view of extrinsic muscles of the left eyeball.

Figure 10.14: Lateral view of extrinsic muscles of eyeball in humans.


Mammalian muscle structure Covers lungs and heart in abdominal cavity

Figure 10.15: Human diaphragm.

Dermal or Integumentary Muscles  

Fish & tailed amphibiansamphibiansskin is firmly attached to musculature Sphincter colli- first muscle collito move skin 

Subdivides down neckneckplatysma 

Extrinsic and intrinsic muscle groups

Figure 10.16: Evolution of mammalian facial muscles. Shows sphincter colli (SC) spreading into platysma (P).

Extrinsic Integumentary Muscles  


Costocutaneous muscles- allows rectilinear motion muscles(reptiles--snakes) (reptiles--snakes) Panniculus carnosus-sheet surrounds body carnosusCutaneous maximus- to shake skin (higher mammals) maximusPatagial muscles- bat wings musclesAuricularisAuricularis- moves human ear Caninus muscle- arises with aggression muscle-

Intrinsic Integumentary Muscles 

Arrectores plumarum (birds) & arrectores pilorum (mammals)(mammals)- errects hair and feathers

Specialized Muscles 

Electric organs
In fish  Modified hypaxial muscles 

Figure 10.17: Electric eel.

Literature Cited
Figure 10.1.1 Figure 10.2- .2Figure 10.3, 10.8, 10.9, 10.11, 10.12, 10.13, 10.16- Kent, George C. and Robert K. Carr. .3, .8, .9, .11, .12, 10.16Comparative Anatomy of the Vertebrates. 9th ed. McGraw-Hill, 2001. McGrawFigure 10.4 & 10.5- .4 .5- 10.6, 10.10- .6, .10Figure 10.7- .7Figure 10.14- .14Figure 10.15- .15Figure 10.17- .17-