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The Muscular System

Myofibre (myotube in development)

Myocyte (myoblast in development)

Fig. 10.1

Actin, myosin in cytoplasm Myofibres

3 types of muscle: ‡ Skeletal muscle ‡ Cardiac muscle ‡ Smooth muscle

Skeletal (voluntary) muscle
From the outside in:
‡ whole muscle wrapped in epimysium ‡ fascicles bound together by connective tissue = perimysium ‡ muscle fibres bound together by endomysium inside a fascicle

Fig. 10.2

Characteristics of skeletal muscle fibres:

‡ large ± 0.1 to 0.5mm diameter, many cm in length ‡ multinucleate ± 100s of nuclei (syncytium) ‡ peripherally located nuclei ‡ striated

Sarcomeric organisation of muscle fibre IN CYTOPLASM OF 1 CELL

Structure of the sarcomere in a MYOFIBRIL
Z line Z line M line
Thin actin filament attached to Z line

A band

I band

H band Thick myosin filament

Many MYOFIBRILS in the cytoplasm of a MYOFIBRE

How does the sarcomere contract?

ATP hydrolysis causes flexing of cross-bridges

What is the stimulus to contract?

Motor end plate

1 motor neurone may innervate few or 1000s of muscle fibres

Table 10-3 Groups of Somatic Muscles Muscle Groups Innervation (based on shark) Axial muscles Extrinsic ocular muscles Oculomotor (III), trochlear (IV), and abducens (VI) nerves Branchiomeric muscles Mandibular muscles Hyoid muscles Branchial muscles Epibranchial muscles Hypobranchial muscles Trunk and tail muscles Epaxial muscles Hypaxial muscles Appendicular muscles Dorsal group Ventral group Trigeminal (V) nerve Facial (VII) nerve Glossopharyngeal (IX) and vagus (X) nerves Dorsal rami of occipital and anterior spinal nerves Ventral rami of spino-occipital nerves, form hypobranchial nerve Dorsal rami of spinal nerves Ventral rami of spinal nerves Ventral rami of spinal nerves Ventral rami of spinal nerves

Fig. 10.23

Action potential from the end plate gets to every sarcomere in Ttubule system, Ca release, acts on actin to allow cross-bridges

Triad Ca ions




ATP from mitochondria

Muscle fibre types

1. Twitch (phasic) muscles
1 muscle fibre ± 1 motor end plate. All or none, most muscles

2. Tonic muscles
1 muscle fibre ± multiple end plates. More action potentials = more contraction so frequency of nerve stimulation regulated force of contraction, small muscles, don¶t fatigue, eye

Twitch muscle fibre types ± SLOW and FAST
SLOW TWITCH or SLOW OXIDATIVE = rich vascular, myoglobin, oxidative, mitochondria, red muscle e.g. postural muscles, resistant to fatigue e.g. dark meat of chicken leg, dark band on lateral edge of fish meat

Fig. 10.4

Fig. 10.5

FAST TWITCH or FAST GLYCOLYTIC Rapid movements of brief duration, energy from anaerobic metabolism of glygolysis, glycogen content high, mitochondrial content lower, little myoglobin, appear white, called white muscle, fatigue quickly, O2 debt e.g. biceps, triceps, white meat of chicken, most fish muscle.

Many muscles have both fibre types

Additional factors important in output of muscles Elasticity
Connective tissue components Can only contract about third of length. Strap & fusiform longer fibres so longer contractions. Pennate more force due to con. tiss. elasticity and more myofilaments in a fibre.


Fig. 10.7

Focus 10.1

Focus 10.2

Organisation of muscles
Epimysium ± tendon ± periosteum

Muscle belly usually proximal

ORIGIN = proximal (doesn¶t move) INSERTION = distal (usually moves)

Usually arranged in antagonistic groups of flexors and extensors

Movement of muscle groups:
Flexion / extension e,g, elbow, hand Protraction / retraction e.g. shoulder, thigh Adduction / abduction e.g. leg Rotation e.g, foot Pronation / supination e.g. hand

Satellite cells for regeneration and repair

MUSCLE ORIGINS AND NAMING Muscles from mesoderm of the embryo

1. Somites --muscle of limbs

somatic muscles, also

Fig. 10.8

Fig. 10.8

2. Lateral plate mesoderm 3. Splanchnic mesoderm

somatic muscles of flank visceral muscles

Head muscles from head paraxial mesoderm as well as the most rostral somites

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