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Prepared by : Hazim Husaini Bin Mohd Fahamee Dzulhelmi Bin Ependi Faydzul Amirul Bin Mohidin Mohd Fadhil

Bin Zulkefle Tengku Asyraf Bin Kumat -----01PUT11F1026 01PUT11F1028 01PUT11F1035 01PUT11F1023 01PUT11F1024

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To understanding geodetic datums and coordinate systems, e.g. NAD-83, WGS-84

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To investigate difference between geodetic and astronomic coordinates

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To investigate different between geodetic and astronomic azimuth

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To know how azimuth change due to convergence of meridians To investigate lengths of lines on the datum surface To reduce the measured lines to datum surface

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He found the radius of the earth to be 6339.6 km, a value not obtained in the West until the 16th century. His estimated that the Earth radius was 16.8 km less than the modern value of 6,356.7 km.

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He also wrote a book Masudic Canon (Qanun Al-Mas·udi) that contains a table giving the coordinates of six hundred places, almost all of which he had direct knowledge.

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Biruni developed a new method of using trigonometric calculations based on the angle between a plain and mountain top which yielded more accurate measurements of the Earth's circumference.

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The idea came to him when he was on top of a tall mountain in India. From the top of the mountain, he sighted the dip angle which, along with the mountain's height (which he calculated beforehand), he applied to the law of sines formula.

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Abu Rayhan Biruni accurately determined the Earth radius by formulating a trigonometric equation relating the ¶dip angle· (between the true horizon and astronomical horizon) observed from the top of a mountain to the height of that mountain. His method can be summarized as follows: Determine the height, h

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He applied the values he obtained for the dip angle and the mountain's height to the following trigonometric formula in order to calculate the Earth's radius:

Where: R = Earth radius h = height of mountain = dip angle d = distance

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He was the first person to calculate the circumference of the earth by using a measuring system using stades, or the length of stadiums during that time period (with remarkable accuracy).

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He was the first to calculate the tilt of the Earth's axis (also with remarkable accuracy). He may also have accurately calculated the distance from the earth to the sun and invented the leap day.

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He also created a map of the world based on the available geographical knowledge of the era. In addition, Eratosthenes was the founder of scientific chronology.

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He also assume that the earth is sphere by using a formula : ( Circumference = 360° x s/ )

TERIMA KASIH !! THANK YOU !! ARIGATO !!