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Environmental Science

Contributing Faculty

M.M. Ghangrekar, Ph.D. Associate Professor Department of Civil Engineering (Section-2 Coordinator) A K Gupta, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Civil Engineering M K Dash, Ph.D. Assistant Professor,
Oceans, Rivers, Atmosphere and Land Sciences

Tentative time

Section-II Participating Facult 1 M.M. Gh

Thickness of Different structure of Earth

Crust Mantle Outer core Inner core

5km – 70km 2900km 2300km 1200km

Crust: The outermost layer of the Earth is the crust. This comprises the continents and ocean basins. The crust has a variable thickness, being 35-70 km thick in the continents and 5-10 km thick in the ocean basins. The crust is composed mainly of alumino – silicates. Mantle: The next layer to the crust is the mantle, which is composed mainly of ferro-magnesium silicates. Its thickness is about about 2900 km and is separated into the upper and lower mantle. This is where most of the internal heat of the Earth is located. Large convective cells in the mantle circulate heat and may drive plate tectonic processes.

Core:
The last layer is the core, which is separated into the liquid outer core and the solid inner core. The outer core is 2300 km thick and the inner core is 1200 km thick. The outer core is composed mainly of a nickel-iron alloy, while the inner core is almost entirely composed of iron. Earth's magnetic field is believed to be controlled by the liquid outer core.
The Earth is separated into layers based on mechanical properties in addition to composition. The topmost layer is the lithosphere, which is comprised of the crust and solid portion of the upper mantle. The lithosphere is divided into many plates that move in relation to each other due to tectonic forces. The lithosphere essentially floats atop a semi-liquid layer known as the asthenosphere. This layer allows the solid lithosphere to move around since the asthenosphere is much weaker than the lithosphere.

Lithosphere (The topmost layer is the lithosphere, which is comprised of the crust and solid
portion of the upper mantle) (Basing on water bearing property)

Reservoir ( Reservoir contains voids, allowing Flow of liquid into its main body )

Non-Reservoir

(Basing on water yield) Impermeable

Permeable (The reservoir which yields water easily, economically)

(Ex. – Clay)

(Depending on the geological evolution of void space)

Porous

Fractured

Karstic

Porous Medium • Such a medium includes countless irregular voids of random sizes and shapes comprising pore spaces, which are also referred to as the interstices between the individual solid particles of sand or pebbles • Each pore is connected with adjacent ones by constricted channels of different sizes • collectively, pores and channels may form a completely interconnected network of voids through which water can move in various directions • • such a set up in rock mass will be referred to as the porous medium Smaller grain sizes of solid particles the more the regular the flow path

• In a coarse-grained medium the water will meet less resistance from the from the solids but the flow path is more irregular and the flow rate has greater amplitudes of fluctuations

Porous Reservoir

Fluvial

Sand Dunes

Glacial

Sedimentary

Eskers Alluvial Deposit

Kames

Clastic Alluvial Fans Alluvial Fills Delta Coastal

Non-Clastic

Alluvial Fans

An alluvial fan is a fan-shaped deposit formed where a fast flowing stream flattens, slows, and spreads typically at the exit of a caynon onto a flatter plain. A convergence of neighbouring alluvial fans into a single apron of deposits against a slope is called a bajada, or compound alluvial fan.

Formation of Alluvial Fans: These formations are fluvial origin and occur where a stream leaves a steep valley and slows down as it enters a plain Owing to the slowing of flow, coarse-grained solid material carried by the water is dropped. As this reduces the capacity of the channel, the channel will change direction over time, gradually building up a slightly mounded or shallow conical fan shape.

This fan shape can also be explained with a thermodynamic justification: the system of sediment introduced at the apex of the fan will tend to a state which minimizes the sum of the transport energy involved in moving the sediment and the gravitational potential of material in the cone.

There will be iso-transport energy lines forming concentric arcs about the discharge point at the apex of the fan. Thus the material will tend to be deposited equally about these lines, forming the characteristic cone shape.

• Alluvial Fan are very noticeable and abound especially in arid and semiarid regions • The growth of alluvial Fan was initiated when the climate was more humid and rain fall was abundant • The extent of Alluvial Fan depends on the drainage basin , slope, size, climate and characteristics of rocks in the source area • the fine grained debris is deposited further downstream and may be cross bedded, massive or thick bedded • water Groundwater flow in alluvial fans is replenished by percolation of river

• Most often the water appear in the form of springs, otherwise it may continue its journey further downstream where it emerges as surface flow • Alluvial fans provide groundwater in coastal deserts areas. In arid regions they are the potential source of aquifers.

Alluvial Fills
Alluvial Fill are the result of an existing valley being filled with alluvium. The valley may fill with alluvium for many different reasons including: an influx in bed load due to glaciation or change in carrying capacity which causes the valley, that was down cut by the stream, to be filled in with material (Easterbrook). The stream will continue to deposit material until an equilibrium is reached and the stream can transport the material rather than deposit it. This equilibrium may last for a very short period, such as, after glaciation, or for a very long time if the conditions do not change.

The fill terrace is created when the conditions change again and the stream starts to incise into the material that it deposited in the valley. Once this occurs benches composed completely of alluvium form on the sides of the valley. The upper most benches are the fill terraces. As the stream continues to cut down through the alluvium the fill terraces are left above the river channel (sometimes 100 m or more). The fill terrace is only the very highest terrace resulting from the depositional episode, if there are multiple terraces below the fill terrace these are called cutin-terraces.

• These are formed as a result of weathering and the water in fills or where the relief is favorable and the rainfall sufficient to provide the driving force for movement • Gravels which are coarsest product of erosion are moved shorter distance from their source and are deposited in more restricted areas than sand clay and mod • Fluvial gravels are wide spread, especially in arid regions, where they fill the valleys of rivers, surface depressions or fault zones • Alluvial fills in arid regions are known as Wadis

• The groundwater is found in the voids of Gravels. They make up potential groundwater reservoir for local use • In arid regions these are the primary locations for water-well excavation to supply the nearby villages

Delta Deposits
A delta is a landform where the mouth of a river flows into an ocean, sea, estuary, lake or another river. A delta is formed only when a channel deposits sediment into another body of water. It builds up sediment outwards into the flat area which the river's flow encounters (as a deltaic deposit) transported by the water and set down as the currents slow. Deltaic deposits of larger, heavily-laden rivers are characterized by the main channel dividing amongst often substantial land masses into multiple streams known as distributaries.

Nile river Delta

These divide and come together again to form a maze of active and inactive channels. The deposit at the mouth of a river is usually triangular in shape and size. The triangular shape and the increased width at the base are due to blocking of the river mouth, with resulting continual formation of distributaries at angles to the original course. A delta can sometimes misinterpreted as an alluvial fan. The two terms, interchangeable. however, are be not Nile river Delta

A delta is formed in water and an alluvial fan occurs on land.

• Delta is a subarea and submerged contiguous sediment mass deposited in a body of water (Ocean or Lake) primarily by action of river • they are terrestrial depositions, not marine. However marine sediments may be incorporated in delta fronts intercalating with alluvial deposits if phases of subsidence alternate with phases of delta make up • Deltas are at the downstream ends of the basin, both the gradient and the flow velocity decreases and suspended sediments and the bed loads consequently settle down • Deltas are always associated with water and because of flat topography, the water table occurs within few meters of the ground surface • The groundwater table elevations in deltas are fairly constant, reflecting the elevation of the nearby water body • There is always salt water intrusion into the fresh groundwater body from the oceans. The extent of intrusion depends upon the difference in elevation between groundwater table in the delta and the ocean surface as well as the nature of the delta

Coastal Plain Deposits

Coastal plains are found all over the world as unconsolidated sediments, bounded on the continental sides by a highland such as cliff, reef, hill etc. and spread on the marine side by a shore line from a surface water body, either a lake or ocean Coastal plains include deposits of both continental and marine origin. Close to the foothill of highlands continental deposits predominates gradually giving place to marine deposits seaward With regular tidal fluctuations these two types of deposit become intercalated The source of supply may be rives, ice, wind and coastal erosion Fresh groundwater occurs in some areas of the coastal plain where there are no valley deposits in the hinterlands. This water is provided directly from the rainfall and indirectly from inflow of water from the adjacent hills coastal plain formations can acts as a groundwater reservoir by hloding the fresh water supplies slightly above sea level and the salt water table

  

In physical geography, a dune is a hill of sand built by aeolian processes. Dunes are subject to different forms and sizes based on their interaction with the wind. Most kinds of dune are longer on the windward side where the sand is pushed up the dune, and a shorter "slip face" in the lee of the wind. The "valley" or trough between dunes is called a slack. A "dune field" is an area covered by extensive sand dunes. Large dune fields are known as ergs

Sand Dunes

Direction of wind flow

• Dunes are accumulated wind deposits consisting of sand size particles. The unequal side slopes reflect the dominant wind direction • They are the most isotropic and homogeneous deposits in nature

• Sand dune materials are of uniform size and allow rapid infiltration and percolation of rain fall. The geological layers underlying the sand dunes may offer suitable groundwater supplies

Glacial Deposits
• Any deposit that owes its origin more or less directly to the grinding action of glaciers is referred as glacial deposit • They provide poorly sorted porous medium, which has clasts of many sizes including boulders and therefore may provide a potential source for groundwater, for example: Northern U.S.A., Canada, Europe deposits formed by continental glaciers furnish significant water reservoir • The void ratio of the glacial deposits are high at the till source but decreases with the distance travel away from • Much of the debris transported by glaciers is either deposited near the downglacier margins or laid out as outwash along the downstream course

Moraine

Glaciers forms a V-shape valley

Glacial Flow Path Glacial Deposits are of two types: (1) Esker (2) Kame

Esker
Terraces along ridges of glacifluvial material laying roughly parallel to the direction of former ice flow are usually termed as Eskers. Most eskers are believed to form in ice-walled tunnels by streams which flowed within and under glaciers. After the retaining ice walls melt away, stream deposits remain as long winding ridges. Eskers may also form above glaciers by accumulation of sediment in supraglacial channels, in crevasses, in linear zones between stagnant blocks, or in narrow embayment at glacier margins. Eskers form near the terminal zone of glaciers, where the ice is not moving as fast and is relatively thin

The rate of plastic flow and melting of the basal ice determines the size and shape of the sub-glacial tunnel. This in turn determines the shape, composition and structure of an esker. Eskers may exist as a single channel, or may be part of a branching system with tributary eskers. They are not often found as continuous ridges, but have gaps that separate the winding segments. The ridge crests of eskers are not usually level for very long, and are generally knobby. Eskers may be broad-crested or sharp-crested with steep sides They can reach hundreds of kilometers in length.

The concentration of rock debris in the ice and the rate at which sediment is delivered to the tunnel by melting and from upstream transport determines the amount of sediment in an esker. The sediment generally consists of coarse-grained, water-laid sand and gravel, although gravelly loam may be found where the rock debris is rich in clay. This sediment is stratified and sorted, and usually consists of pebble/cobble-sized material with occasional boulders.

KAME
A kame is a geological feature, an irregularly shaped hill or mound composed of sand, gravel and till that accumulates in a depression on a retreating glacier, and is then deposited on the land surface with further melting of the glacier. Kame terraces are frequently found along the side of a glacial valley and are the deposits of meltwater streams flowing between the ice and the adjacent valley side. These kame terraces tend to look like long flat benches, with a lot of pits on the surface made by kettles. They tend to slope downvalley with gradients similar to the glacier surface along which they formed, and can sometimes be found paired on opposite sides of a valley.

Glacial fluvial Deposits

Glacier

Bed Rock

Glacial fluvial Deposits

Usually forms both banks of the valley

Glacier

• Their formation involves two major steps

Bed Rock

(1) During the existence of valley glacier, melt water streams run along the sides of the valley building up lateral terraces (2) With the disappearance of the glacier existing glacifluvial deposits on both valley sides collapse to form kames

Sedimentary Rocks

Clastic sedimentary rocks

Non-Clastic sedimentary rocks

Clastic sedimentary rocks :
Clastic sedimentary rocks are rocks composed predominantly of broken pieces or clasts of older weathered and eroded rocks. They recognize by their clastic texture where nither chemical nor biological precipitation nor accumulations of organic material has been involved in their formation. Clastic sediments or sedimentary rocks are classified based on grain size, clast and cementing material (matrix) composition, and texture.

sedimentary rocks

Fractured Medium
The fractures are defined as secondary structures in the form of planar on non planar surface with in a rock mass along which there is no cohesion. Factures have developed as a result of pressure and temperature differences during and/or after the formation of the rock. Fractures occur chiefly in dense crystalline rocks. Major fractures are supercapillary size and/or fed by tributary fractures that are commonly capillary in size. Fractures are referred to in terms of relative strength of the force involved: (1) Fault : Appreciable displacement has occurred in a fracture (2) Joint : There is no noticeable displacement is seen

Cause of Fracture:
• • • Tectonic movement that cause the earth crust to deform Change in rock volume due to the loss or gain of water, Change in rock volume due to temperature differences, specially in igneous rocks

Characteristics of Fracture:
The characteristics of the facture depends on the resistance offered by the rock to the force involved. For example: in hard rocks the fractures are extensive, large and dense compared to those of soft rocks The groundwater transmission characteristics of a fractured reservoir depends on the width, roughness, continuity, spacing and filling of the fractures and the kinematic viscosity of water.

Karstic Medium
Karstic domain is a product of the chemical reactions between the rock and water. It consists of sediments like limestone, dolomite, gypsum, halite and other soluble rocks to constitute the reservoir. Karstic formations are fully developed in the humid and semi-arid regions where the lakes are usually interconnected with the underlying solution-cavity network In the arid zones oases are formed within the karstic reservoirs. The solution cavity network transports the ground water flow from the deep-lying water-bearing formations towards these water bodies Flow Channel in the Medium

Origin of Water meteoric Connate Juvenile

Meteoric:
The most groundwater is derived from the atmosphere in the form of rainfall, snow,

hail, humidity etc. Water of this type is referred to as meteoric water. It takes part in Hydrological cycle.

It reaches to the earth’s surface either infiltrated directly through porous, fractured and Karstic media or accumulates as river, lakes or ponds from which it reaches the groundwater storage. Water for domestic, agricultural and industry use is mainly from such meteoric water

Connate:
The water that was entrapped in the interstices of a sedimentary rock at the time of rock formation. It is the fossil water that has been cut off the hydrological cycle for at least an appreciable part of a geological period. They may be either terrestrial or marine water. It occurs at great depth. It has not undergone the present day hydrological cycle. It is rather salty.

Juvenile:
This type of water is derived from igneous process with in the depths of the earth. It is not taken part in any of the hydrological cycle. It can contribute unusually to the meteoric ground water it joins.

Zones of Water
The subsurface water is divided into two major zones depending on the physical occurrence of water
Unsaturated Zone: • Void spaces are filled with water, moisture and air • Free exchange of air occur in this zone • Water in this zone is called Vadose water • Pressure of ground water is less than atmospheric pressure Saturated Zone: Pressure of ground water is more than atmospheric pressure

Soil Moisture Zone Intermediate Zone Capillary Zone

Saturated Zone (Void Spaces are filled with Water)

Un-saturated Zone
Soil Moisture Zone: Helpful for leaving of plants. Thick ness of soil-moisture zone depends upon the type of soil and climate of the area Deciding factors: soil suction and gravity Intermediate Zone: The water is bounded with the soil by the adhesive force between soil and the water molecules Capillary Zone : The water is hold by the capillary forces acting against gravity.

Groundwater Table
The sub-surface depth where the groundwater pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressure -ve +ve Soil Moisture Zone Intermediate Zone Capillary Zone Pressure

Saturated Zone (Void Spaces are filled with Water)

The water Table may change with season, topography and structural geology When the earth’s slanting surface intersect the water table springs are generated Some times they account for the base flow water levels in the water bodies

Depth
Groundwater Table

Based on the geological conditions, hydrological conditions and the groundwater pressure we divided the reserves into following categories: Aquifer: A geological formation of group of formations or part of formation that contains sufficient saturated permeable material to yield significant quantity of water using a water well. Aquiclude: This is a saturated geological formation which absorbs water slowly, but does not transport it fast enough to yield a significant supply for a well. Example: Clay layers Aquifuge: A geological formation with non-interconnected openings or interstices is called aquifuge. Neither it absorbs nor transmits water. It forms the base of the aquifer. Aquitard: Any geological formation that transmits water at a slower rate than an aquifer. It is a transition between Aquifuge and Aquiclude.

Aquifer

Unconfined

Confined

Perched

Leaky

Unsaturated Zone Stream Unconfined Aquifer Aquitard Confined Aquifer Aquifuge

Unconfined Aquifer: Groundwater table forms the upper boundary of the saturation zone They are subject to direct recharge from the infiltration, directly connected to the hydrological cycle Groundwater occurs at shallow depth, therefore contaminated easily Confined Aquifer: It consists of three layers. Pressure always above the atmospheric pressure Any well drilled in a confined aquifer will have water level elevation above the aquifer Unsaturated Zone Unsaturated Zone

Saturated Zone

Aquifige

Saturated Zone

Aquifige

Groundwater Energy
Energy per unit volume is given by

Es

1 v P = + + ' Z 2 g γ
K.E. of Water (Velocity Head) Pressure Energy (Pressure Head) Potential Energy (Elevation Head)

2

γ ' = ρg
Specific Volume

Total Energy (Hydraulic Head)

Piezometric Head (Φ)

Groundwater Motion Darcy’s Law
It is an empirical Law. Assumptions: Groundwater moves continuously in a manner governed by established hydraulic principle under the influence of aquifer’s inherent and geometric features Flow is steady and laminar, no temperature variation

P1 γ'

φ1 − φ 2

(φ1 − φ 2 ) Q = KA L
kρg K= µ

φ1
Z1

L

Q

P2 γ'

φ2

Z2

Problem: Rainfall at the rate 10mm/h falls on a strip of land 1km wide laying between two parallel canals with 2m difference in their levels. It is underlain by a horizontal impermeable datum at 10m below the water surface of the lower canal. Assuming a permiability of 12m/d with vertical boundaries and all the filtered in to the soil, compute the discharge per meter length into both of the canals.

Drainage Basin
A drainage basin is an extent or area of land where water from rain and melting snow or ice drains downhill into a body of water, such as a river, lake, reservoir, estuary, wetland, sea or ocean. The drainage basin includes both the streams and rivers that convey the water as well as the land surfaces from which water drains into those channels, and is separated from adjacent basins by a drainage divide.
Tributaries

Watershed
A watershed is a basin-like landform defined by highpoints and ridgelines that descend into lower elevations and stream valleys. A watershed carries water "shed" from the land after rain falls and snow melts.
Source of water: 1. Precipitation : in the form of rain or snow 2. Glacial Melt Way of Water (Particularly the Precipitated water) 1. Infiltration : contribute to ground water, fountains 2. Surface runoff

Rain gauge data is used to measure total precipitation over a drainage basin, and there are different ways to interpret that data. Arithmetic mean: If the gauges are many and evenly distributed over an area of uniform precipitation, using the arithmetic mean method will give good results. Thiessen polygon: In this method, the watershed is divided into polygons with the rain gauge in the middle of each polygon assumed to be representative for the rainfall on the area of land included in its polygon. These polygons are made by drawing lines between gauges, then making perpendicular bisectors of those lines form the polygons. Isohyetal method: This method involves contours of equal precipitation are drawn over the gauges on a map. Calculating the area between these curves and adding up the volume of water in each area.

Rainfall Runoff Analysis
Surface runoff is the water flow that occurs when soil is infiltrated to full capacity and excess water from rain, melt-water, or other sources flows over the land. Runoff generation from rainfall over a catchment can be assumed to depend on factors
• Atmospheric condition over the catchment (Temperature, humidity, wind speed, ect.) •The surface cover (type, distribution, interception, take up, evapotranspiration etc) • Surface soil (type, permeability, porosity, etc) • Terrain (slope, surface texture, etc) • Geology (structure distribution, permeability, porosity, groundwater levels, etc)

Generally the following processes are usually identified as taking place:

Evapotranspir ation at the surface Surface infiltration (surface cover, wetness of the soil) Rainfall can not infiltrate locally due to the intense nature of the rainfall)

Overland flow Unsaturated zone flow (surface tension of water, nature and structure of the soil)

Unsaturated Zone

Saturated Zone Saturated zone flow (groundwater) Aquifige

Hydrograph and the catchment’s characteristics
The shape of the hydrograph depends on the characteristics of the catchment. The major factors are • Shape of the catchment • Size of the catchment • Slope • rainfall intensity and duration • spatial distribution of rainfall

Shape of the Catchment

Size of the Catchment: Naturally, the volume of runoff expected for a given rainfall input would be proportional to the size of the catchment. But this apart, the response characteristics of large catchment ( say, a large river basin) is found to be significantly different from a small catchment (like agricultural plot) due to the relative importance of the different phases of runoff (overland flow, inter flow, base flow, etc.) for these two catchments. Further, it can be shown from the mathematical calculations of surface runoff on two impervious catchments (like urban areas, where infiltration becomes negligible) and the plane area are different. Slope Slope of the main stream cutting across the catchment and that of the valley sides or general land slope affects the shape of the hydrograph. Larger slopes generate more velocity than smaller slopes and hence can dispose off runoff faster. Hence, for smaller slopes, the balance between rainfall input and the runoff rate gets stored temporally over the area and is able to drain out gradually over time. Hence, for the same rainfall input to two catchments of the same area but with with different slopes, the one with a steeper slope would generate a hydrograph with steeper rising and falling limits.

spatial distribution of rainfall

rainfall intensity and duration

Assume now that only area A1 receives rainfall but the other areas do not, then since this region is nearest to the catchment outlet, the resulting hydrograph immediately rises. If the rainfall continues for a time more than ‘Δt’, then the hydrograph would reach a saturation equal to re.A1, where re is the intensity of the effective rainfall.

rainfall intensity and duration Assume now that a rainfall of constant intensity is falling only within area A4, which is farthest from the catchment outlet. Since the lower boundary of A4 is the Isochrone III, there would be no resulting hydrograph till time ‘3Δt’. If the rain continues beyond a time ‘4Δt’, then the hydrograph would reach a saturation level equal to re A4 where re is the effective rainfall intensity.

The Unit Hydrograph (abbreviated as UH) of a drainage basin is defined as a hydrograph of direct runoff resulting from one unit of effective rainfall which is uniformly distributed over the basin at a uniform rate during the specified period of time known as unit time or unit duration.

The Unit Hydrograph

The unit quantity of effective rainfall is generally taken as 1mm or 1cm and the outflow hydrograph is expressed by the discharge ordinates. The unit duration – hour (the unit duration cannot be more than the time of concentration, which is the time that is taken by the water from the furthest point of the catchment to reach the outlet. )

Unit hydrograph assumptions

Effective rainfall should be uniformly distributed over the basin.( ‘N’ rain gauges spread uniformly over the basin, record almost same amount of rainfall during the specified time) Effective rainfall is constant over the catchment during the unit time. The direct runoff hydrograph for a given effective rainfall for a catchment is always the same irrespective of when it occurs. Hence, any previous rainfall event is not considered. This antecedent precipitation is otherwise important because of its effect on soil-infiltration rate, depressional and detention storage, and hence, on the resultant hydrograph. The ordinates of the unit hydrograph are directly proportional to the effective rainfall hyetograph ordinate. Hence, if a 6-h unit hydrograph due to 1 cm rainfall is given, then a 6-h hydrograph due to 2 cm rainfall would just mean doubling the unit hydrograph ordinates. Hence, the base of the resulting hydrograph (from the start or rise up to the time when discharge becomes zero) also remains the same.

• •

Unit hydrograph limitations Under the natural conditions of rainfall over drainage basins, the assumptions of the unit hydrograph cannot be satisfied perfectly. In theory, the principle of unit hydrograph is applicable to a basin of any size. However, in practice, to meet the basic assumption in the derivation of the unit hydrograph as closely as possible, it is essential to use storms which are uniformly distributed over the basin and producing rainfall excess at uniform rate. The limit is generally considered to be about 5000 sq. km. beyond which the reliability of the unit hydrograph method diminishes.

Rainfall – runoff relation
Runoff is a complex interaction between precipitation and landscape factors. While some of these factors (e.g., land use and cover, topography, soil characteristics, and hydrologic condition).
   

Land use : urban area, forest area, agricultural land, etc. Land cover: type of forest cover, type of agricultural land, grass land etc? Topography: mountainous area, plane land etc. Soil characteristics: type of soil (red soil, black soil etc.), water bearing capacity

When runoff occurs ?
Runoff occurs when parts of the landscape are saturated or impervious.

Two runoff concepts include

(i) infiltration-excess runoff and (ii) saturation excess runoff

Infiltration-excess runoff
The infiltration-excess runoff paradigm assumes that overland flow occurs when the rainfall intensity is greater than the infiltration rate at the surface soil. In this case the water, in excess of that which infiltrates through the soil surface, flows across the soil surface to nearby channels. This process is also termed as Hortonian runoff.

When it occurs?
 

Firstly, rain must fall on the landscape with an intensity or rate in excess of the dynamic permeability of the surface soil. Secondly, the duration of rainfall must last longer than the time required to saturate the surface.

Where it occurs?

  

Infiltration excess runoff occurs less frequently (Freeze, 1972) except from (1) disturbed or poorly vegetated areas that usually have a sub-humid or semiarid climate (Wolock, 1993), (2) Clay dominated surface soils, (3) Watersheds where bedrock surfaces are exposed, and (4) Urban impervious surfaces.

Saturation-excess runoff

Where the soil surface is saturated and any further rainfall, even at low intensities, generates runoff that contributes to streamflow. This more dominant process is termed as saturation-excess runoff generation. A rise in the water table occurs because of a large infiltration rate of water into the soil and down to the saturated subsurface (Wolock, 1993). The variable spatial extent of the landscape saturated from below that fluctuates dynamically with watershed wetness is termed the variable source area (Freeze and Cherry, 1979). Variable source areas can arise from direct rainfall on the landscape or from return flow of subsurface water to the surface (Dunne and Black, 1970). Saturated surface areas typically develop near existing stream channels and in depressions or hollows (Dunne et al., 1975) and expand as more water infiltrates and moves downslope as saturated subsurface flow.

Runoff Model
A runoff model is a mathematical model describing the rainfall - runoff relations of a rainfall catchment area, drainage basin or watershed. More precisely, it produces the surface runoff hydrograph as a response to a rainfall hydrograph as input. In other words, the model calculates the conversion of rainfall into runoff. Linear Reservoir S is the water storage with unit [L] A is the constant reaction factor or response factor with unit [1/T] Q is the runoff or discharge Q=A.S , where S in mm and T in hr, day

R is the effective rainfall or rainfall excess or recharge dS is a differential or small increment of S dT is a differential or small increment of T

d S R =Q + d T
d S R =A + S d T
For zero recharge: S=C*exp(-At)

If Q1 and Q2 are the discharge at time t1 and t2, then we can express

Q2 = Q1e

− a ( t 2 −t1 )

+ R(1 − e

− a ( t 2 −t1 )

)

Rainfall- Runoff Relation
The rainfall & runoff are related through a number called runoff curve number (also called a curve number or simply CN). It is an empirical parameter used in hydrology for predicting direct runoff or infiltration from rainfall excess

The curve number method estimates runoff depth or volume, Q, from rainfall depth or volume, P

Principle: Conservation of of water in a watershed
Soil conservation services (SCS) of USA later known as Natural Resources Conservation Service

The runoff in the watersheds is given by the relation:

Compute the Surface Storage (S) S = (1000 / CN) – 10 S = (1000 / 61 ) – 10 = 6.393 Inches

Compute the Initial Abstraction: Ia = 0.2 x S Ia = 0.2 x 6.393 = 1.279 Inches

Compute the runoff in Watershed Inches: Q = (P – Ia)2 / (P – Ia + S) Q = (5.00 – 1.279)2 / (5.00 – 1.279 + 6.393) Q = 1.369 Inches (Remember the original P=5.00 Inches) Compute the Runoff Volume: V = [1.369 In / (12 In / Ft)] x 250 Ft x 350 Ft = V = 9983 CF

Supply of Water Resources
Freshwater Readily accessible freshwater Groundwater 0.226% Lakes 0.0007% Ice caps and glaciers 0.76% 0.014% Soil moisture 0.0005% Biota 0.0001% Rivers 0.0001% Atmospheric water vapor 0.0001%

Fig. 15-2 p. 307

Ground Water
Flowing artesian well Precipitation Well requiring a pump Confined Recharge Area Evaporation and transpiration Evaporation

Runoff Aquifer Infiltration Water table Infiltration Unconfined aquifer Confined aquifer Confirming permeable rock layer

Stream Lake

Less permeable material such as clay

Water Resources
 Over
  

the last century

Human population has increased 3x Global water withdrawal has increased 7x Per capita water withdrawal has increased 4x About one-sixth of the world’s people don’t have easy access to safe water Most water resources are owned by governments and are managed as publicly owned resources

Kinds of Water Pollution
 Inorganic

Pollutants  Organic Pollutants  Biologic Pollutants

Inorganic Pollutants
3

groups
• 1) Produce no heavlth effects until a threshold concentration is exceeded—e.g., NO3 –ook at , 50mg/liter; at higher levels: methaemoglobinaemia • 2) No threshold—e.g.—genotoxic substances: some natural and synthetic organic compounds, microorganic compunds, some pesticides, arsenic • 3) Essential to diets: F, I, Se—absence causes problems, but too much also causes problems

Inorganic Trace Contaminants

•Mercury—methyl Hg and dimethyl Hg in fish • Lead • Radionuclides • Phosphates—mostly a result of sewage outflow and phosphate detergents • Nitrates—sewage and fertilizers

Organic Pollutants
Three classes of compounds

•Pesticides and Herbicides •Materials for common household and industrial use •Materials for industrial use

Groundwater Contamination

Disolved in the water or carried by water by suspension

Source of Polution  Environmental:

(1) Carbonate rocks (2) Sea water intrusion

Domestics:
 

Percolation from septic tank Artificial recharge of aquifers by sewage water, contains biological contaminants (bacteria and Virus) Sewage disposal system serves both industrial and residential areas Presence of Heavy metals, radioactive metals, etc. Groundwater pollution due to the fertilizers, salts, pesticides, etc.

Industrial:
 

Agricultural

Monitoring water quality
 Number

of colonies of fecal coliform

bacteria  Bacterial source tracking (BST)  Measure biological oxygen demand (BOD)  Chemical analysis  Indicator species  Genetic development of indicator organisms

Types, Effects and Sources of Water Pollution

 Point sources  Nonpoint sources
Fig. 22-3 p. 494

 Water quality

Point and Nonpoint Sources
NONPOINT SOURCES

Rural homes

Urban streets

Cropland Animal feedlot Suburban development POINT SOURCES

Factory

Wastewater treatment plant

Fig. 22-4 p. 494

Solutions: Preventing and Reducing Surface Water Pollution

Nonpoint Sources  Reduce runoff  Buffer zone vegetation

Point Sources  Clean Water Act  Water Quality Act

 Reduce soil erosion

Pollution of Lakes Eutrophication

Groundwater Pollution: Causes
 Low flow rates  Few bacteria  Low oxygen  Cold temperatures
Hazardous waste injection well Coal strip mine runoff Pesticides De-icing road salt Pumping well Waste lagoon Gasoline station Water pumping well Landfill Buried gasoline and solvent tank Cesspool septic tank Sewer Leakage from faulty casing

Accidental spills

i f er qu Discharge ra ate sh w ifer Confined aquifer fre aq u d t er ine a nf hw nco Groundwater r es U f flow n ed nfi Co

Fig. 22-9 p. 502

Groundwater Pollution Prevention
 Monitor aquifers  Find less hazardous substitutes  Leak detection systems  Strictly regulating hazardous waste disposal  Store hazardous materials above ground

Concept of watershed management
Watershed management is the process of creating and implementing plans, programs, and projects to sustain and enhance watershed functions that affect the mankind • It implies, the judicious use of all the resources i.e. land, water, vegetation in an area for providing an answer to alleviate drought, moderate floods, prevent soil erosion, improve water availability and increase food, fodder, fuel and fiber on sustained basis. Watershed to achieve maximum production with minimum hazard to the natural resources and for the well being of people.

Principles of Watershed Management The main principles of watershed management based on resource conservation, resource generation and resource utilization are • Utilizing the land based on its capability • Protecting fertile top soil • Minimizing silting up of tanks, reservoirs and lower fertile land • Protecting vegetative cover throughout the year • In situ conservation of rain water • Safe diversion of gullies and construction of check dams for in creasing ground water recharge • In creasing cropping intensity through inter and sequence cropping. • Alternate land use systems for efficient use of marginal lands. • Water harvesting for supplemental irrigation. •- Maximizing farm income through agricultural related activities such as dairy, poultry, sheep, and goat forming. •- Improving infrastructural facilities for storage, transport and agricultural marketing, •- Improving socio - economic status of farmers

Objectives of Watershed Management The term watershed management is nearly synonymous with soil and water conservation with the difference that emphasis is on flood protection and sediment control besides maximizing crop production. The basic objective of watershed management is thus is thus meeting the problems of land and water use, not in terms of any one resource but on the basis that all the resources are interdependent and must, therefore, be considered together. The watershed aims, ultimately, at improving standards of living of common people in the basin by increasing their earning capacity, by offering facilities such as electricity, drinking water, irrigation water, freedom from fears of floods, droughts etc. The overall objectives of watershed development programmers may be outlined as: Recognition of watersheds as a unit for development and efficient use of land according their land capabilities for production, Flood control through small multipurpose reservoirs and other water storage structures at the head water of streams and in problem areas, Adequate water supply for domestic, agricultural and industrial needs. Abatement of organic, inorganic and soil pollution, Efficient use of natural resources for improving agriculture and allied occupation so as to improve socio-economic conditions of the local residents, and Expansion of recreation facilities such as picnic and camping sites.