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What is motivation? Motivation Process Types of motivation Theories of Motivation Comparative analysis of three major theories of motivation Definition: motivation is a process of arousing and sustaining goal-directed behavior induced by the expectation of satisfying individual needs Motivation is to inspire people to work, individually or in groups in the ways such as to produce best results. It is the will to act. It is the willingness to exert high levels of effort towards organizational goals, conditioned by the efforts and ability to satisfy some individual need. 1

Motivation is a general term applied to the entire class of drives, desires, needs, wishes and similar forces. To say that managers motivate their subordinates is to say that they do those things which they hope will satisfy these drives and desires and induce the subordinates to act in a desired manner. To motivate others is the most important of management tasks. It comprises the abilities to communicate, to set an example, to challenge, to encourage, to obtain feedback, to involve, to delegate, to develop and train, to inform, to brief and to provide a just reward.

Process Of Motivation
In the initiation a person starts feeling lacknesses. There is an arousal of need so urgent, that the bearer has to venture in search to satisfy it. This leads to creation of tension, which urges the person to forget everything else and cater to the aroused need first. This tension also creates drives and attitudes regarding the type of satisfaction that is desired. This leads a person to venture into the search of information. This ultimately leads to evaluation of alternatives where the best alternative is chosen. After choosing the alternative, an action is taken. Because of the performance of the activity satisfaction is achieved which then relieves the tension in the individual. Unsatisfied need => Tension => Drives => Search Behavior => Satisfied needs => Reduction of tension => New unsatisfied 3 needs

Types of Motivation
(1) Achievement Motivation It is the drive to pursue and attain goals. An individual with achievement motivation wishes to achieve objectives and advance up on the ladder of success. (2) Affiliation Motivation It is a drive to relate to people on a social basis. Persons with affiliation motivation perform work better when they are complimented for their favorable attitudes and co-operation. (3) Competence Motivation It is the drive to be good at something, allowing the individual to perform high quality work. Competence motivated people seek job mastery, take pride in developing and using their problem-solving skills and strive to be creative when confronted with obstacles. (4) Power Motivation It is the drive to influence people and change situations. Power motivated people wish to create an impact on their organization and are willing to take risks to do so. (5) Attitude Motivation Attitude motivation is how people think and feel. It is their self confidence, their belief in themselves, their attitude to life. (6) Incentive Motivation It is where a person or a team reaps a reward from an activity. It is the types of awards and prizes that drive people to work a little harder. (7) Fear Motivation Fear motivation coercions a person to act against will. It is instantaneous and gets the job done quickly. It is helpful in the short run.

Motivation-Maslows Theory
One of the most widely mentioned theories of motivation is the hierarchy of needs theory put forth by psychologist Abraham Maslow. Maslow saw human needs in the form of a hierarchy, ascending from the lowest to the highest When one set of needs is satisfied, this kind of need ceases to be a motivator. Another need emerges to replace it A substantially satisfied need no longer motivates As per his theory this needs are : Low-order needs: physiological and safety needs, they are satisfied externally (payment, unions) High-order needs: social, esteem, and selfactualization needs, they are satisfied internally.

Motivation-Maslows Hierachy of Needs

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs

(i) Physiological needs : These are important needs for sustaining the human life. Food, water, warmth, shelter, sleep, medicine and education are the basic physiological needs which fall in the primary list of need satisfaction. Until these needs are satisfied to a degree to maintain life, no other motivating factors can work.
(ii) Security or Safety needs : These are the needs to be free of physical danger and of the fear of losing a job, property, food or shelter. It also includes protection against any emotional harm. (iii) Social needs : Since people are social beings, they need to belong and be accepted by others. People try to satisfy their need for affection, acceptance and friendship. (iv) Esteem needs : According to Maslow, once people begin to satisfy their need to belong, they tend to want to be held in esteem both by themselves and by others. This kind of need produces such satisfaction as power, prestige status and self-confidence. It includes both internal esteem factors like self-respect, autonomy and achievements and external esteem factors such as appreciation, recognition and attention. v) Need for self-actualization : Maslow regards this as the highest need in his hierarchy. It is the drive to become what one is capable of becoming, it includes growth, achieving ones potential and self-fulfillment to maximum level.

Theory X and Theory Y of McGregor

McGregor, in his book The Human side of Enterprise states that people inside the organization can be managed in two ways. The first is basically negative, which falls under the category X and the other is basically positive, which falls under the category Y. Under the assumptions of theory X : Employees inherently do not like work and whenever possible, will attempt to avoid it. Because employees dislike work, they have to be forced, coerced or threatened with punishment to achieve goals. Employees avoid responsibilities and do not work fill formal directions are issued. Most workers place a greater importance on security over all other factors and display little ambition. 8

Theory X and Theory Y of McGregor

Assumptions of theory Y : Physical and mental effort at work is as natural as rest or play. People do exercise self-control and self-direction and they are committed to those goals. Average human beings are willing to take responsibility and exercise imagination, ingenuity and creativity in solving the problems of the organization. That the way the things are organized, the average human beings brainpower is only partly used. On analysis of the assumptions it can be detected that theory X assumes that lower-order needs dominate individuals and theory Y assumes that higher-order needs dominate individuals. An organization that is run on Theory X lines tends to be authoritarian in nature, the word authoritarian suggests such ideas as the power to enforce obedience and the right to command. In contrast Theory Y organizations can be described as participative, where the aims of the organization and of the individuals in it are integrated; individuals can achieve their own goals best by directing their efforts towards the success of the organization. However, this theory has been criticized widely for generalization of work 9 and human behavior.

Herzbergs Motivation-hygiene Theory

Frederick has tried to modify Maslows need Hierarchy theory. His theory is also known as two-factor theory or Hygiene theory. He stated that there are certain satisfiers and dissatisfiers for employees at work. Motivation factors: the factors that lead to job satisfaction. They are mostly intrinsic factors such as achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility, advancement, and growth Hygiene factors: the factors that lead to the prevention of dissatisfaction. They are mostly extrinsic factors such as company policy and administration, supervision, work condition, and salary. Traditional view: Satisfaction ><Dissatisfaction Herzberg's view: Satisfaction >< No satisfaction No dissatisfaction >< Dissatisfaction

Herzbergs Motivation-hygiene Theory

Intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction, while extrinsic factors are associated with dissatisfaction. He states that presence of certain factors in the organization is natural and the presence of the same does not lead to motivation. However, their absence leads to demotivation. In similar manner there are certain factors, the absence of which causes no dissatisfaction, but their presence has motivational impact. Herzbergs theory implies that leaders should be concerned with two views of their employees job attitudes-what makes them happy-and quite distinctlywhat makes them unhappy

Relationships of Theories of Maslow, Herzberg and McGregor

Maslow Herzberg McGregor Theory Y Satisfaction of esteem and self-actualization needs Responsibility Imagination and Creativity Self-direction and self-control Higher Level Needs Motivators Achievement Self-actualization Recognition Esteem Advancement Responsibility Work itself Lower-level Needs Social Safety Physiological Hygiene factors Company policy and administration Supervision Interpersonal relations Salary Working conditions

Theory X Security above all Direction preferable Threat of punishment needs


McClellands Theory of Needs :

David McClelland has developed a theory on three types of motivating needs : Need for Power Need for Affiliation Need for Achievement Basically people for high need for power are inclined towards influence and control. They like to be at the center and are good orators. They are demanding in nature, forceful in manners and ambitious in life. They can be motivated to perform if they are given key positions or power positions. In the second category are the people who are social in nature. They try to affiliate themselves with individuals and groups. They are driven by love and faith. They like to build a friendly environment around themselves. Social recognition and affiliation with others provides them motivation. People in the third area are driven by the challenge of success and the fear of failure. Their need for achievement is moderate and they set for themselves moderately difficult tasks. They are analytical in nature and take calculated risks. Such people are motivated to perform when they see at least some chances of success. McClelland observed that with the advancement in hierarchy the need for power and achievement increased rather than Affiliation. He also observed 13 that people who were at the top, later ceased to be motivated by this drives.

What is decision-making Theories of decision-making (rational, satisficing and garbage can) Decision-making is a choice between alternatives courses of action designed to produce a specific result in a conscious way in order to achieve specific goals Decision-making is a process of sufficiently reducing uncertainty and doubts about alternatives to allow reasonable choice to be made from among them Decision making involves three kinds of information.
Alternatives need to be known The consequences of alternatives need to be known. Some information is needed about the subject of the decision to guide the selection of the alternatives.


It treats human being as rational being. Man wants to maximize. Some of the assumptions are: People have knowledge about all the alternatives People know the consequences of all alternatives People can pick up the best alternative which can give him maximum satisfaction

McClellands Theory of Needs :


Simons Satisficing model

According to Herbert Simon, rational man is a satisficer and not an optimizer. At one extreme, the economists attribute to economic man a preposterously omniscient rationality. Economic man has a complete and consistent system of preferences that allows him always to choose among the alternatives open to him At the other extreme, are those tendencies in social psychology traceable to Freud that try to reduce all cognition to affect. This kind of man cannot be rational or satisficing. He described a satisficing model of individual decision making. A satisficing conception of rationality denies that rational decision makers must always seek the best or the optimal means to desired ends. Rather Simon suggested that people choose the first alternative that is good enough or satisfies choice criteria or aspiration levels. A persons knowledge of alternatives and criteria is limited They can not optimize they can rather satisfies that is good 17 enough.

Garbage Can Decision-making

Garbage can model -- This is a macro-organizational behavior model espoused by Cohen, March & Olsen (1972). The garbage can is a descriptive metaphor for how organizational decisions are made. The theoretical breakthrough of the Garbage Can Model is that it disconnects problems, solutions and decision makers from each other, unlike traditional decision theory. Specific decisions do not follow an orderly process from problem to solution, but are outcomes of several relatively independent stream of events within the organization Four Streams of Events within Garbage Can Model Problems are the result of performance gaps or an inability to predict the future. Thus, problems may originate inside or outside the organization. Traditionally, it was assumed that problems trigger decision processes; if a problem is sufficiently threatening, this may happen. Usually, however, managers and other participants go through the garbage and look for suitable fix called solutions.

Garbage Can Decision-making

Solutions have a life of their own. They are distinct from problems which they might be called on to solve. Solutions are answers (more or less actively) looking for a question. Participants may have ideas for solutions; they may be attracted to specific solutions and volunteer to play the advocate. Only trivial solutions do not require advocacy and preparations. Significant solutions have to be prepared without knowledge of the problems they might have to solve. Choice opportunities There are occasions when organizations are expected (or think they are expected) to produce behavior that can be called a decision (or an "initiative"). Just like politicians cherish "photo opportunities", organization man needs occasional "decision opportunities" for reasons unrelated to the decision itself. Participants They come and go; participation varies between problems and solutions. Participation may vary depending on the other time demands of participants (independent from the particular "decision" situation under study). Participants may have favorite problems or favorite solutions which they carry with them.


Why Garbage Can Decision-making

It was suggested that organizations tend to produce many "solutions" which are discarded due to a lack of appropriate problems. However problems may eventually arise for which a search of the garbage might yield fitting solutions. Probably the most extreme view (namely that of organizational anarchy) has been given by the Carnegie School. Organizations operate on the basis of inconsistent and illdefined preferences; their own processes are not understood by their members; they operate by trial and error; their boundaries are uncertain and changing; decision-makers for any particular choice change capriciously. To understand organizational processes, one can view choice opportunities as garbage cans into which various kinds of problems and solutions are dumped. The mix of garbage depends on the mix of labeled cans available, on what garbage is currently produced and the speed 20 with which garbage and garbage cans are removed.