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Personality and attitudes

Dr Anjula Gurtoo

Defining personality
 Through individual characteristics  Through social success

to speak through

Three dimensions to personality Society individual role  The long term patterns of thought, emotions and behavior is personality

Development of self and personality

BEHAVIORISTS  Skinner Primary and secondary reinforcers Shaping  Example: superstitious behavior  Carl Rogers and self concept Self concept, ideas and beliefs about self, is the basis of failure or success (self actualization) develop self concept by observing their own actions and feelings against others (reaction of others)


Phenomenological view of understanding others Outsider perspective vs. individuals own frame of reference (F of R)

F of R?
Basic underlying assumptions, perceptions, and feelings about self, the world as he/she sees it and particular situations he/she faces Represented through other s actions, words, behavior

 Each person sees the world uniquely, depending uniquely, on past experience and his own personal meanings  This is closely related to: how the person views himself in it .the roles he plays.. what he should/should not do what is right/wrong etc. how a person views the world is central to how he views himself as a person, his self concept .

Example: Meaning of achievement for you


Self concept is the internalized set of relatively stable perceptions that a person has of himself and who he is Relatively constant over time Develops in relation to past experiencing (of relationships, people, groups, institutions ) The meaning that person makes of those experiences Once a self perception is established as part of self concept, it will affect perception of future experiences Example: self perception of effective manager, leader


important to understand self concept and F of R??

The central aspects of an individual s self concept, defined by his/her F of R, are acted upon in his/her behavior, in what matters to the individual, and how he is likely to respond to a situation

Frame of reference Assumptive frameworks

Self concept Past experiences & perceptions






Early identification with parents
 Effective adults  Behavior specific to their gender

OTHERS ought, should, must becomes OUR belief, value, goal

Need for adequacy and unconditional approval

Evaluative statements either favorable or unfavorable concerning objects, people or events. Components:
 perception, affect or emotion and behavior

How do attitudes influence?

Theoretical foundation


 Balance theory
Involves three or more attitude objects There is a tendency to maintain or restore balance in one s attitude structures

 Cognitive dissonance
Individuals are assumed to strive for harmony in their thought structures Change dissonance: change one of the cognitive elements or add a new cognitive element.  Smoking and smoker  Culture and women  Religion and individual

Attitudes and behavior

attitudes fail to predict behavior  When attitudes predict behavior  Emotion and stress

Attitudes and emotional actions (interaction)

Emotional Actions

Emotions: complex automatic response to a situation Each emotion has its characteristic pattern of action Example: angry towards a person  Focal point? Injury to the other Where do these behavior come from?  Innate to all animal species/product of evolution  Adaptive function of emotions How are we different from other animals?? Emotional actions change with social experience

Transactional Analysis
Three basic ego states
 Parent: part of us that reflects life as it is taught  Adult: reflects life as it is thought  Child: reflects life as it is felt

Ego state: consistent pattern of feelings and experiences related to patterns of behavior.

Transaction Analysis
 Parent: makes rules ad regulations about how life
Sets limits, disciplines Judges, criticizes, gives advice Protects and nurtures Keeps traditions

should be (dos, don ts, always, never, should, ought, good, bad)

 Adult: works things out by looking at facts

Gathers data from the outside world (and from the inside) Sorts out best alternatives Plans the steps in decision making

 Child: actual control over our lives

Center of feelings and energy Source of creativity, curiosity and intuition

Some typical behavioral aspects of ego states

EGO STATE Critical parent NurturNurtur-g parent Adult WORDS You ought must always well done don t worry how"," when its 6.30 lets look at it I ll try harder I cant please I want I feel great VOICE TONE BEHAVIOR ATTITUDES Moralistic, judgmental, authoritarian Permissive, supportive caring Open minded, interested, non judgemental,

Angry, critical, Pointed finger, condescending set jaw, scowl Warm, encouraging Clear, Calm, enquiring Pat on back, smile, consoling Relaxed, attentive, level eye contact

Adapted Child

Whiny, taunting, mumbling Loud fast

Downcast eyes, Defiant, head nodding, delaying, slumped posture passive, complaining Noisy crying, constant change in behavior Curious, Energetic, fun loving

Free Child

Transaction Analysis
 Critical parent  Nurturing parent

 Free or natural child: carefree, trusting, adventurous, loving  Adapted child: Saying please, thank you, sorry
Compliance: the way to get along is always to say yes Procrastination: good way to get attention is to delay things Rebellion: getting attention by being bad or naughty

Negative and positive aspects of ego states

EGO STATE Nurturing parent Critical parent +ve i ll help out whenever you need you must look both ways before crossing please , thank you Expresses directly, has fun -ve let me do it for you you are no good

Adapted child Free child

Oh I am late May hurt self or others while having fun

Strokes and games

Strokes: acts implying recognition of others presence

Positive for being: your are great , Negative for being: Positive for doing; Negative for doing:

Games: Games: transactions which progress to a well defined predictable outcome

they are ulterior (covert psycho message) and learnt behaviors, bad feelings on both sides is a typical outcome

Some typical games:

    Wooden leg ( I can do so much if it weren t for my .. ) Poor me ( the whole world is against me ) Stupid (I am so stupid that cant understand anything ) Harried (I always have to work so hard and be in a rush )


Simple: using only one ego state

 Complementary  Crossed

Complex: using two ego states

 Angular  Duplex


Where is the project report?

On your desk

P P Nurturing parent

C Free child

I think I have done a great job

Yes, you have done very well. I am proud of you


Where is my project report?

Cant you look for it yourself !


What a silly nuisance they are !

Well you should have organized things more effectively.


Sales person: This item is beyond your budget

Well, I will take it


Come into my office. I want to talk to you

Yes, sure