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Presented by Raghubir S. Rawat
Presented B y : Raghubir S. Rawat
Energy E = mgh
the power is related to the mass flow rate .
Substituting with P and Q and introducing η , for efficiency we get Power, P = ρ g Q H η
P = 0.008829QH
Note: cumec = one m3/s & cusec = one ft3/s.
Where ρ = density of water, 1000 Kg/m3 g = gravitational acceleration, 9.81m/s2 Q = flow rate, m3/s H = Head of fall which is utilized, m η = overall efficiency (say 90 %)
The hydropower industry is closely linked to both water management and
renewable energy. community, and
Production and thus has an important role, in cooperation with the international In striving for sustainable development in a world where billions of people still lack
access to safe drinking water and adequate energy supplies.
"The problem, though, is not the dams. It is the hunger. It is the thirst. It is the darkness of a township. It is township and rural huts without running water, lights or sanitation. It is the time wasted in gathering water by hand. There is a real pressing need for power in every sense of the word.“ Nelson Mandela [WCD Launch, 16 November 2000, London]
Distribution Of Electricity Supply
Hydropower is renewable because it draws its essential energy from the sun which drives the
hydrological cycle which, in turn, provides a continuous renewable supply of water.
Hydropower represents more than 92 percent of all renewable energy generated, and continues to
stand as one of the most viable sources of new generation into the future. It also provides an option to store energy, to optimize electricity generation.
The International Hydropower Association (IHA), the Implementing Agreement on Hydropower
Technologies and Programmes of the International Energy Agency (IEA/Hydro), the Canadian Hydropower Association (CHA) and the International Commission Large Dams (ICOLD), are world-wide organisations that are proponents of responsible hydropower development
By the year 2050, the world population is expected to increase by 50 per cent, from 6 to 9 billion. Energyonsumption per inhabitant per year is generally in correlation with the standard of living of the
population, which is characteristic of welfare from an economic, social and cultural point of view. Today the less developed countries in the world, with 2.2 billion inhabitants, have an annual per capita consumption of primary energy which is 20 times less than those of the industrialised countries (with 1.3 billion inhabitants), and per capita electricity consumption which is 35 times less.
In view of this situation, all available sources of energy will be necessary, but for environmental
reasons, the first priority should be the development of all the technically, economically and environmentally feasible potential from clean, renewable energy sources, such as hydropower.
These technical advantages are part of an array of benefits known as ancillary services.Why Hydopower ? High Reliability: Hydropower is a proven. . Well-managed peaking and pumped-storage schemes integrated into a mixed system will reduce atmospheric emissions and optimize the efficiency of the total power system. hydro can play an important role in reducing the disadvantages of thermal power generation. while the best fossil-fuel plants are only about 60 per cent efficient. Modern plants can convert more than 95 per cent of moving water’s energy into electricity. which enable hydropower to optimize the use of other electricity sources. Building the backbone of an integrated renewable grid Hydropower can provide the required back-up energy to sustain other renewable energy sources with intermittent services. Hydropower also has the highest energy payback ratio. During the lifetime of a scheme. High Efficiency: Hydropower plants provide the most efficient energy conversion process. it can produce more than 200 times the energy needed to build it. to ensure electricity supply at times when there is no wind or sun. or sufficient in total to meet the world’s demand for electricity. Its schemes have the lowest operating costs and longest plant lives. well understood technology based on more than a century of experience. High Flexibility: Hydropower schemes with adequate storage reservoirs offer the capacity to meet instantaneous fluctuations in demand. Increasing the efficiency of mixed systems Although hydropower resources are not evenly distributed.
282. World Energy Assessment. 15.Energy Technologies And Their Current Generating Costs (adapted from UNDP 2000. 292. 386) . 281. pp.
Advantages And Disadvantages Of Hydro Power Projects .
Power Generation Options And Their Greenhouse Gas Emissions .
Major Hydro-power Projects In India .
MAJOR HYDRO-POWER PROJECTS IN INDIA .
000 MW) Second highest in hydro power potential is Himachal Pradesh 11747 MW(Installed capacity of 25000 MW) . Small hydro accounts for 6781. Bulk of potential 78. Hydroelectric Schemes in operation account for only 14.Power Scenario In India Economically exploitable hydro potential is 84044 MW at 60% load factor to.84 % Hydroelectric Schemes under execution account for only 6.17 % remains to be developed.99 % of total potential.81 MW under 1512 scheme Maximum Hydro-power potential in Arunachal Pradesh is 26756 MW (Installed capacity 60.
Tidal .Types Of Hydropower Reservoir or impoundment type Run of the river scheme. Plumped storage plant.
Advantages Flooding the upper part of the river is not required as it doesn't need a large reservoir. Spring melts will create a lot of energy while dry seasons will create relatively little energy A run-of-the-river power plant has little or no capacity for energy storage and hence can't co-ordinate the output of electricity generation to match consumer demand. Disadvantages The output of the power plant is highly dependent on natural run-off.Run Of The River Projects The natural flow and elevation drop of a river are used to generate electricity. . reducing the environmental impact as compared to reservoirs. either natural or through the use of a large reservoir at the head of the river which then can provide a regulated steady flow for stations down-river. people living at or near the river don't need to be relocated and natural habitats are preserved. Power stations of this type are built on rivers with a consistent and steady flow. As a result.
Water may be released either to meet changing electricity needs or to maintain a constant water level.Impoundment Type Uses a dam to store water. .
Penstock s Power House Koldam Project Layout Diversio n Tunnels N AI M D A M DA T AS E CR KYAN VILLAGE illw Sp ay M g ltin r i e-s mbe D a Ch Switchyar d Project View point .
generating electricity. •Pure pumped-storage plants just shift the water between reservoirs. the system increases revenue by selling more electricity during periods of peak demand. When there is higher demand. Although the losses of the pumping process makes the plant a net consumer of energy overall. water is released back into the lower reservoir through a turbine. Low-cost off-peak electric power is used to run the pumps. During periods of high electrical demand. •At times of low electrical demand. when electricity prices are highest. excess generation capacity is used to pump water into the higher reservoir.Pumped Storage Plant Pumped storage hydroelectricity is a type of hydroelectric power generation used by some power plants for load balancing. the stored water is released through turbines. Reversible turbine/generator assemblies act as pump and turbine (usually a Francis turbine design). but combined pumpstorage plants also generate their own electricity like conventional hydroelectric plants through natural stream-flow . The method stores energy in the form of water. pumped from a lower elevation reservoir to a higher elevation.
can respond to load changes within seconds. Along with energy management. The technique is currently the most cost- effective means of storing large amounts of electrical energy on an operating basis. but capital costs and the presence of appropriate geography are critical decision factor storage systems help control electrical network frequency and provide reserve generation. pumped Thermal plants are much less able to respond to sudden changes in electrical demand. potentially causing frequency and voltage instability. Pumped storage plants.Pumped Storage Plant Taking into account evaporation losses from the exposed water surface and conversion losses. of the electrical energy used to pump the water into the elevated reservoir can be regained. like other hydroelectric plants. . approximately 70&percnt. to 85&percnt.
pumped storage systems help control electrical network frequency and provide reserve generation. Uttranchal .g Tehri Dam.000 MW .Pumped Storage Plant Along with energy management. 1. like other hydroelectric plants. can respond to load changes within seconds. Pumped storage plants. E. potentially causing frequency and voltage instability. Thermal plants are much less able to respond to sudden changes in electrical demand.
the water is released from the upper reservoir through turbines to generate electricity. Pumped-storage plants work as a huge storage battery by charging or discharging power according to the system’s demand. They use the water stored in the reservoirs repeatedly and do not need large natural inflow to the reservoirs. such as the early morning hours. During periods of highest demand. While conventional hydropower can only generate power. pumped storage can absorb power when the system has an excess.Pumped Storage Plant Pumped-storage facilities have some distinctive features: Greater output can be obtained with smaller reservoirs in comparison with conventional hydropower. The combined use of pumped storage facilities with other types of electricity generation creates large cost savings through the more efficient use of base-load plants. . excess electricity produced by conventional powerplants is used to pump water from lower to higher-level reservoirs. During off-peak hours.
of the world's total electricity supply. 60&percnt. diversions.leading to the degradation of ecosystems. and canals . . 30-40&percnt. and is used in over 150 countries with 24 of these countries depending on it for 90&percnt. of the 271 million hectares of agricultural land irrigated worldwide rely on dams. of the world's 227 largest rivers are severely fragmented by dams. of their supply.Dams Hydropower currently provides 19&percnt.
About 1500 dams are currently under construction worldwide. About half of these are in China. with 12. When the Three Gorges Dam is completed it will take over as the dam with the largest capacity. Nevertheless.600 MW. The International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD) defines a large dam as Dam building peaked in the '70s and declined globally after that. On average one new dam is build every day and the average construction time is Itaipu. reaching 18. There are about 4300 dams in India. dam building in China. has the highest installed capacity at the moment.Dams : Facts And Figures The World Commission on Dams estimated that there are as many as 48. 4 years. being over 15 m high.200 MW.000 dams over 15m high worldwide. . Turkey. Brazil and India still continues on a large scale. The definition also includes dams between 5-15 m high with a reservoir exceeding 3 million cubic meters. shared between Brazil and Paraguay.
Embankment Dams Concrete dams: Types are as follows : Gravity dams Arch dams Buttress dams .DAMS Classification based on the building material used.
Kol Dam .g Tehri Dam .Embankment Dams ICOLD defined an embankment dam as. and have two main types. e. . Larger embankment dams are zoned and constructed of a variety of materials. either extracted from different local sources or prepared by mechanical or hydraulic separation of source material into fractions with different properties An important element in a zoned dam is an impermeable blanket or core which usually consists of clayey materials obtained locally. rock-fill and earth-fill dams. An advantage compared with concrete dams is that the bearing strength requirements of the foundation are much less. "any dam constructed of excavated materials placed without addition of binding materials other than those inherent in the natural material. The materials are usually obtained at or near the dam site“ Embankment dams are made from compacted earth.
Settlement of the dam must not be excessive so as to reduce the freeboard of the dam. . 2. The design has to ensure: 1. excessive hydrostatic uplift must be controlled by proper drainage. 4. 3. The upstream slope of the dam must be protected from the destructive action of waves. It is impermeable enough to prevent excessive loss of water from the reservoir. 5. The design must ensure stable slopes. A sufficient bond between the embankment and its foundation must exist to prevent the development of seepage paths.Embankment Dams An earth dam is basically a trapezoidal embankment built in a valley to form a water reservoir. and the downstream slope must withstand rainfall erosion.
Gravity dams are classified as "solid" or "hollow. sliding and crushing at the toe. though the hollow dam is frequently more economical to construct. The Eder dam in Germany. ." The solid form is the more widely used of the two.Concrete Dams Gravity Dams In a gravity dam. This is the case if the resultant force of water pressure and weight falls within the base of the dam. built around 1910. stability is secured by making it of such a size and shape that it will resist overturning. Coulee Dam is a solid gravity dam and Itaipu Dam is a hollow gravity dam.
stability is obtained by a combination of arch and gravity action.Concrete Dams Arch Dams In the arch dam. firm reliable supports at the abutments (either buttress or canyon side wall) are more important. E.g Idduki Dam and Hoover Dam. Hoover dam . A similar type is the double-curvature or thin-shell dam. The most desirable place for an arch dam is a narrow canyon with steep side walls composed of sound rock. For this type of dam.
.Concrete Dams Buttress Dams Buttress dams were first developed to conserve water in regions where materials were scarce or expensive but labour was cheap. These Dams were used for irrigation and mining purposes.
Types Of Hydroelectric Projects: Respective Services And Main Impact Sources .
1995) .Average Size Of Hydro Reservoir Per Unit Of Capacity (Goodland.
and associated tidal currents. tidal power has potential for future electricity Tidal energy is generated by the relative motion of the Earth. generation. The magnitude of the tide at a location is the result of the changing positions of the Moon and Sun relative to the Earth. The earliest occurrences date from the Middle Ages. sometimes called Tidal energy. which interact via gravitational forces. Periodic changes of water levels. and the Earth's rotation. Sun and the Because the Earth's tides are caused by the tidal forces due to gravitational A tidal energy generator uses this phenomenon to generate energy. the greater the potential for tidal energy generation. or even from Roman times Moon. interaction with the Moon and Sun. and the local shape of the sea floor and coastlines. tide mills have been used. are due to the gravitational attraction by the Sun and Moon. tidal power is practically inexhaustible and classified as a renewable energy source. The stronger the tide. is a form of hydropower that converts the energy of tides into electricity or other useful forms of power. both in Europe and on the Atlantic coast of the USA. the effects of Earth rotation. Although not yet widely used. Historically.Tidal power 'Tidal power. Tides are more predictable than wind energy and solar power. . either in water level height or tidal current velocities.
.ITAIPU DAM total view of the ITAIPU power plant Left part shows overflow (spillway). the power station is located in the middle.
which supplied 90% of the energy consumed by Paraguay or 19% of that consumed by Brazil Engineers elected the Itaipu Dam as one of the Seven Wonders of the Modern World In 1994.68 billion kilowatt-hours (kWh). In the year 2008. The Parana river is the seventh largest in the world and had to be diverted to construct the dam.ITAIPU DAM Location: The Parana River between Brazil and Paraguay. it achieved its generating record of 94. The installed generation capacity of the plant is 14 GW . with 20 generating units of 700 MW each. . the American Society of Civil At the bottom of the 196 m tall dam The white tubes are containing the inlets for the 18 turbines (715 MW each).
1984. in the world was shifted. operations in September 2006 and in March 2007.6 km dam A 12 800 000 m³ of concrete was used for the project ITAIPU. The first 18 units were installed at the rate of two to three a year. the last two of these started running in the year 1991. The course of the seventh biggest river On top of the 7. .ITAIPU DAM The works began in January 1975. The lake created by this is 170 km long and contains 29 billion tons of water. its length 7.76 km. as was 50 million tones of earth and rock.000 MW and completing the power plant. thus raising the installed capacity to 14. the first generation unit started running in Itaipu. The last two of the 20 units started The height of the dam reaches 196 m. On May 5.
8%. approximately 10.000 families living beside the Paraná River were dislodged from their plots in order to make way for the dam The final cost of ITAIPU amounts to US$ 20 billion.would be covered by solar modules for the same yearly output as ITAIPU a solar PV-plant would cost US$ 132 billion . construction The iron and steel used would allow for the Around forty thousand people worked in the The water intake of one single 715 MW Francis- turbine is 700 m³/s.at nominal level . If whole area of the lake . construction of 380 Eiffel Towers.ITAIPU DAM The amount of concrete used to build the Itaipu Power Plant would be enough to build 210 football stadiums. its weighted efficiency is 93.
HOOVER DAM .
HOOVER DAM LAYOUT .
composite steel and concrete arch bridge.S. tentatively named the Mike O'Callaghan-Pat Tillman Memorial Bridge It will divert the U. and better safety. the new Hoover Dam Bypass is scheduled to be completed in 2010 traffic 1. 93 The bypass will include a .500 feet downstream from the dam.HOOVER DAM To provide much more highway capacity.
1936 Construction cost: $49 million ($736 million adjusted for inflation from 1936 to 2008) construction: 112. 1931 – March 1. 96 of them at the construction site. the total gross power rating for the plant. is about 2080 MW. Deaths attributed to Following an uprating project .HOOVER DAM Construction period: April 20. from 1986 to 1993.
who . it was named after Herbert Hoover. originally known as Boulder Dam. first as the Secretary of Commerce and then later as the President of the United States When completed in 1935. played an instrumental role in its construction. is a concretegravity dam in the Black Canyon of the Colorado River. states of Arizona and Nevada . both the world's largest electricpower generating station and the world's largest concrete structure. on the border between the U.S.HOOVER DAM Hoover Dam.
THREE GORGES DAM .
300 km and a natural fall of 5.400 meters from the west to the east. 2008. when the 26th generator was brought to commercial operation. Except for a planned ship lift. Six additional generators in the underground power plant are being installed. all the original plan of the project was completed on October 30.500 MW. With a length of more than 6. . with the dam thus not expected to become fully operational until about 2011. THREE GORGES DAM The Three Gorges Dam spans the Yangtze China. the flood-prone Yangtze River is the largest of the kind in China and the third largest in the world. It is the largest hydro-electric power station in the world. The total electric generating capacity of the dam will reach 22.
the dam is not expected to become fully operational until about 2011. The dam will raise the water level the third time to its designed maximum water level (175 m above sea level) by the end of 2008 . but due to additional projects such as the underground power plant with 6 additional generators. 1994.THREE GORGES DAM The dam was first envisioned in 1919. The construction started on December 14. and due to the complexity of the ship lift. The dam was expected to be fully operational in 2009.[ Dam was approved by the National People's Congress in 1992 with a record number of abstentions and dissenting votes .
140 towns. sluice gates which can cause dam failure under some conditions. reservoir has or will flood some 1.350 villages). Excessive sedimentation can block the The 600 kilometer (375 mi) long The massive project sets records for number of people displaced (more than 1.THREE GORGES DAM There are two hazards uniquely identified with the dam. 1.300 archaeological sites .2 million). One is that sedimentation projections are not agreed upon. number of cities and towns flooded (13 cities. and the other is that the dam sits on a seismic fault. and length of reservoir (more than 600 kilometers) .
The project was conceived long before India became a free nation and preliminary works had commenced in 1946 . near the border between Punjab and Himachal Pradesh in northern India. The Bhakra-Nangal multipurpose project is among the earliest river valley development schemes undertaken by Independent India.BHAKRA NANGAL DAM Bhakra Dam is a concrete gravity damacross the Sutlej River.
Hydropower And The Question Of Scale Of course. . There is much less packaging here because of the geometrical relationship between surfaces and volumes: when you increase the size of a container. The same geometrical laws govern comparisons between small-scale versus large-scale hydroelectric plants and their corresponding reservoirs. the outside surface grows at a square rate while the volume inside grows at a cubic rate. you will choose the single one-litre container.
Further. . hydro projects up to 25 MW station capacity have been categorized as Small Hydropower (SHP) projects. these are classified as: Class Micro Hydro Mini Hydro Small Hydro Station capacity in kW Up to 100 101 – 2000 2001 .Small Hydro In India. Government of India is assigned the business of SHP up to this capacity.25000 The Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources.
More suited for the sensitive mountain ecology.Why Small Hydro Power ? Reliable. Minimal transmission losses. Can be exploited wherever sufficient water flows ‑ along small streams. mature and proven technology. environment friendly. . entails no waste or production of toxic gases. Non‑polluting. eco‑friendly. medium to small rivers. Does not involve setting up of large dams or problems of deforestation. submergence or rehabilitation. Small capital investment and short gestation period.
The rural energy scenario is characterized by inadequate. Along water distribution systems and pre and post water treatment plants.194 MW from hydro. . promoting small and mini hydro projects is one of the objectives of the Policy on Hydro Power Development in India. Realizing the fact that small hydropower projects can provide a solution for the energy problem in rural.Small Hydro Development In India Power generating total installed capacity in India is of 1.27. remote and hilly areas where extension of grid system is comparatively uneconomical. which includes 33. About 70% of the population in India lives in rural areas. Along the canal systems having sufficient drops. poor and unreliable supply of energy services.056 MW.
97 2.6 156.03 148.32 .27 170.61 466.State Wise Identified Small Hydel Sites upto 25 MW Capacity number of Total Capacity in MW S.85 336.63 1059. Name of State Identified Sites 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhatisgarh Goa Gujarat Haryana 286 492 90 92 174 3 290 22 30.78 1207.83 30.05 9 10 11 12 13 14 Himachal Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh 323 201 89 230 198 85 1624. No.90 194.05 652.02 179.05 254.
061 1478.62 6.No Name of State Identified Sites 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttar Pradesh Uttaranchal West Bengal A&N Island 234 96 98 88 86 161 78 49 68 147 8 211 354 145 6 599.477.State Wise Identified Small Hydro Sites upto 25 MW Capacity Contd ….76 65.40 TOTAL 4.50 190.85 267.75 338.92 9.34 .235 182. Number of Total Capacity in MW s.39 156.32 181.26 27.404 10.47 105.63 181.26 202.
Main Elements Of A small hydro Scheme •Weir •Canal •Forebay •Penstock •Powerhouse •Tailrace .
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