Nineteen Eighty Four

Language ‘Good prose should be like a windowpane’

Show detailed understanding of the ways in which writers' choices of form, structure and language shape meanings A GRADE exploration and analysis of key aspects of form, structure and language with perceptive evaluation of how they shape meanings

Three areas to focus on when considering language and Nineteen Eighty Four

1. Orwell’s opinion of language 2. Language of the book itself (how Orwell writes) 3. Language as a theme in itself

Connecting ideas, quotes, context, perceptions, interpretations etc You will be given four A4 cards containing points about the novel and language You must create a mind map using these, quotes from the book and your own interpretations/explanations You will need to begin by cutting up the quotes and grouping them according to the headings (evident in bold) Discuss and work as a group Be prepared to present your work

Orwell’s thoughts on Language
The writer should be clear about what he thinks and the language he uses to express himself should be simple, direct and plain Clear connection between language and politics.

Politics and Language
Totalitariansim as the great political threat Thrives on blurring of judgement and vagueness of thought, feeling and language Totalitariansim can only work if people are changing their minds at will Totalitariansim is easier if language (and thought) is vague and indistinct

Language of the Novel-1
Simple, direct concrete Life is described exactness- attention to telling detail Imaginative quality Life in a tolaitarian state

Different styles of language in the novel -2
Meetings between Julia and Winston Luxury of more poetic style Paperweight and proles What questions arise?

The Theory and Practice of Oligarchical Collectivism’ by Emmanuel Goldstein
Dry language of political theory Abstract scientific analysis Clear but lacking concreteness

Prole Language
Attempts to create the impression of the speech of the proles Failure?

Evaluate the significance of cultural, historical and other contextual influences upon literary texts and study

Language- the theme
Society of newspeak- language of Ingsoc ‘The revolution will be complete when the language is perfect. Newspeak is Ingsoc and Ingsoc is Newspeak’ Syme the philologist Destruction of words- freedom, democracy, love,honour, justic, humanity, religion’ No words = no ideas/concepts= thoughtcrime disappears No grey areas/distinctions ‘The whole notion of goodness and badness will be covered by only six words- in reality, only one word ‘ungood’ = bad, ‘plusgood’= very good, ‘ ‘the beauty of the destruction of words’

Language- the theme
To be human is to discriminate and judge, judgement involves the exact use of language so that the mind knows where it stands. Orwell-language and morality are closely related. Not to use language clearly involves a descent into a kind of subhuman state, whose speech is ‘uttered in unconsciousness’, duckspeak ‘his head was thrown back a little, and because of the angle at which he was sitting, his spectatcles cuaght the light and presented to Winston two blank discs instead of eyes. What was slightly horrible, was that from the stream od sound that poured out of his mouth, it was almost impossible to distinguish a single word’

‘Politics and the English Language’
Used this image of the two blank discs for eyes, in a description of a tired political hack, mouthing strings of phrases which have nothing to do with thought or with the process of human life: ‘One often has the curious feeling that one is not watching a live human being but some kind of dummy: a feeling which suddenly becomes stronger at moments when the light catches the speaker’s spectacles nd turns them into blank discs which seem to have no eyes behind them’

Written in past tense which may or may not indicate that the party was overthrown at some stage

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