The functional structure of NetBackup and Media Manager.

Objectives: The aim of this module is to describe, in detail, the architecture and functionality of NetBackup and Media Manager, and how these two software products interact with each other:
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ What is a master server, a media server and a client ? What is the difference between a daemon and a process ? What are the NetBackup daemons and processes, and what do they do ? What are the Media Manager daemons and processes, and what do they do ? What is the function and location of the NetBackup and Media Manager catalogs ? What are the relationships between the catalogs ? What is the bp.conf file

A detailed and thorough understanding of the components of NetBackup and Media Manager is vital if you are to: ‡ Understand the design of existing environments. ‡ Architect or modify your own environment. ‡ Troubleshoot failures of all kinds.

What is a master server, a media server and a client? NetBackup consists of three primary components, the master server, media server(s) and client(s). ‡ These machines are virtual machines. ‡ A master server, media server and client might be physically different machines. However, it is possible that: ‡ The master server is also the media server. ‡ The media server is also the client.

‡ It is each server's NetBackup configuration file that 'SERVER =' entries identify whether a system is a master server or a media server. ‡ If you are installing a server of either type. If you are installing a client: ‡ A client will have only the NetBackup client software installed.Always remember that whether you are installing a master server or a media server: ‡ The actual software that you are installing is identical. the client software is automatically installed as well (the servers have to back themselves up!). .

Master server ‡ The master server is the overall controlling server for the entire NetBackup environment. which determines when automatic backup jobs are run. . ‡ It is the location of the scheduler.Let us now consider. and Media Manager volume catalog. media server and client actually are. ‡ The master server is also the home of most of the NetBackup and Media Manager catalogs. ‡ The most significant of these are the NetBackup image catalog. what a master server. in detail.

‡ If a master server has attached tape drives which are configured and usable by NetBackup. but from a NetBackup perspective it should be thought of as two virtual machines which happen to share the same host name. then it is referred to as a master/media server. . ‡ It is only one physical machine.Media server ‡ The media server is a NetBackup server that has some sort of storage resource physically attached to it.

. it is often the case that media servers are also clients.Media server (cont) ‡ Traditionally. media servers would be placed at strategic points around the network in order to minimise network bottlenecks when backing up multiple machines across IP. and particularly in Storage Area Networks (SANs). ‡ In more modern implementations. and back up their own data to local tape drives. ‡ These local drives are normally dynamically shared between two or more media servers using Shared Storage Option (SSO).

.Client ‡ A client is defined as any machine whose files are backed up or restored by NetBackup.

and a process.What is the difference between a daemon and a process? It is important to understand the difference between a NetBackup or Media Manager daemon. .

irrespective of whether there are jobs running or not. ‡ Daemons may spawn copies of themselves. the Media Manager volume catalog daemon. the NetBackup master server request daemon. Examples are bprd. and run in the background all time.Daemons ‡ Daemons are started by the NetBackup startup script. or by other daemons. . and vmd.

which will be seen on all three types of NetBackup machines. ‡ Examples are bpcd. . the NetBackup connection daemon. the NetBackup tape manager.Processes ‡ Processes are started on demand. usually by a system call or a socket handover. and bptm.

What are the NetBackup daemons and processes and what do they do? The daemons and processes that run on the NetBackup master server. . media servers and clients differ. depending upon which type of machine it is. We will now look at the different binaries that run on each type of machine.

‡ It is started by the NetBackup startup script. it reads the contents of the configuration catalog. the scheduler process. ‡ Its purpose is to listen for incoming requests for user directed backups. ‡ Depending upon the wakeup interval that is set (default is 10 minutes). ‡ As it starts.this is the request daemon. any user directed operation).Master server bprd . . caching this data in shared memory. the overall controlling daemon on the master server. archives or restores (in other words. and runs in the background all time. bprd will call bpsched.

‡ It is started at regular intervals. determined by the wakeup interval that is set in the global configuration. . ‡ Through bpdbm. it connects to the media server and passes the work list on for execution. bpsched receives the file list metadata from the media server and passes this back to bpdbm which uses this information to compile the appropriate image catalog entry.this is the scheduler process. ‡ At startup. ‡ If bpsched receives a work list. ‡ If a job is found to be run. bpsched exits. bpdbm compiles a work list which is then passed back to bpsched. If there are no jobs to be run.bpsched . ‡ When the backup is running. the scheduler identifies any jobs that need to be run. it makes a system call to bpdbm to read through the class catalog which contains the policy definitions and schedule settings.

the jobs catalog daemon.bpdbm . . ‡ As part of its maintenance function. with the exception of the jobs catalog. ‡ It manages the flow of data to and from bpjobd. ‡ It takes instructions from bpsched to read the class catalog and identify jobs to be run. it will also intermittently search for images that have expired and need to be deleted from the image catalog.this is the master server database manager. ‡ It maintains all of the NetBackup catalogs on the master server.

. ‡ Manages the flow of data into and out of the job catalog.bpjobd . ‡ Works under the control of bpdbm.this is the job catalog daemon. ‡ The job catalog daemon feeds information to the activity monitor in the GUI.

Master Server Media Server Client .

conf.Media server inetd . /etc/inetd. but is actually a UNIX operating system daemon that is used by NetBackup. This entry instructs inetd to listen for incoming calls on IP port 13782: bpcd stream tcp nowait root /usr/openv/netbackup/bin/bpcd bpcd . ‡ It listens for incoming IP connections for specific processes on specific ports. ‡ As part of the NetBackup installation. an entry is inserted in the inetd configuration file.this daemon is not part of the NetBackup installation.

‡ On Windows systems. an extra daemon is added as part of the installation. . When installing a Windows server or client. there is no inetd daemon. This is called bpinetd and performs the same function as inetd on UNIX. ‡ When a connection request is received by the media server from bpsched on the master server. the connection daemon. it is captured by inetd which calls bpcd.

bpcd . 57 or 58.the connection daemon. ‡ This is actually a process rather than a daemon. ‡ If the authentication succeeds. . passing over the work list that it has received from the master server. the connection is refused and the job will fail with return codes 54. and authenticates the name and IP address of the master server against the name that is configured as the first 'SERVER =' entry in bp. ‡ It is called by inetd as a result of all incoming connection requests from the master server. and immediately exits. ‡ If the authentication fails. since it is only invoked on demand.conf. bpcd does a socket handover to bpbrm.

‡ Once it is called by bpcd.bpbrm . This transmission takes place in intermittent bursts. bpbrm will invoke bptm. ‡ Once the backup has been initiated. the disk manager. the tape manager. bpbrm receives the image catalog metadata from bpbkar on the client and transmits it back to bpdbm on the master server. ‡ This process has overall control of the media server. .the backup and restore manager. determining which storage unit it is required to use. ‡ If a disk storage unit is required. then it will invoke bpdm. ‡ If a Media Manager storage unit is required. it receives and processes the work list. ‡ bpbrm will then attempt to connect to the client in order to start the backup.

‡ Manages the size and number of shared memory buffers that are used when writing data to tape. manages the writing of data to tape.bptm . ‡ The instance of bptm that is initiated by bpbrm is referred to as the 'parent' bptm. and acts is the interface between NetBackup and Media Manager.the tape manager. ‡ The most important NetBackup process. ‡ The parent reads the contents of the local media catalog on the media server. . from the perspectives of troubleshooting and performance tuning.

Instead. .e. ‡ If the backup is being performed over IP.bptm . in the case of a backup. the parent bptm is sometimes called the 'writer' and the child bptm is sometimes called the 'reader'. ‡ If the media server is backing up itself (i. then no bptm reader is created. it is also the client). whose purpose is to read the data that is being transmitted to the media server from the client. For this reason. bpbkar (the client backup and archive process) writes the client data directly into bptm's shared memory buffers. The parent bptm writes the data to the tape.the tape manager. then the parent bptm will spawn child processes.

Master Server Media Server Client .

but is invoked when the backup is being sent to a disk storage unit rather than the Media Manager storage unit. child bpdm processes which read the client data from the network. ‡ Like bptm. ‡ This process is the equivalent of bptm.the disk manager.bpdm . ‡ It does not interface with Media Manager. . and. since for disk based backups Media Manager is not involved. there will be parent processes that are initiated by bpbrm which manage the writing of data to disk. if backing up over IP.

Master Server Media Server Client .

on the client it authenticates the master server and the media server. ‡ Functions much like bpcd on the media server.conf .Client inetd. bpcd .the connection daemon. but where bpcd on the media server authenticates the name and IP of the master server only.the UNIX networking daemon. ‡ Functions exactly as it does on the media server. .

. to update the image catalog. ‡ Transmits the files to bptm or bpdm to be written to tape or disk. ‡ If the backup is taking place over IP. then back to bpdbm on the master server. ‡ Generates a stream of metadata which is sent to bpbrm.EXE on Windows). then bpbkar sends data over the network to the bptm reader.the backup and archive daemon (BPBKAR32. bpbkar writes the files directly into the shared memory buffers that are owned by the bptm (or bpdm) writer. ‡ If the backup is local. ‡ Reads the client files during a backup or archive.bpbkar .

‡ A modified version of GNUtar. which is used by NetBackup when performing restores.exe on Windows). it writes the client files during a restore) .tar .A version of tar that is installed with the NetBackup client binaries (tar32.e. ‡ Behaves in the opposite way to bpbkar (i.

Metadata Master Server Media Server Client .

. ‡ There are three Media Manager daemons that will be found running automatically in the background. there is no Media Manager activity on clients. no matter what type of Media Manager storage devices are configured. and what do they do? ‡ Media Manager daemons and processes run only on the master servers and media servers. also manage the volume and pool catalogs on the master server. in the case of vmd. These daemons manage the assignment and scanning of devices and.What are the Media Manager daemons and processes.

‡ The instance of vmd on the master server manages the volume catalog and pool catalog.vmd . ‡ From a Media Manager point of view. ‡ On the media server. . vmd handles tape location requests that are passed to vmd on the master server. ‡ One instance of vmd runs on the master server and on each media server. the master server is referred to as the volume database host because it is the location of the volume catalog.the Media Manager volume daemon.

the Media Manager volume daemon.vmd . . ‡ Tracks the number of mounts and the last mount time for each tape. which slot in the robot it is located in) to ltid. However. This is because it may be servicing requests from another NetBackup server and because it is used for remote device configurations and management. stopping ltid will not stop vmd.e. ‡ Starting ltid will automatically start vmd. it searches the volume catalog and returns details of that tape's physical location (i. ‡ When vmd receives information on the requested assigned volume from ltid.

ltid .the library and tape interface daemon. ‡ On startup. ltid will read the contents of the device catalog to identify what storage devices are configured. and the appropriate daemons for any robot defined drives. . ‡ ltid runs on media servers that have storage devices configured within Media Manager. ‡ Starting ltid will also start vmd and avrd. sometimes called the Media Manager device daemon.

ltid . if the server is a standalone master server) then ltid will immediately shut down since it has no devices to manage ‡ ltid handles media mount requests and will translate those requests into commands which control the robotic arms and tape drives ‡ ltid is the daemon whose activities can be observed through the Device Monitor interface and the command line with vmoprcmd .g.the library and tape interface daemon. ‡ If there are no storage devices configured (e. sometimes called the Media Manager device daemon.

‡ Continually polls each of the configured tape drives to determine if they have recently mounted a tape.the automatic volume recognition daemon. written to it by NetBackup. ‡ avrd is started by Itid and stops when Itid stops.avrd . ‡ avrd reads this label to ensure that it matches the barcode label of the tape that has been mounted. ‡ Every tape in the NetBackup environment has a unique label. This ensures that data will been written to the correct tape . This label is known as the recorded volume serial number or rvsn.

Which of these specific daemons are started depends upon the type of library and tape drives that you are using. .The remaining Media Manager daemons are the robotic daemons and robotic control daemons (if the latter are applicable) for each robot type.

. ‡ This daemon manages robotic drive requests. ‡ The value of x is determined by the method used to communicate with the library and is named after the type of drive that the library most commonly uses.tape library robotic daemon. ‡ tlxd receives requests to mount and unmount tapes.tlxd . and passes these requests onto the robotic control daemon tlxcd.

tape library robotic daemon. one instance of tlxd will run in the background.library controlled by SCSI commands (with 8mm drives) o tlmd .ADIC library controlled by dedicated control server over IP (with multimedia drives) ‡ When Media Manager is running on a media server. .library controlled by SCSI commands (with DLT drives) o tlhd . ‡ Three examples of this type of daemon and the hardware that is appropriate to them is as follows: o tldd .tlxd .IBM library controlled by dedicated control server over IP (with half-inch drives) o tl8d . This will spawn copies of itself to perform actions as directed by ltid.

tlxcd . ‡ Three examples of this type of daemon are: o tldcd o tlhcd o tl8cd .tape library robotic control daemon. ‡ Receives and handles requests to mount and unmount tapes that are passed to it from tlxd.

Client Master Server Media Server .

These are the most common Media Manager robotic and robotic control daemons. tl4d . ts8d and tsdd .Optical Disk Library.tape stacker 8mm daemon and tape stacker DLT daemon respectively.tape library 4mm daemon. .specific to StorageTek ACS/LS libraries.Library Management Facility. odld . Here are some of the others that we may come across: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ acsd . lmfd and lmfcd .

How does it all work together? Metadata Master Server Media Server Client .

What is the function and location of the NetBackup and Media Manager catalogs? The NetBackup catalogs on both the master server and media server are located here: /usr/openv/netbackup/db The Media Manager catalogs on the master server and media server are located here: /usr/openv/volmgr/database .

Each media server has a NetBackup catalog called the media catalog. pool and global device database catalogs. error and vault. jobs. First.The NetBackup catalogs on the master server are as follows: image. let·s look at the NetBackup catalogs: . Each media device catalog. The Media Manager catalogs on the master server are the volume. class. config.

Image catalog ‡ The image catalog is located at /usr/openv/netbackup/db/images on the master server. ‡ The header file contains metadata about how and when the image was made and has a name in the format ¶POLICY_TIMESTAMP_SCHEDULE·. ‡ The image catalog contains data on every file that has been backed up and holds this information for the duration of the retention period. ‡ Each image entry comprises two files. This is a directory. a header file and a ¶. This file is quite small and is always in ASCII format. Note that they are not grouped together by policy name. and below it are subdirectories named after the individual client names.f· file. .

then it will have a name of the form ¶POLICY_TIMESTAMP_SCHEDULE.f_F1· ‡ If there are multiple copies if the same image.Image catalog ‡ The ¶.f· ‡ If the file has been compressed. then you will see files with a name like ¶POLICY_TIMESTAMP_SCHEDULE_F1· and ¶POLICY_TIMESTAMP_SCHEDULE.f· file holds the data about the files that make up the image.z· ‡ If fragmentation has been used. The format of the name of this file is ¶POLICY_TIMESTAMP_SCHEDULE. then you will see files with a name like ¶POLICY_TIMESTAMP_SCHEDULE_C1· and ¶POLICY_TIMESTAMP_SCHEDULE. By default it is a binary file.f.f_C1· .

the image catalog ¶. ‡ It is highly recommended that the default binary format is used. NetBackup has used a binary format for the ¶. .5. ‡ The software is still capable of reading entries in the old ASCII format. From version 4.5 onwards.Image catalog For versions of NetBackup prior to 4. ‡ Individual image catalog entries can be converted from binary to ASCII and back again using the cat_convert utility.f· files were in ASCII format which: ‡ Could be read using a text editor. ‡ Could result in a very large image catalog that was difficult to manage and slow to access.f· files.

Image catalog The image catalog uses an indexing system to help speed up the process of browsing for restores. and which index level you would like to use. During the installation you will be asked if you wish to index the catalog. . Indexing is recommended and the default index level is 9.

‡ Contains information about the policy configurations and schedules.Class catalog ‡ Located in /usr/openv/netbackup/db/class. . storage unit configuration and catalog backup details. ‡ This catalog is read by bprd when it starts. ‡ Holds the global configuration parameters. and its contents are cached in shared memory. Config catalog ‡ Located in /usr/openv/netbackup/db/config.

‡ Hold client specific information. This instructs particular clients to behave differently from the standard client-type rule sets held in the class catalog. Altnames catalog ‡ Located at /usr/openv/netbackup/db/altnames. ‡ Usually empty. . entries for particular clients can be added and modified using the bpclient command.Client catalog ‡ Located in /usr/openv/netbackup/db/client. ‡ Files in this catalog are manually created by the user and hold alternative client names and rules for performing alternative client restores.

. and can also be accessed from the GUI with the Problems and All Log Entries reports. Jobs catalog ‡ Located at /usr/openv/netbackup/db/jobs. ‡ This catalog is the source of real time data for the activity monitor. ‡ Holds data collected from all NetBackup processes. under the control of bpdbm. ‡ It is managed by the bpjobd daemon.Error catalog ‡ Located at /usr/openv/netbackup/db/error. ‡ This catalog can be interrogated at the command line with the bperror command.

Located at /usr/openv/netbackup/db/media. Managed by bptm on each media server. Hold records of every tape assigned to the media server and the NetBackup media states of the tapes (e.Media catalog ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ There is a media catalog on every media server.g. ACTIVE. . FROZEN or SUSPENDED).

Now let·s look at the Media Manager catalogs: Volume catalog The volume catalog exists only on the volume database host, which is almost always the master server. It holds data on all of the media in the NetBackup environment, including their physical location, and records media-related information such as volume pools and bar code rules. It is located at /usr/openv/volmgr/database and is made up of the following components, each of which can be thought of as a catalog in its own right:

volDB - the volume database. ‡ Holds data on the physical location of tapes (i.e. robot number, slot number, and therefore the volume group that they are in). ‡ This is the catalog that is updated by performing a robotic inventory and update. poolDB - the pool database. ‡ Holds information on the volume pools, such as their names, numbers and any host residency. ‡ Note that the definition of the SCRATCH pool is not held here, but in the Media Manager configuration file, /usr/openv/volmgr/vm.conf.

ruleDB - the rule database. ‡ Holds the barcode rule information. globDB - the global device database. ‡ Holds information on all of the devices across all of the media servers. ‡ Used by the device configuration wizards.

Comprised of two specific text files. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ . ‡ robotic_def holds information on robotic devices. such as type (TLD etc).g. /dev/rmt/0cbn). ltidevs contains data on the drives. It is located in /usr/openv/volmgr/database. such as the type and the location of the appropriate SCSI pass-thru driver.Device catalog There is a device catalog on each media server. the operating system device file (e. and status (UP or DOWN etc). location if they are robotic.

‡ The image catalog also records the media server that actually performed the backup. On the media server the media catalog records the media ID that each image was backed up on. the volume catalog on the master server records the physical location of all removable media. . ‡ The image number is a unique reference that is given to every backup that NetBackup makes. grouped together by image number.What are the relationships between the catalogs? ‡ The image catalog records details of every file that has been backed up. ‡ Finally.

is provided. which operates using a separate scheduler and outside of normal NetBackup functionality. and perform different functions. ‡ Although they are in different locations on different servers. they must be protected as if they were a single entity. . ‡ It is for this reason that a totally separate backup and recovery utility.What are the relationships between the catalogs? ‡ This diagram illustrates the fact that the NetBackup/Media Manager catalogs are essentially a distributed relational database.

What are the relationships between the catalogs? Master Server NBU /file image # /media server Media Server NBU image # media ID Master Server MM media ID location robot? slot? .

master server.conf. . On every machine.What is the bp.conf is the NetBackup configuration file.conf file on every UNIX NetBackup machine.conf must be: SERVER = <master_server_name> This is followed by ¶SERVER = <media_server_name> entries for each of the media servers. media server and client. There is a bp. It is located at /usr/openv/netbackup/bp. the first entry in bp.conf file? bp.

conf.Each machine must have its own client name represented in an entry like this: CLIENT_NAME = <local_machine_name> Other entries to perform different functions can be added to bp. . such as: BPTM_QUERY_TIMEOUT = 2100 ALLOW_MEDIA_OVERWRITE = TAR and many others.

For any Windows NetBackup machines.conf file is located in the system registry at: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE/SOFTWARE/VERITAS/NetBackup/Current Version/Config These entries are usually set at installation time or through the ¶Host Properties· window in the Administrator GUI. the functionality provided by the bp. . NOTE: the manual manipulation of the registry is not officially supported by either Veritas or Microsoft. If neither of these methods are possible. the regedt32 utility can be used to change them manually ² this is sometimes required to change the list of SERVER entries if a client needs to be moved to a new master server.

Here is an example of a master server bp.conf: .

And a media server: .

And a client: .

. ‡ Architect or modify your own environment. ‡ Troubleshoot failures of all kinds.Summary You should now have the skills necessary to: ‡ Understand the design of existing environments.

Questions? .