Various Forms and Sources of Energy
1. Energy is the ability to do work. 2. There are various forms of energy , such as (a) potential energy (b) kinetic energy (c) heat energy (d) sound energy (e) light energy (f)electrical energy (g) chemical energy (h) nuclear energy

Light energy
‡ Given out by burning or lighted object. ‡ The Sun is the main source of light energy.

Kinetic Energy
‡ Energy possessed by a moving body. ‡ The kinetic energy of an object increases when it moves faster.

Potential energy
Two types of potential energy: a) Gravitational potential energy - the energy stored in an object when the object is raised from its position. - the higher an object is from the ground, the bigger is its potential energy. - for examples: waterfall and person climbing up a staircase

b) Elastic potential energy - stored in objects that are compressed, stretched or bent. - for examples: compressed spring, a stretched rubber band and a bent ruler.

Sound Energy
‡ Produced when an object vibrates. ‡ For examples: ring the bell, sing

Heat Energy
‡ Given out by burning or hot objects. ‡ For examples: an iron, a gas stove

Electrical Energy
‡ Produced by a movement of electric charges. ‡ For examples: dry cell, accumulator

Chemical Energy
‡ Stored in food, fuels and chemical substances. ‡ For examples: food and firewood

Nuclear Energy
‡ Released when an atomic bomb explodes.

The Sun ‡ gives out heat energy and light energy Biomass ‡ animal and plant wastes ‡ produce biomass fuels Radioactive substances ‡ produce nuclear energy ‡ uranium and plutonium

Fossil fuels ‡ produce heat energy ‡ petroleum , natural gas and coal

Wind ‡ moving air ‡ has kinetic energy ‡ produce electrical energy Waves ‡ moving water ‡ has kinetic energy ‡ produce electrical energy Water stored in a dam(hydro) ‡ has potential energy ‡ produce electrical energy

Sources of energy

Geothermal ‡ heat energy from inside the Earth ‡ escapes to the surface of the Earth as hot springs and geysers


Renewable energy
1. Renewable energy sources are energy sources that can be replaced when they have been used. This means that the supply of these energy sources will not be used up. 2. Renewable energy sources: ‡ Wind ‡ Sun ‡ Geothermal ‡ Waves ‡ Biomass ‡ Water

Non-renewable energy
1. Non-renewable energy sources are energy sources that cannot be replaced and will finally be used up. 2. Non-renewable energy sources: ‡ Fossil fuels - petroleum - natural gas - coal

‡ Radioactive metals - plutonium - uranium

The solar energy
1. The uses of solar energy: a) Enables green plants to make food during photosynthesis. b) To generate electricity when solar cells absorb light energy. c) In solar water heaters to heat up the water for bathing and other purpose. d) In solar cookers for cooking of food. e) Several solar cells are grouped together to make a solar panel.

2. We need to conserve energy a) So as to prevent energy crisis b) So that there will still be energy left for us to use in the future. 3. Ways to use energy efficiently a) Use energy-saving bulbs b) Avoid using electrical appliances which consume a lot of electricity c) Form car-pools d) Recycle used objects or materials

e) Switch off lights and electrical appliances when not in use f) Improve on the efficiency of engines in vehicles and machineries.

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