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Windows Server 2008 File and Storage Solutions

Agenda
Remote File Services
Server Message Block version 2 (SMB2) Distributed File System Namespace (DFS-N) Distributed File System Replication (DFS-R) Microsoft Services for Network File System (MSNFS) Folder Redirection and Offline Files (CSC)

Storage Management

Storage Explorer N T FS , T xF Share and Storage Management C H K D S K , D e fra g Virtual Disk Services (VDS) M PI O Volume ShadowCopy Services (VSS)C S I I i a to r i S n ti File Server Resource Manager (FSRM) S I Ta rg e t i C S

N o t co ve re d h e re :

Roles, Role Services and Features Before we begin, I wanted to quickly


review these new Windows Server 2008 tools Server Manager
Roles Role Services Features

ServerManagerCmd.exe

Server Manager - Roles

Server Manager - Role Services

Server Manager - Features

ServerManagerCmd.exe

Server Message Block version 2 (SMB2)

The Need For SMB2


SMB1 Limitations
Considered chatty Poor WAN performance due to limited request pipelining / compounding Arbitrary limits on number of users, open files, shares Protocol evolved through many releases over many years
Difficult to extend, maintain and secure due to large number / variety of commands

Motivations for SMB2


Data access over WAN has become much more common LAN performance also much increased

SMB2 Benefits
Scalability for file Limits sharing greatly N u m b e r o f u se rs N um ber of open increased fiu m b e r o f sh a re s e Nl s Performance massively improved
SMB1
M ax 2^ 16 M ax 2^ 16 M ax 2^ 16

SMB2
M ax 2^ 64 M ax 2^ 64 M ax 2^ 32

Secure and robust O p co d e s

Request compounding reduces chattiness Larger reads/writes can fill the pipe even with significant link latency Total SMB1 SMB2
> 100 19

Durable handles Message signing settings improved (HMAC SHA-256 replaces MD5) Small command set reduces attack surface and complexity

Symbolic link support


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Evaluation of symlinks involving remote paths is limited by default

SMB2 CopyFile Performance


W ri te Improved WAN utilization R e q u e st W Benefits due to combination of: rite R e sp o n se

TCP stack improvements SMB2 request pipelining SMB2 large request support CopyFileEx() improvements
Large buffers Async, non-cached, IO

Pre -V i sta

Vi sta

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SMB2 CopyFile Performance


XCOPY, remote->Local, 1Gb / 100ms RTT
T h ro u g h p u t i kb / s n
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SMB2 Compounding Sample


A common application generated request sequence is shown below Left side shows resulting client-server requests without compounding Right side shows resulting client-server requests with compounding Open Dir Open Dir Benefit of round tripResponse savings is greater the higher the link Query Dir latency Query Dir
Response
Query Volume

Query Volume Close Dir

Response

Response Close Dir Response Query Volume Query Dir

Satisfied from SMB2 client cache

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SMB2 Explorer Performance


Dramatic benefits in explorer directory enumeration, due to a combination of:
compounding/speculative requests directory and attribute caching

For this scenario, a directory containing about 50 Excel 2007 files was opened using Windows Explorer Network 1Gb/s, 100ms RTT

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SMB2 Versions
First shipped in Windows Vista RTM
Not all protocol features utilized by Windows Vista RTM implementation Dialect revved for Windows Server 2008 / Windows Vista SP1

Windows Server 2008 / Windows Vista SP1 enhancements


Uses request compounding Client/ Cached: directory enumerations and file attributes Server OS Older Windows Windows Vista RTM Windows Vista SP1 Windows Server 2008 Cached: common share and file system property queries Older Windows SMB 1 SMB 1 SMB 1
Windows Vista RTM SMB1 SMB2 (v2.001) SMB 1 SMB 1 SMB2 (v2.002) Windows Vista SP1 SMB1 Windows Server 2008

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Server Message Block Version 2 (SMB2)


Greater Scalabili ty More Secure Compound Packets

Increased Buffer Sizes Symbolic Links Durable File Handles


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Distributed File System Namespace (DFS-N)

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DFS Overview
DFS Namespace ( DFS - N )
Namespace Server

DFS Folder Targets


\\SEA - SVR 01\Tools

Namespace Root

\\Contoso\Publ ic

Tools

DFS Replication ( DFS - R )


\\NYC - SVR - 01\Tools

Folder

Software Tools

Folders with Targets Training Guides

Tools \\SEA - SVR 02\Training Training Guides

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DFS Namespace
Windows 2008 Mode Domain Namespaces:
Eliminates 5000 link limit for domain namespaces
Our Vista/WS2008 build release namespace comprised 60,000 links, with ~1000 added and removed every day

Access Based Enumeration (ABE) support


For both standalone and 2008 mode domain namespaces

Improved diagnostics
In-box DFSUTIL.EXE, DFSDIAG.EXE System Center Operations Manager (SCOM) 2007 pack coming soon

Requires:
Windows 2008 Namespace Servers Windows 2008 Domain Functional Level

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Distributed File System Replication (DFS-R)

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DFS Replication
Performance
Un-buffered disk I/O
Asynchronous performance Low priority reduced system impact

RPC asynchronous pipes Up to 16 concurrent file downloads (up from 4) Better hub server scale-out over slow links

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DFS-R Performance
Windows Server 2003 R2 Windows Server 2008

Initialize Data Transfer Retrieve Data

Initialize Data Transfer Retrieve Data

Retrieve Data

READ

WRITE

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DFS Replication
Performance
Un-buffered disk I/O
Asynchronous performance Low priority reduced system impact

RPC asynchronous pipes Up to 16 concurrent file downloads (up from 4) Better hub server scale-out over slow links

Reliability
Dirty Shutdown Recovery improved Staging area moved out of replicated file tree

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Improved Dirty Shutdown Recovery


Last USN created by NTFS
Branch Office

USN Journal
File system Database Hub Server

Checkpoint USN Last USN consumed by DFSR

Improper shutdown of DFSR service System reboot/crash Power failure

DFSR USN Consumer updates Checkpoint USN Updates every three seconds and on DB changes

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DFS Replication
Performance
Un-buffered disk I/O
Asynchronous performance Low priority reduced system impact

RPC asynchronous pipes Up to 16 concurrent file downloads (up from 4) Better hub server scale-out over slow links

Reliability
Dirty Shutdown Recovery improved Staging area moved out of replicated file tree

SYSVOL replication now supported using DFS-R


Tools for migration of SYSVOL from FRS to DFS-R Safe, multi step process with rollback from all points Read Only Domain Controller (RODC) Support NTFRS will be deprecated in a future release
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SYSVOL Migration to DFSR


PREPARING INITIAL SYNC ELIMINATING

START

PREPARED

REDIRECTED

ELIMINATED

REDIRECTING

DFSR

FRS

FRS

FRS

DFSR

DFSR

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End-To-End Administrator Experience

Raise domain functional level to Windows Server 2008 Check health of AD replication RepAdmin /ReplSum Migrate to PREPARED state dfsrmig /setGlobalState 1 Ensure all DCs are PREPARED dfsrmig /getMigrationState Migrate to REDIRECTED state dfsrmig /setGlobalState 2 Ensure all DCs are REDIRECTED dfsrmig /getMigrationState

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Migrate to ELIMINATED state - dfsrmig

DFS-R in R2
DFS-R Read only replication

W i do n ws S e rv e r 2008 R2

Publication data that should never be changed at branch locations Open or create requesting WRITE access will be failed by a new filter driver Even if the filter is not running, other Win7 Replication Group members will refuse updates from a read-only replication partner Read-only member: Windows Server 2008 R2 Other members: Windows Server 2003 R2 or later

DFS-R cluster support (high-availability)


Replicated file folders on a clustered file server Any Highly Available File Server can become a DFSR member server, and the DFS-R service will fail over transparently between nodes All cluster nodes: Windows Server 2008 R2 Other members: Windows Server 2003 R2 or later

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Services for NFS (MSNFS)

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MSNFS In Windows Vista/WS2008 included in Windows Support for NFS v2/3 now
NFS Client in-box for the first time in the Windows Vista release NFS Server in-box for the first time in Windows Server 2008 release

Enhancements in Windows Server 2008


IPv6 support Enhanced RFC2307: Leverage AD for Windows and Unix user mapping Improved audit logging Fine grained component installation: Greater control and scriptable MSNFS deployments File Share management UI provides consistent experience: Share a folder via SMB and NFS from one location Automated firewall configuration simplifies deployment
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Username mapping server deprecated,

MSNFS in R2
Unmapped Unix User Access

W i do n ws S e rv e r 2008 R2

WMI provider for NFS

Enables zero configuration NFS deployments No up-front mapping required between Unix and Windows users Associates a Unix UID/GID directly to a Windows SID Consistent remote management of NFS services Simplification from Windows Server 2008 Required multiple tools for remote management RFC 2307 and NIS based Netgroups NFS file share access control via Netgroup mappings Authentication and integrity support Kerb5 used for authentication support Kerb5i used for integrity checking Extensible framework to allow for future security algorithms

Support for Netgroups

Enhanced Security with RPCSEC_GSS support

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NFS Deployment Requirements


Feature Unmapped Unix User Access Server

W i do n ws S e rv e r 2008 R2

Client

Windows Server 2008 NFS v2 or NFS v3 R2 Clients on any OS WMI Remote Windows Server 2008 NFS v2 or NFS v3 Manageability R2 Clients on any OS Netgroups Windows Server 2008 NFS v2 or NFS v3 R2 Clients on any OS Enhanced Security for Windows Server 2008 NFS v2 or NFS v3 NFS R2 Clients in AD deployment on any OS

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Folder Redirection and Offline Files

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Folder Redirection And Offline Files


Folder Redirection

Offline Files

File Server

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Offline Files In Windows Vista transitions Seamless


Faster synchronization Support for large files like Outlook PSTs Per-user encryption Improved Slow-link Mode Ghosting consistent client/server namespace Better interoperability with DFS Scriptable API support
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R2 Improvements
Background Synchronization

W i do n ws S e rv e r 2008 R2

Offline files are automatically synchronized in the background Slow-link mode is ON by default (when round-trip latency 80ms) Fully integrated with Sync Center, showing last update time Configurable settings for IT administrators

Improved App File Open & Close


SMB optimizations reduce the exchanges required to open and save application files

Transparent Caching
Automatically cache the network file to the local client disk The cached copy is only used if the local/server versions are the same All files modifications are made on the server Administrators can control by Group Policy (not enabled by default on fast networks)

BranchCache
Remote files accessed from a branch office are stored in the client machine disk cache Clients can retrieve files from other clients in the same branch The file version and user access rights are always validated with the server Existing Windows security access controls are enforced

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BranchCache
Windows Server 2008

Window s

Server 2008 R 2

W i dow s n S e rve r 2008 R 2

Slow WAN Link

Slow WAN Link

Client 1

Client 2

Client 1

Client 2

Windows Vista SP1 Clients


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Windows 7 Clients

Deployment Requirements
Feature Background sync Client Server

W i do n ws S e rv e r 2008 R2

Configuration CSC deployment File Server role Group policy Group policy Group policy

Windows Windows Server 7 2008 or Windows Server Improved file open & Windows Windows Server 2008 R2 close 7 2008 R2 Transparent caching Windows Windows Server 7 2008 or Windows Server Offline Files Windows Windows Server 2008 R2 exclusion list 7 2008 or Windows Server BranchCache Windows Windows Server 2008 R2 7 2008 R2
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Storage Explorer

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Storage Explorer
Design:
uses industry standard APIs to gather information about storage devices in FC and iSCSI SANs looks and behaves like applications that Windows administrators are familiar with implemented as an MMC snap-in

Storage Explorer GUI:


provides a tree-structured view of all the components within the SAN (Fabrics, Platforms, Storage Devices, LUNs)

Storage Explorer and SMfS (Storage Manager for SANs)


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Combined, these two applications provide full-

Storage Explorer

S ca l b l , sta n d a rd s-b a se d p l tfo rm fo r sto ra g e fa b ri d e vi a e a c ce d i ve ry sco H i ra rch i lvi w o f FC a n d i C S I S A N to p o l g y e ca e S o N o a g e n ts o r h a rd w a re p ro vi e rs re q u i d d re


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Share and Storage Management

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Share and Storage Management New MMC snap-in


Unified overview of storage and shares Unified share provisioning (SMB and NFS) Unifying share and storage provisioning

Tabbed overview of shares and volumes with key properties Volume actions
Extend, format, delete and properties

Share actions
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Stop sharing and properties

Share and Storage Management

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Manage shares & volumes in the same snap-in View shares on the Shares tab

Share and Storage Management

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Manage shares & volumes in the same snap-in View volumes on the Volumes tab

Provision a File Share

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Provision a Volume

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Volume Shadowcopy Services (VSS)

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VSS in Windows Server Diskshadow inbox 2008 creation andVSS requester hardware and Enables management of

software snapshots Supports a script mode and an interactive shell Reference requester for developing writers and hardware providers Handy tool for IT administrators Resilient to timing issues during snapshot import Support fast recovery of GPT disks Multiple imports of shadow copy LUNs Auto recovery of transportable snapshots

Hardware snapshot reliability enhancements

Snapshot protection mode Concurrent backups with single restore


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VSS in R2
LUN re-sync

W i ndo wsS e rv e r 20 08 R 2

Fast recovery of production LUN Duplication of production LUN

Express writer
Develop a VSS backup extension in two weeks

Concurrent restores Writer error tunneling


Requesters trap and respond to application specific errors during backups and restores
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Snapshot volumes on VHDs

Virtual Disk Services (VDS)

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VDS in Windows Server 2008 LUN Shrink


Enables shrinking LUNs and recovering space on a hardware array Used in conjunction with Volume and File System shrink

SAN Policy (disk online/offline)


New SAN disks declared to be online or offline by default The default for high end server editions is offline This protects SAN disks from aggressive Windows behavior Better cluster integration clustering now uses VDS to manage disks New read only attribute for disks

Partition Alignment
The default alignment of new partitions is 1Mbyte

Dynamic Partition Allocation


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New algorithm scans through all free space and allocates from the best fit

VDS in R2

W i ndo wsS e rv e r 20 08 R 2

Storage Pools (collection of storage in an array)


Based on array vendor input and SMI-S Phase I: Enumerate Pools; Create LUN in Pool; Get Properties

Updates to hardware array support


Explicit RAID types (ex: 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 50, 60) New Subsystem types (SAS, hybrid) Query arrays internal number for a LUN New flags on subsystems, controllers, drives and LUNs

Native VHD support


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Create, surface, remove VHDs Expand, compact, merge, shrink, convert

File Server Resource Manager (FSRM)

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FSRM
Storage usage, planning and monitoring
Quota Management Policy Management

Help IT administrator

Understand how existing storage is utilized Troubleshoot storage capacity issues Define and implement storage policies Current storage usage and usage trends Quota threshold Policy related alerts

Storage reports and alerts

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FSRM Quota Management

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FSRM File Screening

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FSRM Report Management

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FSRM Reports

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Summary
Remote File Services
Server Message Block version 2 (SMB2) Distributed File System Namespace (DFSN) Distributed File System Replication (DFS-R) Microsoft Services for Network File System (MSNFS) Folder Redirection and Offline Files (CSC) Storage Explorer Share and Storage Management Virtual Disk Services (VDS) Volume ShadowCopy Services (VSS)

Storage Management

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2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft, Windows, Windows Vista and other product names are or may be registered trademarks and/or trademarks in the U.S. and/or other countries. The information herein is for informational purposes only and represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation as of the date of this presentation. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information provided after the date of this presentation. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS PRESENTATION.

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