Modern Physics

Origin of the Atom
‡ 5th century B.C.
± Greek philosopher Democritus coins the term (atomos). ± Uncuttable

‡ 1803
± John Dalton proposes that each element consists of atoms of a single, unique type.

Atom Models
‡ 1897 J.J. Thomson discovers electrons.
± Atoms are known to be neutral ± There must be a positive component.

‡ Plum pudding model
± Thomson proposed that electrons were distributed in a positive material.

Atom Models
‡ 1909 Rutherford Experiment
± Majority of atom s mass located in nucleus ± Electrons orbit the nucleus like planets around the sun.

‡ 1913 Niels Bohr
± Electrons are confined to clearly defined orbits ± Electrons must absorb or emit specific amounts of energy to transition between orbits.

Atom Models
‡ 1926 Erwin Shrödinger
± Exact location of electrons indeterminable, only probability (quantum physics). ± Electron cloud instead of well defined orbits.

Bohr Model

Energy Level Transition
‡ An electron can change energy level by absorbing or emitting energy. ‡ PHOTONS!!! ‡ Photon: a particle of light.

Particle Wave Duality
‡ Sometimes light behaves like a wave.
± Polarization ± Interference ± Diffraction ± Reflection

‡ Other time light behaves like a particle.
± Reflection ± Electron absorption/emission.

Particle Wave Duality
‡ Matter can also behave like a wave. ‡ Dr. Quantum

‡ But back to electron transitions

‡ Horizontal line: energy level. ‡ Energy the energy required to ionize the electron from that level. ‡ Ionize to remove the electron from the atom.

‡ Electrons don t have to be ionized. ‡ Transition from one level to another. ‡ Move up absorb photon. ‡ Move down emit photon. ‡ Photon energy = difference in level energies. ‡ eV?

‡ An electron-volt is the amount of energy required to move an electron through a potential difference of 1 volt. ‡ V = W/q W = Vq W = 1V (1.6*10-19C) ‡ 1 ev = 1.6*10-19 J

Possible Transitions
a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) o) 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 5 2 3 4 5 6 3 4 5 6 4 5 6 5 6 6

Transition Energies
‡ Calculate the energy of your photon in eV.

‡ Convert that energy to joules.

Energy and Frequency
‡ The frequency of a photon is directly proportional to its energy.
± High frequency/energy: Gamma Ray ± Low frequency/energy: Radio Wave

‡ E = hf
± h: Planck s constant = 6.63*10-34 J·s

‡ What is the frequency of your photon? ‡ What color is it?

Emission Spectrum

Absorption Spectrum

Absorption Spectrum of a Star


2 mc

‡ Energy and mass are equivalent. ‡ If you could be converted completely into energy, how much energy would that be?

Alpha Particle
‡ 2 protons & 2 neutrons
± (helium nucleus)

‡ Mass of proton? ‡ Mass of neutron? ‡ Mass of alpha particle? ± 6.646*10-27 kg

Missing Mass
‡ Not a calculation error! ‡ The mass of 2 protons + 2 neutrons = 6.68*10-27 kg ‡ The mass of an alpha particle = 6.646*10-27 kg ‡ How much mass is missing? ± 3.4*10-29 kg

‡ Where did it go?

Binding Energy
‡ When (some) particles/atoms are combined, energy is released. ‡ This is the amount of energy that would be needed to break them apart. ‡ How much energy for an alpha particle?

Nuclear Fusion
‡ When small atoms are combined to form larger atoms, energy is released. ‡ Fuel source for the sun/stars. ‡ Gravity pulls atoms together atoms fuse energy released. ‡ This process only creates atoms up to iron.

Nuclear Fission
‡ Beyond iron, the binding energies of atoms decreases.
± Fusing larger atoms together will NOT release energy.

‡ When these atoms break apart, energy is released.

Fission and Missing Mass
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

+ n = 92Kr + 142Ba + 2n

3.902996*10-25 kg 92Kr: 1.526469*10-25 kg 142Ba: 2.356578*10-25 kg


‡ Where is the missing mass? How much is it? How much energy is it equivalent to?


Standard Model
‡ What is stuff made of? ‡ How does stuff interact?

Standard Model
‡ The theory of subatomic particles and their interactions. ‡ Particles and their interactions were predicted and many were subsequently discovered.


‡ Matter: anything that has mass.

Matter ‡ Hadrons: any particle that is composed of two or more quarks. ‡ Quark: fundamental particle.


Matter ‡ Leptons: fundamental particles of matter that do not interact via the strong force. (i.e. electron)



Matter ‡ Baryon: a subatomic particle made up of three quarks or three anti-quarks. (i.e. proton or neutron)




Three quarks

Matter ‡ Meson: a subatomic particle composed of a quark and an anti-quark.





Three quarks

Quark & Antiquark

Up u +2/3e Down d -1/3e Charm c +2/3e Strange s -1/3e Top t +2/3e Bottom b -1/3e

Electron e -1e Electron Neutrino 0 e Muon -1e Muon Neutrino 0 Tau -1e Tau Neutrino 0

‡ For every particle (quark, lepton, proton, electron, etc.) there is a corresponding antiparticle. ‡ The anti-particle has the same mass and opposite charge of the particle. ‡ Symbol for anti-particle is the same as the particle but with a bar over it.

Up: u

Anti-Up: u

Fundamental Forces
‡ Gravity: force of attraction that all things with mass have for each other. ‡ Weak Force: force that acts between leptons and is involved in the decay of hadrons. ‡ EM Force: force associated with electric and magnetic fields. ‡ Strong Force: binds quarks together to form hadrons and binds protons and neutrons in the nucleus.

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