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Types of Waves

List types of waves.

Types of Waves

Water Sound Light People Zombies

Wave

A continual disturbance, oscillation, or vibration that transfers energy from one location to another.

Oscillation: a repeating fluctuation in a physical object or quantity.

Pulse: a single oscillation.

Types of Waves - Scientific

Mechanical

**A wave that must travel in a medium.
**

Water Sound

Electromagnetic

A wave consisting of electric and magnetic fields.

Light

Mechanical Waves

Two Types:

Transverse A wave in which the particles of the medium move perpendicular to the motion of the wave.

Longitudinal A wave in which the particles of the medium move parallel to the motion of the wave.

Characteristics of Waves

Frequency (f)

How often do they come?

Example: 5 per second

Period (T)

How much time does one take to pass? How tall are the waves? How long are the waves? How fast are the waves going?

Amplitude (A)

Wavelength ( )

Speed (v)

Wavelength

Wavelength: the distance between consecutive corresponding points

Amplitude

Amplitude: the distance from the middle of the wave to the top of a crest or to the bottom of a trough.

Frequency

**Measured in cycles per second .
**

s- 1 Hz

hertz

1 January 1894)

Heinrich Hertz

(22 February 1857

Laid the foundation for the photoelectric effect (for which Einstein won the Nobel Prize) Experimentally proved the existence of electromagnetic waves. When asked about the ramifications of his discovery Hertz replied, "Nothing, I guess."

Frequency

Period

**If a wave has a frequency of 5 Hz (5 cycles per second) how long does it take for 1 cycle?
**

0.2 second

If the period of a wave is 0.1 second, what is the frequency of the wave? (How many cycles per second?)

10 Hz

What is the relationship between period and frequency?

T = 1/f

Speed of Waves

**Let s figure out the equation for the speed of a wave!
**

What equation do you already know for speed?

v = d/t Wavelength! Period! V = /T

What characteristic of a wave is a distance?

What characteristic of a wave is a time?

So, the equation for wave speed is

Speed of Waves

v = /T 1/T is the same as what?

Frequency

So, we can call the speed of a wave v=f

Wave Speed

Practice Problems

What is the speed of a water wave that has a wavelength of 8 meters and a frequency of .25 Hz? What is the wavelength of a sound wave that is 250 Hz? What is the frequency of a wave on a slinky that has a wavelength of 24 cm and is traveling 5 m/s?

Phase

Phase

B F

A

C E

G I

D

H

Motion of Particles

Remember!

Waves

transfer energy WITHOUT transferring mass.

Particles on transverse waves only move UP and DOWN. Particles on longitudinal waves only move RIGHT and LEFT.

Motion of Particles

A

A

Which way did particle A move?

Motion of Particles

Ask

yourself:

**Q: Which part of the wave is coming next? A: Crest.
**

Particle

will move up to be on crest.

A: Trough.

Particle

will move down to be in trough.

Standing Wave

**A pattern of wave crests and troughs that remains stationary.
**

node

anti-node

Natural Frequency - Resonance

Natural frequency - a particular frequency at which objects vibrate if disturbed. Resonance the vibration of a body at its natural frequency due to the action of a vibrating source of the same frequency.

Natural Frequency - Resonance

Tacoma Narrows Bridge Mythbusters Breaking Glass

Doppler Effect

Fire Engine Car Horn Bike - Air Horn Kent & East Sussex Railway Big Bang Theory Listener in Motion Efecto Doppler The Doppler Effect

Doppler Effect

The apparent shift of a wave s frequency due to relative motion between the wave s source and an observer.

Stationary

Forward

Reverse

Doppler Effect

If the source and observer are getting closer (relative motion toward) the apparent frequency will be increased. If the source and observer are getting farther apart (relative motion away) the apparent frequency will be decreased. The actual frequency of the wave does not change.

Interference

When two waves are in the same place in a medium at the same time (superposition) (superposition) they will interfere with each other.

Constructive Destructive

+

+

Phase & Interference

90° 90° 90°

270° 90° 90°

270° 90°

270°

270°

270°

270°

Phase Difference = 0°

Maximum Constructive Interference

Phase & Interference

90° 90° 90°

270° 90°

270° 90°

270° 90°

270°

270°

270°

Phase Difference = 180°

Maximum Destructive Interference

Interference

For each of the following, determine the amplitude of the resulting wave when the two pulses are superimposed.

+4 +3 +2 +1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4

Interference

+4 +3 +2 +1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4

Interference

+4 +3 +2 +1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4

Interference

+4 +3 +2 +1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4

Interference

+4 +3 +2 +1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4

Diffraction

The spreading out of a wave beyond an obstacle.

Maximum diffraction occurs when the wavelength of the wave is similar to the size of the obstacle.

Electromagnetic Waves

List types of electromagnetic waves.

Electromagnetic Waves

**Speed of light: c = 3 x 108 m/s
**

in a vacuum Light travels at different (slower) speeds in other materials.

Electromagnetic Spectrum

Waves at a Boundary

What are some things that can happen to a wave when it strikes a boundary between two materials? Absorb Reflect Transmit Refract

Reflection

Incident ray normal Reflected ray

i

r

i

= angle of incidence

i= r

r=

angle of reflection

Law of Reflection

Types of Reflection

Types of Mirrors

Plane Mirror

Convex Mirror Concave Mirror

Light in a Medium

Speed of light?

3 x 108 m/s In what?

Vacuum

**How fast does light travel in other materials?
**

Faster or slower? Slower!

Light in a Medium

Light travels slower in a medium. How much slower?

Depends on the medium. (Reference Tables)

Every medium has an index of refraction.

What medium has the smallest index of refraction? The largest?

Light in a Medium

The index of refraction is an indicator of how much light slows down in that medium. Ratio (unitless) of speed of light in (unitless) vacuum to speed of light in the material.

n = c/v

Practice

Calculate the speed of light in 4 materials other than air.

Refraction

When light changes speed, it bends.

Refraction!

The bending of light as it travels between two media with different indices of refraction.

Refraction

n

1

AIR WATER

n:

1

>

2

2

Refraction

n

1

n

:

1

<

2

WATER AIR

2

Snell s Law

n1sin

1

= n2sin

2

35°

AIR WATER

What is

2?

2

Refraction

n1sin

1

= n2sin

2

1

WATER AIR

50°

What is

1?

Total Internal Reflection

This can occur when light travels from a material of large index of refraction to that of small index of refraction. The angle of refraction is 90 degrees. Can you calculate the angle of the incident ray?

Total Internal Reflection

1

WATER AIR

What is

1?

Polarization

The orientation of a wave.

Mirror Images

Object Image

Mirror

Interference

+4 +3 +2 +1

-1 -2 -3 -4

Interference

+4 +3 +2 +1

-1 -2 -3 -4

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