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Employee Development

Objectives
1. Discuss current trends in using formal

education for development. 2. Relate how assessment of personality type, work behaviors, and job performance can be used for employee development. 3. Describe the benefits that protgs and mentors receive from a mentoring relationship.

Objectives (continued)
4. Explain the characteristics of successful

mentoring programs. 5. Tell how job experiences can be used for skill development. 6. Explain how to train managers to coach employees.

Objectives (continued)
7.

Explain the key features of an effective development strategy and how e-learning incorporates them.

8. Describe the steps in the development

planning process. 9. Discuss the employees and companys responsibilities in the development planning process.

Development refers to formal education, job experiences, relationships, and assessments of personalities and abilities that help employees prepare for the future.

Comparison Between Training and Development


Training Focus Use of work experiences Goal Current Low Future High Development

Preparation for current job

Preparation for changes

Participation

Required

Voluntary

Why is employee development important?


Employee development is a necessary component of a companys efforts to:
Improve quality Retain key employees Meet the challenges of global competition and social change Incorporate technological advances and changes in work design

Approaches to Employee Development


Assessment

Formal Education Interpersonal Relationships

Job Experiences

Formal Education
Formal education programs include:
off-site and on-site programs designed specifically for the companys employees short courses offered by consultants or universities executive MBA programs university programs

Examples of development programs at GE


Program
Executive Development Sequence

Description
Emphasis on strategic thinking, leadership, crossfunctional integration, competing globally, customer satisfaction Development of functional expertise, business excellence, management of change Emphasis on preparation for specific career path

Target Audience
Senior professionals and executives identified as highpotential

Courses
Management Development Global Business Executive Development

Core Leadership Program

Managers

Corporate Entry Leadership Professional Development New Manager Development Experienced Manager Audit Staff Financial Management Human Resources Technical Leadership

Professional Development Program

New Employees

Important trends in executive education:


Increasing use of distance learning by many companies and universities. Companies and the education provider create short, custom courses, with content designed specifically to needs of the audience. Supplementing formal courses from consultants or university faculty with other types of training and development activities.

Assessment
Assessment involves collecting information and providing feedback to employees about their behavior, communication style, or skills. Used most frequently to:
identify employees with managerial potential measure current managers strengths and weaknesses identify managers with potential to move into higher-level executive positions Work with teams to identify members strengths and weaknesses, and factors that inhibit productivity

Popular Assessment Tools


Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)

Benchmarks

ssessment enter

Performance ppraisals & 360Degree Feedback

Assessment Tools: Myers-Briggs (MBTI)


Most popular psychological test for employee development. Used for understanding such things as:
Communication Motivation Teamwork Work styles Leadership

MBTI (continued)
Examples of how used:
Can be used by salespeople who want to become more effective at interpersonal communication by learning things about their own personality styles and the way they are perceived by others. Can help develop teams by matching team members with assignments that allow them to capitalize on their preferences. Can help employees understand how the different preferences can lead to useful problem solving.

Assessment Tools: Assessment Center


The assessment center is a process in which multiple raters or evaluators evaluate employees performance on a number of exercises.
Usually held at an off-site location Used to identify if employees have the abilities, personality, and behaviors for management jobs. Used to identify if employees have the necessary skills to work in teams.

Examples of Skills Measured by Assessment Center Exercises


EXERCISES
SKILLS
In-basket Scheduling Exercise Leaderless Group Discussion X X X X X X X X X X X Personality Test Role Play

Leadership Problem solving Interpersonal Administrative Personal

X X

X X X

Assessment Tools: Benchmarks


Benchmarks is an instrument designed to measure important factors in being a successful manager. Items measured are based on research that examines the lessons executives learn at critical events in their careers. This includes items that measure managers skills in dealing with subordinates, acquiring resources, and creating a productive work climate.

Skills Related to Managerial Success


Resourcefulness Doing whatever it takes Building and mending relationships Leading subordinates Compassion and sensitivity Straightforwardness and composure Setting a developmental climate Confronting problem subordinates Team orientation Balance between personal life and work Decisiveness Self-awareness Hiring talented staff Putting people at ease Acting with flexibility

Assessment Tools: Performance Appraisals and 360-Degree Feedback Systems


Performance appraisal is the process of measuring employees performance. Approaches for measuring performance:
Ranking employees Rating work behaviors Rating the extent to which employees have desirable traits believed to be necessary for job success (e.g., leadership) Directly measuring the results of work performance.

Conditions under which performance measurement is useful for development: The appraisal system must give employees specific information about their performance problems and ways they can improve their performance:
Providing a clear understanding of the differences between current performance and expected performance. Identifying the causes of the performance discrepancy. Developing action plans to improve performance.

Conditions under which performance measurement is useful for development:


(continued)

Managers must be trained in providing performance feedback. Managers must frequently give employees performance feedback. Managers also need to monitor employees progress in carrying out the action plan.

360- Degree Feedback System


Peers
Rating Form Rating Form

Manager

Self

Customers

Rating Form

Rating Form

Subordinates

Activities involved in development planning using the 360-degree feedback process: 1. Understand strengths and weaknesses.
Review ratings for strengths and weaknesses. Identify skills or behaviors where self and others ratings agree and disagree.

2. Identify a development goal. Choose a skill or behavior to develop. Set a clear, specific goal with a specified outcome.

Activities involved in development planning using the 360-degree feedback process:


(continued)

3. Identify a process for recognizing goal

accomplishment. 4. Identify strategies for reaching the development goal.


Establish strategies such as reading, job experiences, courses, and relationships. Establish strategies for receiving feedback on progress. Establish strategies for receiving reinforcement for new skills or behavior.

Factors necessary for a 360-degree feedback system to be effective:


The system must provide consistent (reliable) ratings. Feedback must be job-related (valid). The system must be easy to use, understandable, and relevant. The system must lead to managerial development.

Job Experiences
Job experiences refer to relationships, problems, demands, tasks, or other features that employees face in their jobs. Most employee development occurs through job experiences.

To be successful in their jobs, employees must stretch their skills. They must be forced to learn new skills, apply their skills and knowledge in a new way, and master new experiences.

How Job Experiences are Used for Employee Development


Promotion

Enlargement of Current

Job Rotation
(Lateral Move)

Transfer
(Lateral Move)

Job Experiences

Externship

Temporary Assignment with Another Organization

Characteristics of Effective Job Rotation Systems Job rotation is used to develop skills as well as give employees experience needed for managerial positions. Employees understand specific skills that will be developed by rotation. Job rotation is used for all levels and types of employees.

Characteristics of Effective Job Rotation Systems Job rotation is linked with the career management process so employees know the development needs addressed by each job assignment. Benefits of rotation are maximized and costs are minimized through managing time of rotations to reduce workload costs and help employees understand job rotations role in their development plans. All employees have equal opportunities for job rotation assignments.
(continued)

Interpersonal Relationships
Employees can also develop skills and increase their knowledge about the company and its customers by interacting with a more experienced organizational member. Two types of interpersonal relationships used to develop employees:
Mentoring Coaching

Mentor Focus Role Individual Facilitator with no agenda

Coach Performance Specific agenda Comes with the job Position

Relationship Self selecting Source of influence Personal returns Arena Perceived value

Affirmation/learning Teamwork/ performance Life Task related

Characteristics of Successful Formal Mentoring Programs: Mentor and protg participation is voluntary.
Relationship can be ended at any time without fear of punishment.

Mentor-protg matching process does not limit the ability of informal relationships to develop. Mentors are chosen on the basis of their past record in developing employees, willingness to serve as a mentor, and evidence of positive coaching, communication, and listening skills.

Characteristics of Successful Formal Mentoring Programs: (continued) The purpose of the program is clearly understood. The length of the program is specified. A minimum level of contact between the mentor and protg is specified. Protgs are encouraged to contact one another to discuss problems and share successes. The mentor program is evaluated. Employee development is rewarded.

The Development Planning Process


The development planning process involves:
Identifying development needs Choosing a development goal Identifying the actions that need to be taken by the employee and the company to achieve the goal Determining how progress toward goal attainment will be measured Establishing a timetable for development

Development Planning (continued)


An emerging trend in development is that the employee must initiate the development planning process. The development approach used is dependent on the needs and development goal.

Responsibilities in the Development Planning Process:


Development Planning Process
Opportunity

Employee Responsibility
How do I need to improve?

Company Responsibility
Assessment information to identify strengths, weaknesses, interests and values Company provides development planning guide. Manager has developmental discussion with employee Manager provides feedback on criteria

Goal Identification

How do I want to develop?

Criteria

How will I know I am making progress?

Actions

What will I do to reach my development goal? What is my timetable?

Company provides assessment, courses, job experiences, and relationships Managers follows up on progress toward developmental goal and helps employees set a realistic timetable for goal achievement

Time

Company Strategies for Providing Development:


Individualization

Learner Control

Ongoing Support