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Abstract

Temperature dependent development


and reproduction of the whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)
Materials and Methods
The temperature-driven phenology model developed for T. vaporariorum, (M. Rivera 2010); and which was validated through life table data collected at fluctuating temperatures (V. Retamozo and J. Rodriguez, 2010), was used. Functions and parameters used in the model to describe develop ( Fig. 2.) , mortality ( Fig. 3.) and reproduction (4 and 5)are presented below:
Egg Nymph I Nymph II Nimph I Nimph II Egg

Heidy Gamarra2 Maria Rivera1 Henri Tonnang2 Henry Juarez2 Pablo Carhuapoma2 Jrgen Kroschel2

The development and mortality of immature life stages as well as the reproduction and longevity of T. vaporariorum was studied at seven constant temperatures (10-32C). A process-based climatic phenology model for T. vaporariorum was used and applied three risk indices (establishment (ERI), generation (GI) and activity index (AI)) in a geographic information system (GIS) environment to map and quantify changes for climate change scenarios of the year 2050 based on downscaled climate-change data of the scenario A1B from the WorldClim database. All applications and simulations were made using the Insect Life Cycle Modeling (ILCYM) software developed by The International Potato Center, Lima, Peru. The study concludes that T. vaporariorums potential damage will progressively increase in all regions where the pest already prevails today with an excessive increase in warmer cropping regions of the tropics and subtropics. Moreover, the information on the pest age-stage structure and distribution under specific field conditions will be useful for adapting IPM strategies.

1 Universidad Nacional Agraria La

Molina,

P.O. Box, Lima 12, Per


2Agroecology/IPM, Virology Laboratory /Crop Management and Production System and Research Informatics Unit/GIS Lab. International Potato Center, P.O. Box 1558, Lima 12, Peru

Nimph III Nymph III Nymph IV

Nimph IV

Introduction
The effect of climate change is manifesting in situations of drought or excessive rainfall, reaching directly affect the crop, there is also an indirect impact that is encouraging the development of pests and diseases in conditions of drought and rain. The whitefly T. vaporariorum is a major pest worldwide; this species causes direct damage affecting yield of potato, product quality and production and indirectly affects the crop because is a vector of Potato yellow vein virus (PYVV), affecting yield by 80% of total production. CIP is interested in predicting an management risk posed by pest and emergenging and reemerging viruses (figure 1) obtaining a spatial model of T. vaporariorum in potato which can predict the occurrence of this pest in different potato zones of the word using compilated data from the phenological model ILCYM simulated.

Figure 2. Temperature-dependent developmental rates (day-1) for immature life-stages of T. vaporariorum [egg; nymph I to IV respectively). Fitted curves is, Sharpe-DeMichele model.Markers represent observed data points and bars the standard deviations of the median.
a b

Figure 3. Temperature-dependent mortality rates of T. vaporariorum [egg; nymph I to IV respectively). Markers observed means. Fitted curves, nonlinear regression; the upper and lower 95% condence intervals of the model are indicated.
a b

Figure 4. Temperature-dependent survival rates (day1) for adult male (a) and female (b) of T. vaporariorum [). Fitted curves is, Sharpe-DeMichele model.Markers represent observed data points and bars the standard deviations of the median.

Figure 5. Fecundity of T. vaporariorum and its dependence on temperature and female age. (a) Cumulative reproduction rate curves at indicated constant temperatures. Age expressed as numbers of days post adult emergence. (b) Temperature dependent total egg production curve (fitted curve, polynomial regression with 95% CL; points, observed means).

At each data point, ILCYM calculates three risk indices using the obtained values of life table parameters. Based on phenologic model obtained of T. vaporariorum, was obtained distribution maps which predict the areas where this insect might occur were generated (Figure 6(a y b) and 7). Globally indicates the regions where whitefly populations theoretically could establish according to temperature conditions. The map can be presented for potato production areas only (Fig. 6). T. vaporariorum has been reported from regions where the map indicates a survival index between 0.6-0.95 (current 2000)), but populations never became established (Arabia, Afghanistan) (Evans, 2007), and the map indicates survival index between 0.95-1 (future 2050), economically significant outbreaks occurred occasionally in cooler regions, including New Zelandand, Europe, Asia, United States, Canada, Australia, America Latin (Evans, 2007, Byrne et al, 1990; Mound and Hasley 1978). Multiples generations of T. vaporariorum developing a cropping cycle have potential to cause considerably damage. As the generation index, i.e. the average number of generations per year increases (9 to12 generations per year), the damage potential increases as well (Fig. 7). However, extreme high and low temperatures (<10 C and >32 C) mean generation time still decreases while population increase may be reduced (even negative) because the intrinsic rate of population increase is negatively affected be increased mortality and reduced reproduction rate. Globally simulated generation indices (Fig.7) gave reasonable predictions when compared to generation numbers reported in the literature. For example, 11 to 15 generations per year were observed at temperatures of 22 to 26C (79-89%RH) in Tamaulipas and Morelos (Nikolaevna et al, 2010), However, in other reports the generations is the minimum of 4 up to 10 generations per year (http://www.scribd.com), 15 generations in Jitomate-Morelos (Ramires et al, 2001), 11 to 15 geenrations in Argentina (Inta, 2008), 10 generations in Spain (BASF protection Spain), 10 generations in Dominic Republic (es.encydia.com/ca/Mosca_blanca,2010); 9 to 11 generations in Chile (Bravo and Lopez, 2007), T. vaporariorum is established and produces >2-5 generations per year (as in the Andean region in Cusco), economic losses are very likely to occur during the vegetation period at harvest.

Figure 1. Potato showing 100% of plants infected whit PYVV

Results and Discussion

Bibliography
Anderson P.K; Morales F.J. whit collaborations of Jones A. and Markham R. 2005. Whitefly and whitefly-borne viruses in the Tropics: Building a Knowledge base for Global Action. Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT). 351pp. Byrne D.N, Bellow TS, Jr; Parrella MP.1990. Whiteflies in agricultural systems. In D Gerling, editor. Whiteflies: their bionomics, pest status and management. UK: Intercept. P227-261. Evans G.A. 2007. Host plant list of the whiteflies (Aleyrodidae) of the world. USDA/Animal Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS). 290p. Gamarra H; Fuentes S ;Morales F.J; Glover R; Malumphy C. Barker I.2010. B. afer sensu lato, a vector of Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus. Plant disease . Vol 94. No. 5: 510-514. Krosechel J. & Lacey. L. 2008. Integrated pest Management for the Potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) Potato pest of Global importance. Tropical Agriculture Vol. 20.147pp. Morales F.J; Cardona C; Bueno J; Rodriguez I. 2006. Manejo Integrado de enfermedades de plantas cuasadas por virus trasnmitidos por moscas blancas.Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT). 43pp. Mound LA, Hasley SH. 1978. Whitefly of the World: A systematic catalogue of the Aleyrodidae (Homoptera) with host plant and natural enemy data. British Museum (Natural Hystory): Chichester. 329p. Nikolaevna S.m; Ruiz CJ; Coronado B.J.M; Coronado L.A.M.2010. Especies de Encarsia (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) que parasitan Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) en Tamaulipas y Morelos, Mxico, y descripcin de una especie nueva. Dugesiana 17(2): 129-135. Bravo E; Lpez P. 2007. Diversidad gentica del Chile Oaxaca, Mexico. Informe tecnico.12-14p. Ramirez R.S; Salazar A.P; Nakagome T. 2001.Manual de plagas y enfermedades del jitomate, tomate de cscara y cebolla en el estado de Morelos. 128p. Sporleder M; Simmon R; Gonzales J; Carhuapoma P; Juarez H; Tonnang H; Kroschel J. 2010. Insect Life Cycle Modelling. Programa de desarrollo de modelos para la fenologia de insectos basado en la temperatura con aplicaicones regionales y evaluaciones de riesgo de plagas. Centro Internacionl de la Papa (CIP). 52pp.. Valencia L, 2000. La Mosca Blanca en la Agricultura Peruana. Lima Servicio Nacional de Sanidad (SENASA).111 p. www.agro.basf.es/ . BASF Protection-Spain.

Figure 7. Change in the abundance (damage potential) of Trialeurodes vaporariorum in potato production systems worldwide, using the generation index for the years 2000 (A) and 2050 (B), and the absolute generation index change (C).

Figure 6. Survival index of Trialeurodes vaporariorum simulated using interpolated daily minimum and maximum temperature data for the potato production areas only (a) current climate (2000)and future climate represented by year (2050).

Conclusions
This is first risk model of whitefly based on phenologic of insect. It is a useful tool for prediction the populations of this insect from the actual distribution to the next flighty years .

The adaptation of the insect is going to the South America and to the north in Europe and Asia. However in this populations insect in South Africa would decrease. This information is useful to implement MIP programs at the future.