Chapter 1 Managing Peace And Security: Regional And International Conflict

How can transnational terrorism be managed?

What are the impacts of terrorism?

Terrorism is a threat to all states, to all people, which can strike anytime, anywhere.
Quote by UN Secretary-General, Kofi Annan in 2003.

for political purposes  therefore.Transnational Terrorism What is it?  Transnational =  Terrorism = 11 going beyond national boundaries or interests the use of violence and threats to intimidate or coerce. esp. Transnational Terrorism = (refer to TB pp 29) .

why do you think it matters when it comes to being labelled as the terrorists? Can the cause (objectives.s of terrorist groups 11 learnt in Sec 3« What are the main goals of these terrorist groups?  fight authority (govt)  fight stability (create fear in people) In the case of a conflict involving nationalism issues.g.Terrorists Or Freedom Fighters? Recall the e. goals) of any terrorist group be ever justified? .

.Terrorist attacks in London in 2005 . Terrorist attacks in Madrid in 2004.


.People in New York after the attacks on the World Trade Centre.

Terrorism ± A New Phenomenon? Is the concept of terrorism new in today¶s modern context? 11.1 Terrorism agents  state agents state terror against other states terror against state  non-state agents  scale (magnitude)  scope (targets) Changes in terrorism attacks over the years .

.The history of Terrorism.

STUDENT SLIDE PRESENTATION Research on any 1 terrorist group in the world which fights for a religious cause. .

STUDENT SLIDE PRESENTATION Research on any 1 terrorist group in the world which fights for a nationalist cause. .

Whom.September 11 Where. Who. What?  Where (location)  Who (victims)  Whom (culprit)  What (impacts) New York World Trade Centre 12 office workers from more than 30 countries perished Al-Qaeda .


Al-Qaeda AlHistory  created in 1989 by Osama bin Laden 12.1  members include Arab volunteers who had gone to Afghanistan to fight Soviet troops in the 1980s  Osama bin Laden¶s involvement  Al-Qaeda¶s goals to use terrorism to ± remove Western influence from Muslim countries ± create global Islamic calliphate .

2  AQ sought refuge with Taliban govt (AQ as state agent?)  comprehensive training @ terrorist training camps .Significance Of Al-Qaeda AlWhy is AQ significant? 1) Membership  multi-national network of members 12.

Some of the known terrorist groups with links to Al-Qaeda. .

ctys  justification of violence for their cause  misuse and misinterpretation of religious concepts  ideology rejected by major Islamic groups .Al-Qaeda Al2) Operations  attacks across the continents  sharing of expertise. conducting joint operations  increasing soft targets in operations 3) Ideology 12. transferring of resources.2  deliberately & effectively spread in anti-West.

Map showing some of the places where attacks were carried out by groups associated with Al-Qaeda .

we fear certain people. we fear certain religions. we fear certain countries. Mahathir Mohamad. Malaysian Prime Minister. we fear cargo ships. letters and parcels ± in fact we fear everything around us« we are going to feel this fear and the consequences for a very long time. imported goods. we fear travelling. . we fear the shoes they wear. speaking at the 11th Annual Meeting of the Asia Pacific Parliamentary Forum in 2003.We fear flying.

social and political ³fall-out´? 3 impacts  economic impact  social impact  political impact .Impact Of Terrorism Terrorism seeks to«  bring about economic and social disruption  gain media prominence/ coverage for their cause  destroy key properties and lives to ³hurt´ the govt 13 Refer to TB pp 35. How does terrorism provoke economic.

g. govt had to provide economic aid to help airlines tourist arrivals fell drastically e. after 2002 bomb blast.1 e. in US. Indo govt had to provide assistance to Balinese who had lost their livelihood .Economic Impact 1) Economic impact  loss of life and property high insurance costs incurred § US $40 billion  decline in airline businesses/ tourism people afraid of flying 13.g. in Bali.

Tourists waiting to get flights out of Bali after the 2002 attack. .

Economic Impact  increase in govt spendings to cater for increased security 13. involving 2000 personnel from 22 agencies . in Singapore.g. SCDF held Exercise Northstar V.1 spendings in securing key installations and holding emergency exercises e.

.British police and military patrolling the airports after terrorist attacks in London.

.Members of the Singapore Civil Defence Force during Exercise Northstar V.

2  terrorism may strain racial ties and create knee-jerk reactions .Social Impact 2) Social impact  terrorism cause psychological stress on people  home-grown terrorists a greater area of concern 13.

The threat of extremist terrorism was not going away and increasingly. we asked ourselves whether we should do more. we see involvement by homegrown elements.After the London incidents in July 2005. Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Home Affairs Wong Kan Seng on the Community Engagement Programme January 2007. We asked ourselves. « We know that it could be difficult for communities to remain calm and avoid knee-jerk reactions after a crisis has happened. Extremist rhetoric and sensitive political developments around the world can have a bearing on our people over time. especially if the perpetrators were home-grown?¶ While we think that our good communal relations built up over the years would stand us in good stead. we also realised that this not to be taken for granted. µHow would our people react after a terrorist attack in Singapore. We must prepare our people to be psychologically and socially resilient. .


Political Impact 3) Political impact 13.3  govt has a duty to keep citizens safe from terrorism  govt to introduce intrusive legislation countering terrorism  security vs individual freedom & privacy balance? aimed at where¶s the .

g.Managing Transnational Terrorism Efforts to curb threat of transnational terrorism 1) ASEAN effort 14. Convention on Counter-terrorism signed by ASEAN govts at annual summit in Philippines  case study: in 2002.1  ASEAN govts pledged themselves to cooperate against transnational terrorists  through information and intelligence exchange terrorist activities disrupt  e. Philippine authorities arrested JI bomb-maker based on info provided by S¶pore .

.Participants at the 12th ASEAN Summit where an anti-terrorism accord was signed.

2 ± freeze the financial assets of terrorists and their supporters ± deny them travel and safe haven ± prevent terrorist recruitment and weapons supply ± share info and criminal prosecution .Managing Transnational Terrorism 2) International effort  UN passed resolutions to stop terrorism  the resolutions all member states are to: 14.

g.Managing Transnational Terrorism  UN also set up a Counter-Terrorism Committee  results: 14. Internet) .2 for? ± more than US $200 million terrorist funding seized ± more than 4000 terrorist suspects arrested  limitations: ± terrorist able to evade security restrictions imposed by govts ± terrorists continue to recruit and influence people to their cause through widespread use of media (e.

Managing Transnational Terrorism 3) Individual effort 14.3  everyone has a role to play to counter threat of terrorism to deny terrorist space in society  people must be clear and firm in their stand against ideas that fuel terrorism  people are to actively reject ideas of propagated by terrorists .

ethnic origin.Terrorism At A Glance« The nature of terrorism today«  active in an increasingly connected world 15  not bounded by specific contexts (for e. religion.g. nationality or geographical location)  tends to associate faith with terrorism  wide terrorist operatives and active recruitment via communication media  ctys will have to play a more active role to counter radical and extremist influences .

What are the consequences of terrorist acts on people? .

Terrorist acts lead to loss of innocent lives. Terrorist acts can also cause political problems as they can lead to a loss of confidence in the leaders¶ ability to rule the country properly. .What are the consequences of terrorist acts on people? Terrorism causes people to feel unsafe when carrying out their daily activities. Besides the damage to property and the cost of rebuilding. there would also be loss of revenue due to a decline in tourism and investment. There are adverse economic consequences arising from terrorist acts. It may also lead to a worsening of relations between different ethnic and religious groups as some groups are perceived to sympathise with the terrorists¶ cause.

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