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This equation is established by applying NEWTON¶S 2nd law of motion of fluid moving within a stream tube . Consider a stream line flow in which flow is taking place in s direction as shown in fig.

figure

w dy

ds dy W= gdAds STREAM LINE dx

Consider a cylindrical element of cross section dA, Length ds .The forces acting on the cylindrical element are : Normal forces due to pressure: pdA at the upstream and

xp ¸ ¨ ds ¹dA © p xs º ª

the downstream

face respectively . Then the net pressure force acting on the fluid element in the direction of motion is: pdA- (p+dp)dA=dpdA Tangential force due to viscous shear : if the fluid element has a parimeter dP¶then shear force on the element is ;

dFs = dp ds Where is the frictional surface force per unit area acting on the walls of the stream tube . The sum of all the sharing forces is the measure of energy lost due to friction . BODY FORCE such as the gravity acting in the direction of gravitational field . If is the density of fluid mass , then the body force = gdAds Its component in the direction of motion is = gdAds sin = gdAdy dy (3 sin U ! ) ds

The resultant force in the direction of motion must equal the product of mass and acceleration in that direction. That is - dpdA ± gdAdy ± dPds = dAdSas It may be recalled that the velocity of an elementary fluid particle along a streamline is a function of position and time, u = f(s,t)

xu xu du ! ds dt xs xt

du xu ds xu ! dt xs dt xt

xu xu as ! u xs xt

**In a steady flow ,
**

xu ! 0 xt

**-dpdA- gdAdy- dpds = dA.u.du Dividing by the fluid mass dAds and rearranging
**

du dp dy Xdp u g ! ds Vds ds VdA

**Which is a EULAR¶s equation of motion. Here, du = measure of convective acceleration ` u
**

d

`

dp = force per unit mass caused by Vd

pressure distribution.

`

dy = force per unit mass resulting from g d

gravitational pull.

`

Xdp = force per unit mass caused by VdA

friction.

For ideal fluids,

= 0 and therefore eq. becomes as ««(2)

dp udu gdy ! 0 V this eq. is known as EULAR¶S equation of motion.

**DERIVATION OF BERNOULLI¶S EQ. FROM EULAR¶s EQ.
**

Bernoulli¶s

eq. is obtained by integrating the Eular¶s eq

.of motion

dp ´ udu ´ V g ´ dy ! const.

Assuming , We get,

= const i.e. flow is incompressible,

2

)

v

p gy ! const 2 V

««(3)

Eq (3) is known as most useful equation for fluid mechanics known as BERNOULLI¶S equation.

Dividing by equation (3) by g using relation w = g, We obtain

v

p y ! const. g Vg

This is the form of the BERNOULLI¶S eq. commonly used by hydraulic engineers.the quantities are called heads , thus

v

2

2g

!

velocity head

p ! Vg

Pressure head or static head

y = Potential head APPLICATION OF BERNOULLI¶S EQUATION :There are large application of Bernoulli¶s eq. some of them are as follow :

FLOW RATE MEASURING DEVICES

Venturi Tube

orifice meter

Flow tube

BERNOULLIS THEORY IN ACTION

Air speeds up in the constricted space between the car & truck creating a lowpressure area. Higher pressure on the other outside pushes them together.

A wing creates lift due to a combination of Bernoulli·s Principal & Newton·s Third Law

(a) Field velocity of the flowing air in a wing (b) Field pressure

Bernoulli's Principle: slower moving air below the wing creates greater pressure and pushes up.

BernoulliÑs Principal: pressure variation around the wing results in a net aerodynamic pushing up.

BernoulliÑs Principle: Air moving over the wing moves faster than the air below. Faster moving air above exerts less pressure on the wing than the slower moving air below. The result is an upward push on the wing lift!

http://www.grc/nasa.gov/WWW/Wright/airplane/shape.html

http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/Wright/airplane/incline.html

The air across the top of a conventional airfoil experiences constricted flow lines and increased air speed relative to the wing. This causes a decrease in pressure on the top according to the Bernoulli equation and provides a lift force. Aerodynamicists (see Eastlake) use the Bernoulli model to correlate with pressure measurements made in wind tunnels, and assert that when pressure measurements are made at multiple locations around the airfoil and summed, they do

Lift

Therefore, any ³vector´ can be ³analyzed´ or broken down into horizontal and vertical components

Baseball

A non-spinning baseball or a stationary baseball in an airstream exhibits symmetric flow. A baseball which is thrown with spin will curve because one side of the ball will experience a reduced pressure. This is commonly interpreted as an application of the Bernoulli principle. The roughness of the ball's surface and the laces on the ball are important! With a perfectly smooth ball you would not get enough interaction with the air.

`

` `

`

The dimples in the golf ball help move air along its surface The ball pushes the air down Newton¶s Third Law tells us the air must push up on the ball The spinning ball travels farther than if it were not spinning

Turbulence shed in the wake of a knuckle ball

In a household plumbing system, a vent is necessary to equalize the pressures at points A and B, thus preventing the trap from being emptied. An empty trap allows sewer gas to enter the house.

The tarpaulin that covers the cargo is flat when the truck is stationary but bulges outward when the truck is moving.

FLUID. Basic Equations of Fluid in Motion:

Bernoulli Equation. Applications

Atomizer

**SUBMITTED BY:GOPAL SINGH PARMAR
**

AB- 26019

GOURAV BANSAL

AB- 26020

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