Human Happiness Psychology 162

Dacher Keltner University of California, Berkeley

Syllabus and Requirements
Course involvement
Reflection, narrative

Two empirical books, one from philosophy

Cumulative, essay, short ID

What is happiness?

A Myriad of Things
Jen Moderation Virtue Eudamonia Justice Financial Well-being WellDemocracy Laughter Being in love Friends Good grades Delicious burrito Reunion with family Giving Hiking in the Sierras Understanding self Standing out from others Fulfilling duties

Why Study Happiness?
(Lyubomirsky, King, & Diener, 2005) Experimental, Cross-sectional, Longitudinal data CrossHealth Happy Marriages: 5 to 1 ratio Happy Children Happy Neighborhoods: Happy individuals more likely to engage in community service It ll be good for our culture

5 years to life Happy at 70 adds 20 months to life Happiness associated with Fewer health symptoms Fewer strokes Fewer fatal accidents Reduced cardiovascular disease Reduced allergic reaction .5 times less likely to die between 80 and 90 Happy about aging adds 7.Happiness and Health Happy nuns at 22 2.

problem solving Happiness makes for more integrative negotiators Emotionally intelligent managers have more satisfied teams .000/year compared to least cheerful Happy workers more productive. better job performance Happiness leads to boost in creative thought.Happiness at work Most cheerful college students make $25.

Children's well-being 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Our culture needs it Ho ll Sw and e De d en nm a Fin rk lad Sw Spa i tz i n er la No nd rw ay Ita Ire ly l Be an d lg Ge ium rm a Ca ny na Gr da ee Po ce lan Cz d e Fra ch Po nce rtu g Au a l s Hu tria ng ar y US UK .

A right to the pursuit of happiness For economic systems For political systems For ethical systems .

and in the right way .that is not within everybody's power and is not easy Bring your desires down to your present means. strengths The feeling of virtue at the end of life . but to be angry with the right person and to the right degree and at the right time and for the right purpose.that is easy. Increase them only when your increased means permit Eudamonia: Flourishing expression of core passions.Virtue Ethics in Classical Thought Aristotle and moderation (Nichomachean ethics) (Nichomachean ethics) Anybody can become angry .

Hedonism Happiness is the sum of our sensory pleasures .

Utilitarianism: J. and the pursuit of happiness.S.Mill. . Bentham Happiness is found in actions that promote happiness for the greatest number of people Happiness is an individual right: Thomas Jefferson and The Declaration of Independence on inalienable rights: life. liberty.

is to suffer. to suffer is to suffer. not to love is to suffer. to love is to suffer. to be happy. passion Tomkins: positive emotion arises in cessation of negative Solomon: Opponent process theory: pleasure the antithesis of pain . Therefore. one must love or love to suffer or suffer from too much happiness. Happiness = impossible to attain Happiness is found in the release from the body. To avoid suffering. one must not love.Happiness in the afterlife JudeoJudeo-Christian Thought To love is to suffer. To be happy. but suffering makes one unhappy. then. Therefore. But then. one suffers from not loving. To be happy is to love.

Happiness is a set of practices Giving Social connection Play Exercise Meditation/contemplation Nature Forgiveness .

1974) .Would you choose the happiness device? (Robert Nozick.

if you want to be happy practice compassion. Life as we live it is suffering. Cause of suffering. His Holiness the Dalai Lama . clinging. ignorance 3.Buddhism Nirvana and the eightfold path 1. Release: nirvana. 8 fold practice/path: action. disengage from grasping 4. frustration 2. thought Tibetan If you want others to be happy. practice compassion. grasping.

also establishes the character of others. Analects. wishing to establish his own character. Happiness found in respect and reverence. A person of jen brings the good things of others to completion and does not bring the bad things of others to completion.Confucianism and Jen (Confucius. social harmony (Kitayama) . 551 BC 479 BC ) A person of jen. Confucius observes. jen.

the grass as well as trees. he is tender and weak At death he is stiff and hard All things.happiness in natural unfolding of being (Wu-Wei: Not acting) (Wu- . are tender and subtle while alive When dead. paradoxical (Opposite of a great truth is a great truth) . they are withered and dried Therefore the stiff and the hard are companions of death The tender and weak are the companions of life If the tree is stiff.Taoism and the mysterious way (Lao Tzu: Tao Te Ching) Ching) When man is born. not intentional striving -happiness is contradictory. while the tender and the weak are superior -happiness not grasped with rational mind and categories -return to nature. it will break The strong and the great are inferior.

Big Insights Happiness is the central question in many philosophical discussions Happiness is many things Insight into your own profile .

catharsis Marx: Alienation Humanistic movements: self-actualization selfMaslow. Rogers .Predecessors to a Science of Happiness Darwin: Happy nonhumans? Freud: pleasure principle.

New Science of Happiness (Positive Psychology: Seligman. Peterson) Uncharted territory: Anger over gratitude Fear over compassion Divorce over long-term marriages longDisease over positive health WellWell-funded Psychological Science: -lifting people from -5 to +1 What lifts people from +7 to +8 .

Clarifying the Conceptual Domain (Kahneman. 1999) WellWell-being: Overall my life is going well Traits: I am an enthusiastic person Emotions: I feel reverence and gratitude Sensations: skin This February sun feels good on my .

traits Positive Emotion Predicting happiness .Canonical Research Traditions Subjective Well-being WellHappy people.

Overall Well-being Well(Diener. Myers) SelfSelf-report: Overall how satisfied are you with your life (Diener) .

Measurement: Domains and the nuances of happiness (Carol Ryff) Autonomy Environmental mastery Personal growth Positive relations with others Purpose in life SelfSelf-acceptance .

Other measures Face and voice .

The Jen ratio The Good brought out in others/The bad brought out in others .

Money? Money? Percent saying being wealthy a primary goal in life 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 0 Year: 1970 Year: 1993 .

Activities done for more money Long commutes Leave community for higher paying job Long distance relationships Long hours .

12 with happiness 37% of Forbes wealthiest less happy than average American Between 1957 and 1995 wealth of Americans doubled.82 2.96 ed Ha Se . happiness unchanged Lottery winners not more happy than accident victims (Brickman) ess 5 4 4 3. Diener) Wealth of country correlates with happiness r = .Money and Happiness (Myers.67 Wealth correlates with happiness in poor countries Wealth in US correlates .e 3 2 1 0 Lotte y Winne s Cont ols Pa aplegics .

Age: Stormy youth? Mid Life crisis? (Myers & Diener. 1995) 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 Series1 .

Korea 48. Austria 12. Indonesia 30. Latvia 70. Czech Rep 41. Bangladesh 55. Peru 45. Belgium 22. El Salvador 13. Moldova 76. Mexico 3. Colombia 5. Germany 25. Russia 77. Portugal 37. Sweden 19. India 66. Bosnia 52. Taiwan 32. Israel Puerto Rico 35. Iran 49.1. Albania 71. Ireland 6. Spain 34. Canada 11. Denmark 4. Ukraine 79. Jordan 60. S. Norway 21. Slovenia 39. Switzerland 9. Bulgaria 72. Africa 42. Lithuania 67. 16. Vietnam 28. Luxembourg 15. Germany 38. Philippines 31. Belarus 73. Croatia 43. Serbia 62. Montenegro 65. Singapore 24. Uganda 53. Kyrgyzstan 57. Tanzania 63. Greece 44. Italy 36. Slovakia 59. New Zealand 18. Argentina 27. France 26. Venezuela 14. Georgia 74. Macedonia 68. Egypt 56. Nigeria 20. N. Australia 17.S. Brazil 33. E. Estonia 61. Armenia 78. Hungary 58. Morocco 47. Algeria 54. Netherlands 10. Iceland 7. Finland 23. China 46. Zimbabwe . 2. W. Poland 50. S. Pakistan 69. Azerbaijan 64. Japan 40. U. Chile 29. Ireland 8. Romania 75. Turkey 51.

Harvard University) .Countries and Happiness Democracy r = .85 Equality Inequality kills (Kawachi.

West East Contradictory Emotion Social engagement Calmness Roles West Positive emotion Disengagement Excitement Emotions Kitayama Mesquita Tsai Suh .Happiness East.

The Big 2: Relationships. Work Relationship literatures Friendships extremely powerful Loneliness Marriage effects Social networks .

marriage and happiness (Myers.Gender. 1995) ing they're very happy 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Men Women Married Unmarried Percent . Diener.

Happy people? .



18+ Age 52 .19+ Age 43 .29** WellWell-being Age 21 .27** Affiliation Age 21 .20* 21.01.37** Age 27 -. Positive emotionality.21* Age 52 -.20* Source: Source: Harker & Keltner.10.5.33* Age 43 . * = p < .25* Age 43 . as assessed in the magnitude of the smile shown in a photograph at age 20.21* Age 43 -. + = p < . 2001.5. predicts adult personality. MeasurePositive MeasurePositive Emotionality Negative Emotionality Age 21 -.20* Age 27 .28** Marital Well-being WellAge 52 . 11. .Table 11.05. Note: ** = p < .18+ Competence Age 27 . and personal well being over the next 30 years. relationship satisfaction.20* Age 52 .

2 0.6 correlation between estimates separated by 6 months to 6 years Heritability of happiness 50% of happiness is temperament 40% is cultivated 0.5 0.2 Monozygotic Dizygotic Ne ur oti cis m .51 0.18 0.Traits and Happiness Correlations Between Twins' Personality Traits Ex tra ve rsi on Temporal stability: .6 0.48 0.1 0 0.3 0.4 0.

outgoing. energetic Heritable Control Less Neuroticism Spiritual faith .Characteristics of Happy People Optimism Extraversion: Sociable.

Negative Emotion Bias in field Negative more prominent in taxonomies Negative assumed to be more evolved. more rooted in physiology Negative assumed to have stronger impact upon adjustment .

2001) Negative emotions narrow thought action Positive emotions Broaden thought repertoires Build relationships . 1998.Positive Emotions Broaden and Build (Fredrickson.

Positive emotions More creative word associations More integrative negotiations More overlap with outgroup members Greater similarity to romantic partner Better problem solving Greater donation to strangers .

POSITIVE EMOTION: A language for the 3 to 1 (own life) and 5 to 1 ratios (Marriage) Resources Enthusiasm Contentment Social Relations Love Desire Compassion Pride Gratitude Awe Distress Reduction Relief Knowledge Interest Amusement Learning Transformation/Insight Approach Goal Satiation Attachment Reproduction Nurturance Elevated Status Reciprocity/Friendship Leaders .

27 3.44 5.89 "Lucki s" Actual "Leftovers" Predicted "Leftovers" .Happiness is unknowable (Dan Gilbert) Affective Forecasting and mispredicting happiness Satisfaction Tenure decisions don t alter happiness as predicted Romantic breakups don t either Ignore psychological immune system 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 5.

trauma Diener: events 3 months or greater in past minor effect on well-being wellBonanno: for many. adjustment well- Immune neglect .Ignore Psychological Immune System Amazing reslience of humans in face of stress. traumas have minor effects on well-being.

Elements of an evolutionary analysis Gene replication Selection pressures Natural Sexual Intrasexual Intersexual Group Adaptations Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness .

reproduction related problems Trait Startle response Sweet preference Jealousy Pregnancy sickness Baby s similarity to dad Problem Physical threat Identify nutrition Mate guarding Fetus vulnerability Paternal uncertainty .Examples of Adaptations: Efficient solutions to survival.

Origins of Happiness: Are we designed to be happy? Evolution of our Ultrasociality Hunter gatherers Archeology Primate predecessors .


Dimensions to our Ultrasociality CareCare-taking Flattened Hierarchies Conflict and Reconciliation Coordination Fragile Monogamy .

Take care or die .


The Amygdala as Preconscious Evaluator Anatomical description Input from sensory systems prior to hippocampus Evidence from animals with amygdala lesions. Evidence from fMRI research Responds to threat. affective salience of stimuli Shut down during love .

musice Pleasurable scenes winning money heroin.Nucleus Accumbens Rich with dopamine receptors Dopamine: Wanting Opiates: Liking Activated by: pretty faces food. cocaine The Dopamine. Opiate interplay (DePue) . amphetamines.




appraisal Empathy: mPFC Secondary rewards: social status.The Frontal Lobes and Executive Control Anatomy Patient work: Orbitofrontal Patients fMRI Work Emotion Regulation. touch Emotions in Decision Making .

Oxytocin and Trust Functions of Oxytocin Faithful and frisky voles Oxytocin and love The Neuroeconomics of Trust .

Oxytocin and Trust Oxytocin and Trust 60 % Who Give Away Maximum 50 40 30 20 10 0 Oxytocin Control .

Happiness and Hemispheric Asymmetry The Left Frontal Cortex and Positive Emotion Emotion Studies: approach related positive emotion trait happiness Studies of Buddhist Monks Studies of Meditation .



Vagal Tone Increased positive emotion More resilient response to bereavement More sympathetic prosocial children Trusted more in interactions with strangers .

from art to altruism .Compassion as A Master Emotion? Karen Armstrong: Unites religions Martha Nussbaum: A Moral Emotion Kindness a Universal Virtue From Experience to Sentiment to Way of Life Enabler and outcome of many pro-social proexperiences.

behavior Love of Humanity: A belief in the goodness. connectedness of others Pity: Feeling of concern for someone felt to be inferior to self .Some Definitions Compassion: Concern to enhance the welfare of another who suffers or is in need Empathy: mirroring or understanding of other s emotion. Mimicry: Imitation of others emotion.

and greedy of gain. Machiavelli EVOLUTIONARY SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST: The natural world is grossly immoral . Immanuel weak. Natural selection can honestly be described as a process for maximizing short sighted selfishness George Williams MORAL THEORY: Sympathy as a good natured emotion is always blind and weak. whose love of murder was in their blood as it is perhaps also in ours. gain. Ayn Rand POLITICAL THEORY: Of mankind we may say in general they are fickle. LIBERTARIANISM: If any civilization is to survive. it is the morality of altruism that men have to reject. Kant .The War on Compassion FREUDIAN MIND: The very emphasis of the commandment: Thou shalt not kill. Sigmund Freud ours. hypocritical. makes it certain that we are descended from an endlessly long chain of generations of murderers.

Compassion as Opponent (In Western Thought) Compassion belittles recipients Compassion entails a loss of freedom Compassion is inherently subjective. unreliable as an ethical principle Compassion as enemy to achievement .

Compassion deficits? US only culture to practice solitary confinement (Gawande) US harshest prison sentences (2 million in prison) .

teasing. social relationships Egocentrism: Difficulty understanding other independent of self Mind in Eyes (Baron-Cohen) (Baron¤ Mi d i Eyes core (36 Maximum) 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 ¡ ¡ IQ atched c ntr ls Asper ers ¢   £ £ . voice modulation. irony.Empathy deficits: Autism Spectrum Parallel Play and Tim Page Deficits in pretense.

will have been increased through natural selection. and rear the greatest number of offspring (Darwin. .130). would flourish best. which included the greatest number of the most sympathetic members. p. for those communities.Darwin: Survival of the Kindest sympathy. he argued. 1871/2004.

Emergence of Pro-social Emotion ProReliable Identification Contagious Compassion Shift Costs and Benefits of Giving It Pays to Be Good .

It s not in the face .


Accurac (chance = 9% Am us em en t e 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 C m pa ss io n es i re sm re st G ra tit u de Lo ve D En th us ia In e Aw .

Touch and the spread of goodness Emotion and Touch Frequency Choosing Correct Emotion 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Correct Label Next choice Co m pa s Gr sion at itu de Lo v An e ge r Fe Di ar sg us t .

Contagious Compassion Neonate distress reactions Emotional. Physiological Convergence in Friends Compassion inspires elevation Gratitude spreads through networks Positive Emotion spreads through communities Collective Joys .

elderly .Reversing Cost-Benefit Analyses: CostCompassion promotes Common Humanity with those in need Increase the Gains of Giving Cooperation activates reward regions of the brain (Rilling et al) Giving produces more enduring pleasure than receiving Increase sense of common humanity Expanded circle: Peter Singer Compassion correlates with policy attitudes that enhance young. sick.

Singer: Evolving Circle of Care Bequeath(ed) humans with a sense of empathy an ability to treat other people s interests as comparable to one s own. . But over history the circle has expanded from village to the clan to the tribe to the nation to other races to other sexes and to other species. People outside that circle were treated as subhuman and can be exploited with impunity. Unfortunately. by default we apply it only to a very serious narrow circle of friends and family.

by default we apply it only to a very serious narrow circle of friends and family. Unfortunately. People outside that circle were treated as subhuman and can be exploited with impunity. . But over history the circle has expanded from village to the clan to the tribe to the nation to other races to other sexes and to other species.Singer: Evolving Circle of Care Bequeath(ed) humans with a sense of empathy an ability to treat other people s interests as comparable to one s own.









2 -0.3 -0.1 -0.2 Beta correlations between trait affect and similarity ratings 0.Compassion promotes sense of similarity to the weak (Oveis et al.4 .3 0.1 Compassion 0 Low Vulnerability Moderate Vulnerability High Vulnerability Pride -0.. 0.4 2009) 0.

value to be returned later .Vagal Superstars in a Trust Tournament 50 participants played in internet trust game Give between 1 and 20 raffle tickets to 12 different individuals Viewed individuals for 20 seconds on video Gift tripled in value.

19. p < .It Pays to Be Good T = 4.59.01 (T = 1. p < .001 Vagal Tone T = 4.69. p < .01 Trust T = 17.01. ns) Resources Received .

5 0 Fi ci l ros ect Beauty Ki dness Women en Im rtance as mate .5 1 0.5 2 1.Compassion as an Adaptation Shaped by Natural Selection = in ispensable) Health of offspring Sexual Selection Social Selection 3.5 3 2.

Temporal Parietal Junction Maternal Love: Lateral Orbitofrontal cortex Romantic Love: Reduced Amygdala. Prefrontal cortex .The Compassionate Brain Pain. Ventral Striatum Compassion: Amygdala. other s pain: Anterior Cingulate Empathy: Prefrontal cortex.

Lateral Orbitofrontal cortex Vagus Nerve Immune system Oxytocin. Pre-frontal Precortex. Anterior cingulate. Dopamine Genes Dopamine DR4 predicts self-reported altruism selfAVPR1A (vasopressin) predicts generosity in ultimatum game .The Compassionate Nervous System Brain: Amygdala.

altruism in rural areas t kly with J . 0 B Obj tiv m i . tw Anonymous Seen by others Hour 0. distress/anxiety predicts more egoistic action Predicts altruism in children Greater helping.Altruism Compassion is a motive of altruism. .

empathic concern CareCare-givers who care 14 hours/week 36% reduced chance of dying in 7 year period (Stephanie Brown) .Caregiving Volunteerism = Uncompensated assistance given to those in need 31% of US in any year Guided by compassion.

Emotional disorders as deficits in SelfSelf-compassion SelfSelf-compassion See failures kindly See self as part of larger humanity Hold pains in mindful attentiveness SelfSelf-compassion predicts Reduced Reduced Reduced Reduced anxiety depression rumination neurotic perfectionism .

Cultivation Meditation Family Narratives Developmental progression Giving .

push Compassion Disgust Anger Elevation. Harm Purity Autonomy Others goodness . gratitude Suffering.Moral Emotions (Haidt. Greene) Emotions = Moral Intuitions Chicken example Trolleyology: flip switch vs.

Reflection and Practice Write down something you re grateful for Expressions of gratitude in everyday life .

reverence for what is given Historical Background Adam Smith: Social glue of economic culture R.Gratitude as a Moral Emotion Feeling of appreciation. Trivers (1971): Motive of reciprocal altruism amongst non-kin nonWoodruff: Reverence for what is given .

McCullough) Barometer Tracks generosity in relationships Motive Clark: thanked participants more likely to help Kurzban (2001): touched participants more likely to cooperate with stranger Reward thank you on bill: 11% higher tips Volunteers in adolescent home Baseline return: 43% Sent thank you notes: 80%l .Gratitude as guide to good life (Emmons.

Gratitude/Appreciation/Reverence Appreciation for loved ones uniquely relates to social wellwellbeing in relationships Expressing appreciation at work Increase in r 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 23% ucti it 43% .

Gratitude Diaries McCullough: Expressions of gratitude. boosts in happiness . better health 3 weeks later Lyubomirsky: 1 time a week write down what you re grateful for.

5 hours of conflict a day Parent child (even in womb) Step relations Political.Forgiveness Universality of conflict Sibling conflict Romantic (20% infidelity rates) Unhappy couples: 1. tribal .

openOther: groom. open-handed gestures. embrace . exposure of vulnerable parts of body.Evolution of reconciliation De Waal: Chimpanzee Politics In contrast to dispersal hypothesis: Conflict reconciliation One animal: bowing.

Human reconciliation WWII: Japanese. Tutsis: reconciliation commission Biehl reconciliation project Alternative to legal punishment . Germans mortal enemies Rwanda: Hutus.

punished less Blush: punished less Greeting gestures Opening doors . forgiveness Embarrassment as appeasement device Show display.Everyday reconciliation.

Forgiveness .

& Fincham. decline in avoidance. McCullough.Forgiveness of transgressions Definition: Accepting transgression. 2006: couples who forgive happier 9 weeks later . decline in punitive tendency. release: decline in fight of flight physiology Tsang. increase in compassion toward partner Hold grudge vs.

when you felt you were in the presence of something greater than the self .Narrative reflection Write about an experience of awe.

Awe. and the Sacred A Family of Awe Experiences Beauty Awe Reverence Sacred .Beauty.

Our flesh-and-bone tabernacle seems transparent as flesh-andglass to the beauty about us. Bold. the middle and background present fold beyond fold of finely modeled hills and ridges rising into mountain-like masses in the distance The whole mountainlandscape showed design. sick nor well. like man s noblest sculptures. neither old nor young. downdownsweeping slopes. I might have left everything for it. feathered with pines and clumps of manzanita with sunny open spaces between then. beneath. and rocks. The next day Muir s meandering immersion in the boundless beauty of the Sierras yielded the following: June 6 We are now in the mountains and they are in us. streams. above. so complete and wholesome it is. thrilling with the air and trees. filling every pore and cell of us.John Muir June 5 A magnificent section of the Merced Valley at what is called Horseshoe Bend came full in sight --a glorious wilderness that seemed to be calling with a thousand songful voices. made and being made forever. kindling enthusiasm. . in the waves of the sun a part of all nature. as if truly an inseparable part of it. Beauty beyond thought everywhere. How wonderful the power of its beauty! Gazing awestricken. scarce a memory enough of the old bondage days left as a standpoint to view it from. making every nerve quiver. make up most of the foreground. but immortal How glorious a conversion.

all mean egotism vanishes. we return to reason and faith. I see all. which nature cannot repair. the currents of the Universal Being circulate through me.39). to be brothers. p.Emerson In the woods. I become a transparent eyeball. .no disgrace. master or servant. The name of the nearest friend sounds then foreign and accidental. I am part or parcel of God. my head bathed by the blithe air and uplifted into infinite space. is then a trifle and a disturbance. Standing on the bare ground. ( Nature (1836/1982). There I feel that nothing can befall me in life-. I am the lover of uncontained and immortal beauty. no life-calamity (leaving me my eyes). to be acquaintances. I am nothing.

The forest was a temple filled with varied productions of the God or Nature .Darwin in the forest It creates a feeling of wonder that so much beauty should be apparently created for so little purpose.

w/ God Leader Elevation Tornado Cathedral Music Aesthetics Vast X X Accom X X X X X X X Threat Beauty Virtuey X X X Supernatural X X X X X X X X ? ? .A Family of Awe experiences Exper.

Beauty Golden ratios A + B is to A as A is to B Prototypical faces .

Wilson: Biophilia (love of nature) Preferences for resource rich environments .

knew each other. 48% fewer property crimes. safer . impulse control. selfdelay of gratification. concentration ADHD symptoms drop after walking in park compared to quiet urban area In regions of Chicago project with more trees and grass. 56% fewer violent crimes Girls with green views score higher on self-discipline. neighbors felt greater community.The benefits of Green Frances Kuo (2001) In green regions of Chicago Housing project.

need less strong pain medications . 1991 Green scenes de-activation heart rate.Green and Health Ulrich. blood depressure Heart surgery patients exposed to green scenes.

5th centuries A.) (3rdAesthetic emotion (Rasa emotion: Without Ego) SthayiSthayi-bhava Rasa sexual passion love amusement amusement sorrow compassion anger anger fear terror perseverance.Natyasastra (3rd.D. wonder serenity calm . dynamic energy heroic disgust horror wonder awesome.

being in presence of God Burke s revolution (1757): secular awe Patterns light. obscurity Weber: political awe Emerson: Transcendent self .A Brief History of Awe Early conversion experiences. cow Not smells Power. dark Ox vs.

An Evolutionary story Hierarchical species Peaceful hierarchies require respect Attaching to powerful figures Subordinate self interest for hierarchy .

hands placed over mouth Devotion (reverence) face upwards. Astonishment eyes open. smile. eyes bright. eyebrows raised. eyebrows raised. humbling kneeling posture. eyelids upturned. hands upturned _____________________________________________________________________ . fainting. mouth open. pupils upwards and inwards.A mammalian display Table 1: Darwin s observations of emotions related to awe _____________________________________________________________________ Admiration eyes opened.

Awe and the Sacred Awe promotes expanded self Awe and vagal response Awe and goosebumps Per ent ge of people reporting goo ebump 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Awe Com ssion Gr itude Love .

weird sayings . culture Decorates room with books.The individual prone to awe High vagal tone predicts increased spiritual experience Prone to chills at music Open to experience: art. art.

small self and feeling of reverence. They should be earnest and faithful. they should use it to study literature and the arts. respect Managers. They should love all extensively and be intimate with men of humanity. . When they have any energy to spare after the performance of moral duties.Reverence (Woodruff) Experiences of awe trigger common humanity. judges who hand out decisions with respect judged to be more fair Young men should be filial when at home and respectful to their elders when away from home.

A New Science of Religiosity William James: Varieties of Religious Experience Catholicism. Judaism: more social Protestantism: experiential .

design. small self.Spirituality (the sacred) Experience of the sacred Beyond self. unites. higher purpose. self located in broader pattern/force . common substance/humanity.

2003: Spiritually oriented report less depression 145 studies.096..000 participants R = -. health behaviors . 98. (2000) Meta analysis 42 studies: religious 29% more likely to be alive at any time point McCullough et al.Spirituality and health Myers: Spiritually oriented report higher levels of happiness Smith. McCullough. neurotics Always non religious Become more religious: Agreeable Religious women live longer. greater during stress Putnam: greater spirituality greater volunteerism. due to social commitments. altruism McCullough et al. 2009 Terman longitudinal study: 1523 high IQ people Three curves Always religious: Extraverts.

Evolutionary story David Sloan Wilson Universal Same form across cultures Unites group against other groups .

freedom.The Critique of Religion Sam Harris: divides people. development . harmful to women Richard Dawkins: faith in creationism against scientific reason Christopher Hitchens: Against progress. causes conflict.

appreciation Awe. forgiveness. reverence. sacred . empathy Gratitude.An Emotion Perspective: Summing up 3 to 1 well-being ratio well5 to 1 healthy romance ratio Generativity later in life Compassion. beauty. agape.

2009) Resilience in response to physical. hopelessness and depression Cognitive tendencies and anxiety Catastrophizing Resilience in response to disease (Taylor.Thought Patterns and Happiness: Intellectual Precursors Disciplining the Mind: Wisdom. judgment in Buddhism Cognitive revolution in understanding disorders Helplessness. 1984) Resilience in response to trauma (Bonanno. emotional abuse as child (Cicchetti) Stress: mind turns stress into challenges or threats .

Core Assumptions Thought patterns shape well-being wellEmpirical literature: Emotion Can cultivate new patterns of thought .

From thoughts to well-being wellStop and smell the roses Grateful The sunny side of life Optimism The little engine that could Adaptive coping The world is my oyster Approach I m king of the world Illusions .

. I don t see much to be thankful for I am grateful to a wide variety of people As I get older I find myself better able to appreciate the people. 2002) I have so much in life to be thankful for If I had to list everything I m thankful for. and situations that have been part of my life history Long amounts of time can go by before I feel grateful to someone or something .The Grateful Disposition (McCullough et al. events. it would be a very long list When I look at the world.

19* -.30** .50*** .Correlates of being grateful Grateful disposition Life satisfaction Happiness Optimism Anxiety Depression Peer rate volunteerism Envy Possessiveness .34** .51** -.20* -.53*** .17** -.

Styles of Thinking: OPTIMISM Definition: Expectations about the future that it will be socially desirable. I usually expect the best If something can go wrong for me it will . pleasurable Measures: In uncertain times. good.

health .Optimism and Happiness Optimistic people report higher levels of overall wellwellbeing and happiness Optimistic people report higher levels of positive emotion Optimistic people have higher resting vagal tone Optimism measured in 1945 (in men) predicts better reports of health 35 years later Optimism rated in coded acceptance speeches in 20th century presidential candidates predicted the victor 18 of 22 times Writing about best self: Greater Happiness.

control.Adaptive Coping. agency Adaptive coping associated with positive responses to traumas such as bereavement Measurement: I concentrate my efforts on doing something about it I do what has to be done one step at a time I try to come up with a strategy about what to do I make a plan of action I try to get advice from someone about what to do .

1994) Inhibition (punishment sensitivity) I worry about making mistakes Criticism. Inhibition (Carver. White.The world is my oyster: Approach vs. fun) (Dopamine. I go after it I crave excitement I do things for no other reason than fun When I m doing well at something. I love to keep at it . scolding hurt me Approach (reward sensitivity. drive. Nucleus Accumbens) When I want something.

05 .24** .Approach and Inhibition Optimism Negative affect Positive Affect Happiness BIS -.42** -.22* .28** .06 REWARD .08 .

specific: ( This promotion was due to a good break ) Failure: Internal. transient.Explanatory Style Success: external. stable. global ( My difficulties at work are due to character flaws .

selfselfenhancement The mechanisms: Positive moods. 1985 Common assumption: truthful assessment of self hallmark of psychological adjustment Humanistic psychology therapy The Big Three: Optimism. positive relations The outcome: Well-being Well- . motivation. control.Truth or Bias in self insight? Positive Illusions and Well-being: WellTaylor & Brown.

Unrealistic optimism
Happier people assume good events more likely to happen to them than average person, bad events less likely

Unrealistic Optimism (Weinstein, 1980)
COMPARATIVE JUDGMENT OF LIFE EVENT OWN VERSUS OTHERS CHANCES Like post graduation job 50.2 Own your own home 40.3 Live past 80 11.3 Have a mentally gifted child 6.2 Have drinking problem -58.3 Attempt suicide -55.9 Divorce after a few years of marriage -48.7 Heart attach before age 40 -38.4 Become sterile -31.2 Develop gum problems -12.2

Illusion of Control
Control random events Langner
Sell back lottery ticket given: 1.96 Sell back chose lottery ticket: 9.00

Self enhancement
Assume we have more of good traits, less of bad traits People in hospital for car accidents estimate they re better drivers

Linkages to well-being wellIllusions enhance goal pursuit Illusions enhance positive emotions Illusions enhance relations

Critiques Pathological bias Narcissists. happiness more tied to such illusions . bipolars Overconfident undergrads often don t study as much Culture West more biased in self assessments.

Toxic Thoughts
Distrust Culture of fear Materialism Self Interest is path to happiness HyperHyper-competitiveness Others are out to get us Keep up with Joneses Maximize choice, pleasure Perfectionism

Toxic Thoughts: Distrust
Cynicism and the Decline of Trust (Paul Zak) High trust cultures less crime, inequality For every 15% rise in trust, a rise in $430
Trust in fellow 70 60 50 40 30 20 10

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Culture of Fear (Glassner)
Teen killers rather than teen health
Teen violence down 30%

Catholic priest pedophiles Kidnapped children Violence Road rage rather than teen drunk driving

Materialism: Basic Needs
1970 2nd car 20 2nd TV 3 More than 1 phone 2 Dishwasher 8 1990 59 45 78 44

Some facts
Richest Poorest (20%) Private consumption 86% 1.3% Meat, Fish 45% 5% Total energy 58% 4% Telephone lines 74% 1.5% Paper 84% 1.1% Vehicles 87% 1% Source: World Bank Development Indicators Child sees 300 ads a day Credit card debt
$972 billion in America Average outstanding balance: 10,679

Chapter 1.37) .S.S. Development Report 1998. United Nations Human development. Billions Cosmetics in the United States 8 Ice cream in Europe 11 Perfumes in Europe and the United States 12 Pet foods in Europe and the United States 17 Business entertainment in Japan 35 Cigarettes in Europe 50 Alcoholic drinks in Europe 105 Narcotics drugs in the world 400 Military spending in the world 780 Global Priority$U.Global Priority $ U. p. Billions Basic education for all 6 Water and sanitation for all 9 Reproductive health for all women 12 Basic health and nutrition 13 (Source: The state of human development.

Toxic Thought: Materialism Happiness found in consumption No study finds associations between material gain and increased well-being wellMaterialistic values in college predict less happiness The irony of materialistic actions commuting disrupts pleasure .

whose love of murder was in their blood as it is perhaps also in ours. Sigmund Freud ours. Ayn Rand Of mankind we may say in general they are fickle. If any civilization is to survive. gain. Machiavelli The natural world is grossly immoral .An Intellectual Legacy of Cynicism The very emphasis of the commandment: Thou shalt not kill. and greedy of gain. makes it certain that we are descended from an endlessly long chain of generations of murderers. Natural section can honestly be described as a process for maiximizing short sighted selfishness George Williams . it is the morality of altruism that men have to reject. hypocritical.

.. 146 giving . . Giv t t rs nd n s lf Dunn et al... . .. . (2008) Average American: spends 1714 on self. om mo ning Chang in happin . .Toxic thought: Happiness found in Unbridled pursuit of Self-Interest SelfAyn Rand: To act on behalf of another person is treason Rilling 2002 Cooperation lights up Ventral Caudate . .

adversarial) Be avior in ltimat m game Percentage making offer People are selfish. competitive. aggressive: Homo Economicus Self-fulfilling prophecies Selfof competition Hostile Attribution Bias (Ken Dodge) Blame in couples 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 40--50% < 40% .Toxic Thoughts: Cynicism (Others are competitive.

2 . 4 2.Prisoner s Dilemma Game Other Coop Comp Self Coop 3. 1 1. 3 Comp 4.

Stahelski. see world. erroneously. Community: threefold increase in competition Rand: Cooperators do better Kelley.It pays to cooperate Wall Street vs. 1970 Competitors make others competitive. as full of competitors Cooperators .

hard work (Dweck) Priming the ideal self leads to dejection .Toxic Thoughts: Perfectionism Parents who praise for being perfect rather than effort.

I often find it difficult to shop for a gift for a friend Renting videos is really difficult. I try to imagine what other possibilities are.Maximizing vs. I find writing is very difficult. . even if I m satisfied with what I m listening to. It s so hard to get the words just right. Satisficing (Barry Schwartz) Whenever I m faced with a choice. I often check other stations to see if something better is playing. No matter what I do. I m a big fan of lists that attempt to rank things. I have the highest standards for myself. even ones that aren t present. I m always struggling to pick the best one. When I am in the car listening to music.

Maximizers More regret after purchase Less satisfaction from success Less satisfied with life Less optimistic More depressed .

Keeping up with the Jonses Upward social comparisons lead to dissatisfaction. dejection Very happy people rarely compare themselves to others (Lyubomirsky) .

transforms negative moods into enduring dysphoric states rumination leads to less optimism. overthink Measured by: I go to my room alone and think about my feelings I isolate myself and think about the reasons I m feeling this way Related to: gender differences in depression ruminative style leads to depression. worsened concentration.Rumination (Nolen-Hoeksema) (NolenDwell on problems. less motivation. depressive emotion and though . reduced energy.

connection (Carstensen) .Myths of individualism and wisdom of the ages We adhere to individualist credo (we re separate. family. find truth on own) As people age. the thing the seek the most is loving friends.

Losing our ultrasociality? Divorce rate high (40% to 50%) Marital satisfaction has declined in past 30 years (Myers) Rise in loneliness (Caccioppo) Americans have lost on average 1 close friend in the past 20 years Average American child spends more time watching TV than with parents .

fewer colds Kiecolt-Glaser: stronger marriages.A Need to Belong: Happiness is found between Feral children. Diener One friend rule for children with difficulties . solitary confinement Psychopathology. violence related to loneliness Social support and immune system Cohen: more friends. better immune Kiecoltsystems Intimate relationship and happiness (Happiness is Between) Myers.

Costs of Social Exclusion Social Exclusion = Physical pain Being rejected Increases feelings of pain Reduces performance on IQ test Activation of the anterior cingulate in ball tossing paradigm (Williams et al. 2003) Many kids who bully.. school shooters are socially excluded .

divorce. abuse Avoidant: dismissive. warm. trusting Anxious: worried.The Invisible Hand of Family: Attachment Theory (Bowlby) Three Systems caregiving: for offspring Reproductive: desire Attachment: pairbonding Working Models: Ideas about caregivers Attachment styles Secure: loving. intrusive More likely to have experienced death of parent. cold .

I don t often worry about being abandoned or about others getting too close to me .Secure style I find it easy to get comfortable with others and am comfortable depending on them and having them depend on me.

romantic partners want me to be more intimate than I feel comfortable being. difficult to allow myself to depend on anyone. . and often. I am nervous when anyone gets close. I find it difficult to trust completely.Avoidant/Dismissive I am somewhat uncomfortable being close.

Anxious style I find that others are reluctant to get as close as I would like. I often worry that my partner doesn t really love me or won t stay with me. I want to merge completely with another person. and this desire sometimes scares people away .

anxiety More prone to drug abuse More prone to eating disorders .The Attachment Perspective The healthy lives of securely attached Report greater life satisfaction More likely to remain in stable relations Higher positive emotions on daily basis More likely to forgive More likely to be optimistic More likely to offer social support to romantic partner The problems of anxiously attached partners More prone to depression.

Within Families: Principle of Diversification (Sulloway. conscientious Latter Borns: Agreeable. Born to Rebel) Rebel) Sibling conflict omnipresent. often violent Birth order = power structure First borns: Extraverted. Open to Experience Studies of 28 scientific revolutions: Latter borns more likely to accept revolutionary scientific ideas Tesser: Highly successful parents less close to children who go into careers close to their own .

Romantic Pair Bond Human Universal: A basic relationship 9090-95% of Americans marry Marriage a universal Although changed in forms functions Economic exchange to love based Pairbonding. serial monogamy Not faring well .







10 . Par Z.30* .19 -.LOVE DESIRE HAPPY Z.26* .34** -.O.17 .O.01 -.07 _______________________________________ .34** .05 .17 .03 -.31* .04 -23* -. Par _______________________________________ Affiliation cues SelfSelf-report Partner Estimate Sexual Cues SelfSelf-report Partner Estimate . Par Z.06 .O.11 .00 -.04 .21* .01 -.17 -.28* .25* .

Affiliation Cues Contr. for Sexual Cues Sexual Cues Contr.50** . for Affiliation Cues __________________________________________________ Oxytocin Reactivity .12 __________________________________________________ .11 Oxytocin Recovery .15 .

Demographic perspective Happy romantic partnerships when Marry at a later age SES Neuroticism .

The Dynamic Interaction Style Perspective Naturalistic methods The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse -Contempt -Criticism -Stonewalling -Defensiveness .

needs predicts longlong-term satisfaction Compassionate sacrifice (to enhance partner s welfare) predicts stable marriages.1 6 7 9.7 60 9.1 20 25 10 18 20 9 25 7 9 10 9.3 35 9 7 8 9.6 2 8 10 90 9. anxious sacrifices (to avoid problems) predicts dissatisfaction 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Parent-Child exual Desire S Romantic For Humanity 2 10 1 0 4 4 10 1 2 5 6 9 1 3 6 8 8 1 4 7 10 7 1 5 7 12 6 1 5 8 14 5 7 6 8 16 4 8 7 9 18 5 9 8 9 2 4 66 8 10 12 14 16 9.6 50 9.9 80 9.8 70 9.2 Age 30 8 8 9 9.5 3 7 9.3 4 5 9.2 5 6 9.4 3 6 9.5 45 9.7 2 9 10 Parent-Child Sexual Desire Romantic For Humanity Experience of Love 30 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 90 .A Need for Many kinds of Love Compassionate care-giving careproduces secure attachments in children Compassion for partner s weaknesses.4 40 9.

playful teasing Gratitude: Appreciation exercises boost happiness of couples Loving Kindness: interventions boost happiness of couples (Neff) Forgiveness: letting go of grudges calms stress-related physiology. stressforgiveness interventions boost well-being wellDisclosure: Suppressing emotion elevates stress-related physiology of stressothers Idealization (Sandra Murray) .Beyond 15%: Toward the magical 5 to 1 ratio of positive to negative Humor: playful nicknames. laughter and escapes from negative affect cascades.

g. males (de Waal) Sexual selection theory: peer networks of potential reproductive partners Tend and befriend (Taylor. 2002) Friendship and the dopamine. 1971) cooperation with non-kin nonCooperate in childrearing. oxytocin interplay (dePue) Dopamine accompanies approach (e.Friendship Evolutionary theory: Reciprocal altruism (Trivers. smiling. defense. resource gathering Alliance formation as a counter to alpha females. disclosure) Oxytocin rewards closeness Taylor: Oxytocin counteracts stress ..

I can count on my friends when things go wrong. 1988). My family really tries to help me. I can talk about my problems with my friends.Feeling social support Table 1: Measure of Social Support (From Zimet. I have a special person who is a real source of comfort for me. My friends really try to help me. There is a special person with whom I can share my joys and sorrows. I have friends with whom I can share my joys and sorrows. . & Farley. I can talk about my problems with my family. Dalhem. Zimet. There is a special person in my life who cares about my feelings. My family is willing to help me make decisions. There is a special person who is around when I am in need. I get the emotional help and support I need from my family.

lower blood pressure Spiegel et al. 1989: women with breast cancer who are in supportive group therapy better life expectancy (37 vs.9 to 3. 18 months) . 1979) Strong social support live longer (Adler.1 times more likely to have died nine years later (Berkman & Syme.Benefits of strong social support Alameda County: Those who report weak social support 1. 2001) Strong support report greater happiness Strong support lower levels of cortisol (Kiecolt-Glaser) (KiecoltGive stressful speech with supportive member in audience..

tighten lips: cardiovascular arousal . Stress. and Health The legend of Marie Antoinette The Embodied Mind pencil in mouth experiment and happiness Furrowed eyebrows and injustice Lifting up makes people use more uplifting metaphors Furrow brows.The Body.

control Stress can have many forms Life events: abuse. new job Control (learned helplessness) Threats to social identity. connection (Dickerson & Kemeny.The Core Meaning of Stress When demands exceed capacities. efficacy. challenge (Blascovich. disease. skills. promotions. coping abilities Connection to coping. economic hardship Daily hassles: commuting. divorce. parking tickets Positive events: weddings. 2004) Threat mentality vs. Mendes) Prevention vs. dishes. agency. promotion focus (Higgins) .

anxiety.The Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal (HPA) axis (Sapolsky) Chronic stress and: Increased feelings of vulnerability Stress. damage to DNA. fear. damage to brain cells. ulcers. nervousness Vigilance to threats immune system compromise. shortened lives in response to disease .


Sapolsky) Ulcers Heart disease Increased rate of cancer spread Cell death in hippocampus Memory loss Shortened telomeres.Chronic stress and cortisol (Adler. parts of DNA that age (aged by 10 years): Eppel Compromised intellectual functioning .

. stress and health (Adler et al. anxiety disorders Low birth weight Asthma Diabetes Obesity High blood pressure Diabetes Cardiovascular disease Pain: bad back. stomach Respiratory illness Quicker demise in responding to different diseases . 2001) Increased prevalence of depression.SES.

The materialist/situationist account Lower SES: resource impoverished environments Fewer parks Fewer health food stores Less nature Increased pollution. threat . pesticides Greater noise and sleep disruption Fewer health care centers Greater levels of violence.

SANS activation (Keltner et al. anxiety. 1984) Each move up the class ladder. more likely to have disease Lower rank in humans associated with increased threat.Class and rank Lower subjective rank triggers cortisol in baboons (Sapolsky) which inhibits physical development. holding constant access to care .6 times less likely to die in 10 month period (Marmot et al. and less vulnerable to all manner of ailments. less likely to die of cardiovascular disease.. vigilance. 2003) British civil servants: higher ranked administrators 1.

. emotional life Heritability co-efficients and happiness coTwin studies: Extraversion .Human genetics. and change and cultivation ProPro-social and stress branches of nervous system. set points. oxytocin polymorphisms Dopamine DR4 predicts self-reported altruism selfAVPR1A (vasopressin) predicts generosity in ultimatum game The equation (Lyubomirsky) 50% genetics 10% environment 40% voluntary activity .5 identical twins.2 fraternal Dopamine.

posture. facial tension) Train the eye (look at partner in new light) Change your language Change your frame. metaphor Modest acts: gratitude. appreciation Change your physical environment Change your culture Change your nervous system .The meaning of cultivation Skill cultivation (Lyubomirsky) Train your mind Train your body (breathing.

broadening circle of care . yearnings Wish for person s happiness Extend to another person.Tibetan Buddhist Meditation (Alan Wallace: Genuine Happiness) Happiness) Attention Breathing Settle into relaxed posture Focus attention in between what you re looking at and eyes Breathe 21 times Attend to movements of lungs Mindfulness Of body Imagine attention as curved surface Move this attention up and down body Be mindful of sensations throughout body Loving Kindness Bring to mind a person who is dear to you Imagine person s sufferings.

Daya: Daya: Compassion. conquering callous. no entering into debt. fear. nor consuming Asanas (postures) Purification procedures Pranayama (breathing) meditation . word. This is the "main" yama. continence. The other nine are there in support of its accomplishment. or deed. no coveting. cruel and insensitive feelings toward all beings. straightforwardness. celibate when single. Abstinence from injury or harm to any living creature in thought. and indecision. Asteya: Asteya: No stealing. faithful when married. Arjava: Honesty. seeing each task nonthrough to completion. Mitahara: Moderate appetite. overcoming non-perseverance. neither eating too much nor too little. Kshama: Patience. Brahmacharya: Brahmacharya: Divine conduct. Satya: Satya: Truthfulness in word and thought (in conformity with the facts).Hatha Yoga (Hinduism) 18 million practitioners in US 15th century: Swatmarama The ten traditional yamas are: Ahimsa: Ahimsa: Nonviolence. functioning in the now. Dhriti: Steadfastness. releasing time. renouncing deception and wrongdoing.

being present Koans (100 or so sayings. . 13th century) If you meet the Buddha. What is the Buddha? Dried Dung. What is the sound of one hand? What is the Buddha? Three pounds of flax. kill him.Zazen (zen) meditation Sitting Mindful breathing Walking meditations Observing still mind. 12th. Two hands clap and there is a sound.

Mindfulness based stress reduction program (Jon Kabat-Zinn) KabatBody scan Imagine eating a raisin Feel sensations. relaxation in different parts of body Sitting exercises Hatha Yoga .

workplace Reduction in pain for people with chronic disease 4 times quicker healing rate for people with Psoriasis Reductions in anxiety. MBSR cognitive therapy) Increased sense of hardiness. depression (Teasdale.Evidence and applications Applied in schools. coherence . Williams. prisons.

toxic thought narcissism distraction sensory overload overhurried . Oman: Eight Point Program of Passage Meditation) Passage contemplation Favorite passage Mantra Put others first Focus attention Train senses Slow down alienation.Contemplation (Flinders. cynicism rumination.

Reflection Write down a favorite passage. concept you return to . saying.

to be greatly good. wishing to establish his own character. and an identification of ourselves with the beautiful which exists in thought. A man. not our own. he must put himself in the place of another and of many others. or a going out of our own nature. also establishes the character of others (Confucius) The great secret of morals is love. the pains and pleasures of his species must become his own. must imagine intensely and comprehensively. action or person.A Person of Humanity. The great instrument of moral good is the imagination (She ey) .

His Holiness. and to perform various services for them the greater strength of the social or maternal instincts than that of any other instinct or motive. to feel a certain amount of sympathy with them. In a timid man. on the other hand. or for pleasure or even misery might be felt. the Dalai Lama the social instincts lead an animal to take pleasure in the society of his fellows. not conflict. lies at the heart of the basic principles that govern our human existence.At the most fundamental level our nature is compassionate. Charles Darwin. for they are performed too instantaneously for reflection. the instinct of self-preservation selfmight be so strong. existence. and that cooperation. The Descent of Man .

Research on contemplation Oman Reductions in stress 19 weeks later Increases in efficacy .

amygdala Emergence of narrative. 2008: boosts in happiness over 2 months mindful people happier. stimulation of vagus nerve Frontal control of limbic system. challenge to cynicism. forgiveness Empirical Evidence Monks Kabat-Zinn. Davidson (2004): software engineers KabatTraining in MBSR led to Enhanced immune response to flu virus Shifts in resting frontal lobe asymmetry Fredrickson. basis of gratitude.Meditation: Core principles Core Principles Breathing Awareness of sensations Awareness of mind Loving Kindness reduced cariovascular arousal. more optimistic . meta cognition shift in asymmetry.

. The exam will require that you do one long essay on a broader topic in the class. or through the lens of different illusions? . Rely on the empirical studies of what is known about the central determinants of happiness. Grading will prioritize: 1) clarity of your definitions. is it wise to view the self accurately. and evolutionary studies of our ultrasociality? Summarize the evidence related to how wealth or SES influences happiness and physical health? What paradox do you encounter? And how might you synthesize these findings.5 hours for the exam. 2) the sharpness and relevance of your empirical examples. For your happiness.Exam Exam Psychology 162 You will have 1. and 10 short IDs (about 2-3 paragraphs on 2each). 3) the coherence and originality of your analysis and thought. Review the physiological underpinnings of stress. What is the core meaning of stress? Review how two toxic thought patterns might elevate levels of stress and harm physical health. 4) the relating of your ideas to big questions in the class (does money buy you happiness?) Example Essay Questions Have we evolved to be happy? Make an evolutionary case for the origins of human happiness.

Key Terms Cortisol cortex Rumination HPA axis Monogamy Oxytocin Nuculeus Accumbens Duchenne Smile Antiphonal laughter Biophilia Appeasement Agency Optimism Satisficing Gratitude Empathy Sacred Jen Awe Trust Orbitofrontal Amygdala Fragile Vulnerable offspring Forgiveness Illusion of control .

and catharsis (insight) Literary Studies (Harold Bloom): Shakespeare invented awareness of self. in depth narrative. linear Narrative.Narrative Freud: dream analysis. first date. rationale. narrated identity Jerome Bruner. 1986: Meaning Making mind Two modalities of thought: Scientific. wedding. stories Scripts (Tomkins. adolescence Possible selves (Hazel Markus) . Schank) Knowledge is represented in story like structures Going to restaurant.

connection to those who suffer Contents Settings Characters Plot twists.g. compassion selfJustice versus conventionality Duty and freedom Individual and society Often involve redemption. turns Themes Vivid images.Self as Narrative (McAdams. between self-interest. goals E. events .. 2008) Self as narrative Tell to integrate conflicts.

what is the book jacket version of your story? .Reflection If your life is a novel.

Sources of Narratives: Parents Parents Bedtime stories. tales from work Narratives about our place in the world Capps and Agorophobia Studied dinnertime conversations of family of mom with agroophobia Agorophobia passed from mom to child through narratives of outside world. authoritarian. well-being. wellincreased empathy. Baumrind) Inductive. and lack of agency and threat there Narratives about morality (Dunn. moral development (Dunn) . conflict Inductive parenting predicts better social adjustment. laissez faire reasoning) Inductive parenting tells stories about harm. dinnertime conversations.

funerals. less prone to obesity (Pollan) High points. thorns and roses . liturgies Eating dinner together (Carter. less drug abuse. Thanksgiving. more emotionally stable. better grades. low points. proms.Sources of Narratives: In rituals Scheff: social rituals embody narratives Weddings. 2010) Children have fewer depressive symptoms.

Where the Wild Things Are.Source of Narratives: Cultural artifacts Tsai (2007) US high excitement culture. happiness defined in terms of excitement. more likely to be addicted to exciting drugs US childrens books: Protagonists are highly excited (Dr. contentedness US dangerous recreational practices. Huck Finn) US ads: more excited smiles . East Asia veers toward valuing calm. Seuss.

identity (alternative rock) Lower SES prefer music that profiles struggles of life . rise time. pitch. electronica) Open to experience prefer reflective. joy Rentfrow & Gosling. complex music (alternative. hip hop. upbeat music (country. jazz) Markus & Snibbe.Narratives in Music Semantics and music Susan Langer: Form and Feeling Music has structure of great narratives Juslin: Acoustic properties of music (amplitude. speed) same as acoustics of basic vocalizations for emotions like anger (justice). sadness (loss). 2003 Extraverts prefer highly energetic. 2006 Upper SES prefer music about individual freedoms.

Davidson Natyshastra: movements of dance communicate emotion in narrative Art Color and semantics . Rozin.Narratives in other art forms Fiction: Oatley Fiction simulates our own experience in empathic leap of imagination Dance: Hejmadi.

Pennebaker s writing paradigm Initial interest in power of confession Write about strongest emotions of trauma. or the facts of the event Traumas studied: bereavement. divorce. 9-11 victims 9Effects: increased well-being. enhanced wellimmune function. reductions in anxiety. depression . holocaust survivors. reduced visits to health center.

Other narrative findings Markus: more possible selves. less likely experiences of depression McAdams (2008): more vivid and engaging narratives predict increased wellwell-being as people age Laura King .

organization 3. SANS activity in others Memory deficits Reduced satisfaction 2. Reduced intentional object: reduces free floating anxiety. what does it do? 1. 2008) 5.Functions of Narrative Insight. The pleasures of aesthetic distance (Aristotle: Catharsis) . increased psychological coherence: fewer unique words d. evolved from fewer to more cognitive words c. Reduces uncertainty. increased acceptance. Catharsis: insight Expressing negative feelings: coherence a. John Suppression leads to Greater SANS activity Frustration. Reduced suppression Gross. increases control (Wilson & Gilbert. more negative words than positive words b. distress 4. Social sharing (Rime) Social support 6.

narrative (Brown. 2009) Think back to earliest experiences of play.Reflection on play: Your play history. What were they? Are you as free as you d like to play today? .

interspecies play Criteria (Stuart Brown. games.What is Play? Peek a boo. word play. 2009) Apparently purposeless Voluntary Inherent attraction Freedom from time Diminished consciousness of self Improvisational Desire to continue . rough and tumble. sociodramatic play. imitations.

Play: The safe arena thesis A. intimate . learn hierarchies Flirtation: learn boundary between friend. harm Marc Bekoff: coyotes in rough and tumble learn how not to bite. Boundaries: Rough and Tumble Play: learn boundaries between pleasure. pain.

Play Functions Skills Playful imitation Play kissing of pre-adolescents preBoys playing cavemen. girls playing with dolls: hunting. care-taking care- .

try out sexual identities Adolescents play at adults .Play functions: Identity: sociodramatic play (3 years) Barrie Thorne studied lunchtime play of middle school girls: gender play to take on.

Play functions Knowledge Playing with liquids. conservation . sand: understand substance. materials.

Play Functions: Empathy Theory of mind in pretend play (Leslie) Abuse of language in pretend play Object substitution: banana = phone Attribution of non-literal properties: glasses have diamonds nonImaginary objects Abuse frees children from egocentrism. different perspectives. paves way for theory of mind. empathy .

A language of laughter Preuschoft. grunts 3-4 bursts per laugh Voiced laughs involve vocal folds Dominant. submissive laughs . snorts. cackles. Van Hooff: pant hoots in primates Provine: Laughter punctuates speech Bachorowski: hisses. guffaws.

pons (which regulations breathing) .The acoustics. physiology of laughter Own space in acoustic structure (Bachorowski) Predates language CNS correlates in brain stem.

Laughter = humor? Provine Laughter gatherers in dorms. humor Most do not . malls About 20% of laughs follow jokes.

sign of cooperation Friends engage in antiphonal laughter (Smoski & Bachorowski) . Owren) Laughter has a unique idiosyncratic acoustic signature It signals imminent rewards.Laughter = cooperation? (Bachorowski.

shift to PANS Means of managing conflict .Laughter = La petite vacation) Laughter signals suspension of serious Meaning Laughter and exhalation.

Laughter and health (Martin & Lefcourt) Reduction of cardiovascular stress Quicker return to cardiovascular baseline during stress Laughter cascades benefit marriage (Gottman. 2003) Martin. Lefcourt: sense of humor benefits health .

better functioning two years later More anger: worse functioning Laughter: physiological arousal not distressing. 1995) Bereavement Studied 45 adults 6 months bereaved Simple narrative: tell me about your relationship with your deceased spouse Coded emotion with FACS Griefwork hypothesis Lots of anger a sign of effective grieving Positive emotion sign of denial. more perspective . maladaptive grieving Our findings: more laughter.Laughter and stressful trauma (Bonanno & Keltner.

repetition. fantastical description Quantity Relation Manner Informativeness Redundancy. excessive brevity Relevance Clarity Digression Vagueness. obliqueness. metaphor ____________________________________________________________ .Humor and teasing (a linguistic analysis) Teasing Playful provocation + offrecord markers Linguistic Principle Criterion Violations _____________________________________________________________ Quality Truth Exaggeration.

them children ain t goin to heaven. . She had eighty motherfuckers look just like you. Don t forget how many your mother had.The dozens (Abrahams. One shot seven and one shot eleven. She didn t have one. I fucked your mother in a bowl of rice. she didn t have two. 1963) Don t take about my mother cause you ll make me mad. Two children jumped out shootin dice. God damn.

Tittle Shaquille O Neal Kevin McHale Jack Nicklaus Larry Johnson Bjorn Borg Joe Bryant Chris Evert Ken Rosewall John Elway Jaromir Jagr Keith Wood. Dubya. Iron Butt. His rotundity Honest Abe. The Illinois Ape. Irish Rugby William Perry Charles Barkley Pau Gasol Anthony Webb George W. The Great Emancipator Muhammad Ali Joe Louis Roberto Duran Primo Carnera Jake LaMotta Y. Your Superfluous excellency. The first black president. The Mad Monk The Old Fox. slick Willie Tricky Dick. Uncurious George The Comeback Kid. Bush Bill Clinton Richard Nixon George Washington John Adams Abraham Lincoln . The Farmer President Bonny Johnny. The Shrub. Ed Puff Nuts The Raging Potato The Refrigerator The Round Mound of Rebound The Spanish Fly Spud Bush 43.A.Nicknames The Lousiville Lip The Brown Bomber No Mas The Ambling Alp Raging Bull The Bald Eagle Big Aristotle The Black Hole The Golden Bear Grandma ma Ice Borg Jelly Bean Little Miss Poker Face Muscles Mr.

which maintain d so politic a state of evil that they will not admit any good part to intermingle with them. for I love thee against my will.Teasing and love: Much Ado About Nothing Benedick And. I will spite it for yours. for which of my bad parts didst thou first fall in love with me? Beatrice For them all together. Beatrice In spite of your heart. Benedick Thou and I are too wise to woo peaceably. But for which of my good parts did you first suffer love for me? Benedick Suffer love! A good epithet! I do suffer love indeed. if you spite it for my sake. I think. for I will never love that which my friend hates. Alas. I pray thee now tell me. . poor heart.

Teasing in flirtation Happier couples have more nicknames about each other
Metaphors: animals, food objects Happier couples resort to humor, teasing to negotiate conflicts

Teasing and hierarchies: Nicknames and status

0. T asing 0. 0 -0. - . - . wP w r T s r Hi P w r T s r 0. 0. Low Pow r T rg t High Pow r T rg t


ili y

The fool (jokester, trickster, satirist)
Human universal: from China to original peoples Pervasive in earlier culture Political power, advising Mocked every public event Embodied a rhetoric of absurdity

The absurd (Nagel)
Seeing the insignificance of things

Potent predictor of happiness (Argyle, Myers) Loss of work common cause of depression A caveat: Americans are working harder than ever before (167 hours more than previous generation), and harder than individuals from other industrialized nations Wolford: a bit more leisure time boosts happiness

spirituality People who find deeper purpose in work most satisfied . authenticity Humanity: Kindness. greater good are key Signature strengths (Peterson. deeper purpose. learning Courage: Bravery. Seligman) Matching Strengths (Peterson) Universal. love Justice: fairness. paragons.Meaningful work Positive organization Network (Michigan) Meaningful work. prudence Transcendence: gratitude. leadership Temperance: Modesty. early prodigies Wisdom: creativity.

Flow and Optimal experience (Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi) Balance between Skills. dancers. expands Self consciousness disappears Little concern for rewards Intrinsic motivation (Lepper. poets. Deci) . no rumination Time disoriented. people in organizations Intense concentration No worries. challenges in goal directed. rule bound system with clear feedback Studies of artists.

action. emotion .Cultivation The story of the Buddha (Karen Armstrong) Several year quest after leaving bourgeois life Disillusioned with material pursuits Suffering = attachments Eight fold path to enlightenment (like Lyubomirsky s skills) Right mind.

HPA Axis activation .A bit of review Cultivating strong relationships 3 positive emotions for every negative one Reducing stress.

Cultivating right mind Optimism. cholesterol Optimistic women 9% lower risk of heart disease. hope Circulation (2009): study of 100. 000 Dutch women Optimistic women lower blood pressure. 16% lower risk of dying at 8-year follow-up 8follow- Appreciative Self compassion .

whose love of murder was in their blood as it is perhaps also in ours. Machiavelli EVOLUTIONARY SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST: The natural world is grossly immoral . it is the morality of altruism that men have to reject. LIBERTARIANISM: If any civilization is to survive. Immanuel weak.A Legacy of Cynicism FREUDIAN MIND: The very emphasis of the commandment: Thou shalt not kill. Natural selection can honestly be described as a process for maximizing short sighted selfishness George Williams MORAL THEORY: Sympathy as a good natured emotion is always blind and weak. and greedy of gain. gain. Kant . hypocritical. Ayn Rand POLITICAL THEORY: Of mankind we may say in general they are fickle. Sigmund Freud ours. makes it certain that we are descended from an endlessly long chain of generations of murderers.

not person Blame related to punitive tendencies..Blame Buddhism: focus on intention of act. divorce . et al. revenge (Rudolphs. 2004) Bradbury Fincham (2003) Blame in romantic couples assessed through Self report Narratives On line conversations Blame related to dissatisfaction.

Right body .

Yoga.Exercise. 2009) Endorphins Breathing Catharsis Social Contact . Sports (Lyubomirsky.

meditation . laugh.Right action Play. express gratitude. politeness.

Functions of Touch Reward Reinforce Reciprocity Signal Safety Soothe Power .

A Language of Touch (Eibl(EiblEibesfeldt, 1989)
Evolution of hand Evolution of skin (Jablonski) Most developed sensory modality at birth Attachment processes, soothing, friendship, flirtation, sexual Kraus: Basketball study: chest bumps, head slaps, fist bumps, bum slaps predict better performance in NBA teams

We re a touch deprived culture

To ches of f ien s ing ave conve sation Jo a , 1969)
200 Numbe of touches 150 100 50 0 London Florida Paris n Juan Series1

Touch and stress
Coan et al (2006): anticipated stress, married women touching hand of partner but not stranger show: the right anterior insula, superior frontal gyrus, and hypothalamus Frances & Meaney, 1999:
Rat moms 10-20% of waking time in tactile contact with rat 10pups (licking, full body covers) Well handled pups: show less corticosterone in blood stream when restrained Less interconnectivity in stress related regions of brain a year later, enhanced immune function

Touch and health
Touching story in nursing home: An instinct to embrace Tiffany Field
In orphanages with touch, children lived longer Touch reduces symptoms of ADHD, depression in teen mothers, asthma and diabetes Heel lance procedure: infants who were held cried 82% less, grimaced 65% less, lower heart rate Touch therapies in hospitals
47% weight gain in premature infants Reductions in depression of Alzheimers patients

Touch and attachment
Rebecca Turner: 10 minutes of Swedish Massage leads to oxytocin release Touch and vagus nerve response Parents who have lots of skin to skin contact carried in baby bjorns have more securely attached children

Smile Kouros .

relaxed open mouth displays . van Hooff Silent bared teeth vs.The evolution of the smile Darwin s mistake Smile first stage of laughter Preuschoft.

equality.Smile. trust in others . and happiness Smile in egalitarian primates used as tool of friendship Human evidence Duchenne smile Left frontal lobe activation Increased happiness Evokes happiness.

health. performance Friends who mirror one another s emotions are happier Leaders who are emotionally intelligent fare better .Emotional attunement. intelligence (Daniel Goleman) Intelligent Intelligent Intelligent Intelligent encoding decoding insight into own emotions management of emotions Emotional intelligence the best predictor of wellwellbeing.

he must put himself in the place of another and of many others. A man. . must imagine intensely and comprehensively. or a going out of our own nature. the pains and pleasures of his species must become his own.IMAGINE The great secret of morals is love. action or person. and an identification of ourselves with the beautiful which exists in thought. The great instrument of moral good is the imagination (Shelley). not our own. to be greatly good.

Narrative .

sensory pleasure) Happiness is a set of skills Happiness is emotion balance Happiness between Happiness is work Happiness is training the mind (optimism. pride. West (excitement) Individual variation (compassion. meditation. sports) Happiness is a narrative we tell . appreciation. non materialism) Happiness is calming down from stress (exercise. emotion. traits East (contentedness).The big insights Happiness is many things Pleasure.

2001) Despite some economic expansion. happiness hasn t risen Compared to many cultures. we re not faring as well .US Culture? American Paradox (Myers.

new media (Bushman.Some Challenges % who he ped s umped over man Our busy culture ¥ 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Late On time Videogames. Anderson) ¥ .

Breakdown in social fabric Bowling alone (Putnam) .

Rise in ideology of self-interest selfPrecipitous rise in narcissism. culture of selfself-esteem Rise in valuing materialism .

Inequality Asymmetries in wealth 46 44 Lis e er s Com assio 42 4 38 36 34 32 3 High Po er Lis e er Lo H Ta ker s Dis ress       ©¨    § ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦    Lo Po er Lis e er   .

A turning point in our culture: Reasons for Optimism Pinker: Rise of cooperation Drops in materialism Drop in murder rates Drop in prevalence of torture Drop in likelihood of dying during war Fewer wars More humane treatment of those with psychological conditions A new social fabric .

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