Viral Diseases

4-H Veterinary Science Extension Veterinary Medicine Texas AgriLife Extension Service College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences Texas A&M System http://aevm.tamu.edu

Objectives 
Describe pox diseases  List and describe common viral respiratory

diseases  Describe viral abortion diseases  Describe meningitis and encephalitis  Describe hepatitis  Describe anemia

Background  Remember  Five infectious diseases      Bacterial Viral Fungal Parasitic Rickettsial .

animal or reservoir to a susceptible host. Infectious disease  An illness due to a specific infectious agent or its toxic products that arises through transmission of that agent or its products from an infected person. either directly or indirectly .

makes copies of itself. must be inside a living cell . They consist of a strand of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) that contains genetic instructions concerning viral reproduction that is enveloped by a protein coat Not alive nor dead.Viruses  Viruses   An ultra-microscopic micro-organism. parasitic within living cells and of which many can cause disease. has DNA or RNA.

 Antibiotics have no affect  Treatment is to easy symptoms   Vaccines available Entrance of virus into cell is ³viral infection´  Virus uses cell structures to replicate new viruses .

 Animal viruses look like  Capsid  Outer shell  Core  Surrounds genetic material  Envelope  Kind of life skin around outside of virus  Lipid bilayer (membrane)  Genetic material  Function  Make more viruses .

 Harmful   Replication leads to cell death Takes over cell function  How exit cell  Budding  Few at a time  Lysis  Cell membrane ruptures .

 All living things can be affected  Animals  People  Plants Infectivity  Single species  Humans ± smallpox   1-2 Species  Influenza  Particular kind of plant  Tobacco mosaic virus  Particular species of bacteria  Lambda bacteriophage ± E.coli .

 Different kinds of viruses      Double-stranded DNA Single-stranded DNA Double-stranded RNA Single-stranded RNA Retroviruses  Unique kind of single-stranded RNA virus  Can mutate   Kill virus Make new-strain .

 Infectivity  The characteristic of a disease agent that embodies capability of entering. and multiplying in a susceptible host Basically   How efficiently it invades specific animal¶s tissues . surviving in.

 Specificity  Its ability to infect certain animal species and tissues .

 Symptoms  Depend on tissue affected  Skin  Blood  Liver  Uterus  Fetus  Brain  Lungs  Stomach  Intestines  Bloodstream (viremia)  Phase of the disease .

 Exposure ± symptoms  Recent exposure  Normal incubation period Replicate/multiply immediately  May become dormant  Recrudesces  After stressful event  Long ago exposure   After incubation period may exhibit symptoms .

spleen and lungs   Not zoonotic Symptoms Decreased appetite Appear depressed Fever Opacity of one or both corneas of their eyes (so-called µBlue Eye¶) one to two weeks later  Respiratory signs  Eye and nose discharge  Cough      Prevention  Vaccine (puppy) .General Conditions  Hepatitis  Infectious canine hepatitis (ICH)  Causes  Liver inflammation  Viremia  Affects liver. kidneys.

cattle  Symptoms      Examples     . Anemia   Systemic viral disease Transmitted   Vectors Vehicles Fever Anemia Weight loss Abortion Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) Bluetongue ± cattle Leukosis ± cattle Malignant catarrhal fever .

rabbits  Humans Direct contact Arthropods Cauliflower-type growths       Head Neck Shoulder Mouth Vulva Penis  Transmission    Symptoms   Vaccine available . dogs.Skin  Warts  Definition  Fibrous tumors of the skin and occasionally the mucous membranes  Species affected  Animals  Cattle.

 Pox  Definition  Acute skin condition caused by replication of poxviruses in the skin  Transmission  Direct transmission (through skin)  Arthropods (vectors)  Types of lesions  Bumps  Blisters  Pustules  Crusts  Named after affected animals .

Fowl Pox Fowl Pox Swine Pox Cow Pox .

Respiratory System  Pneumonitis. Pneumonia   Contagious infection of the lungs and causes severe damage to the lung Causes    Hemorrhages Edema Emphysema   Bacteria can complicate Symptoms      Cough Fever Heavy breathing Lethargy Decreased appetite .

 Viral respiratory diseases  Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR)  Bovine Parainfluenza-3 (PI³)  Equine Rhinopneumonitis  Equine Influenza  Swine Influenza  Canine Infectious Tracheobronchitis (Kennel Cough)  Canine Distemper  Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis (FVR)  Feline Calicivirus (FCV)  Fowl Infectious Bronchitis  Fowl Infectious Laryngotracheitis (LT)  Fowl Influenza .

Reproductive System  Abortion  Viruses terminate pregnancy by attacking  Fetus  Embryo  Placenta  Uterus  Examples  Swine parvovirus  Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR)  Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD)  Swine pseudorabies  Equine rhinopneumonitis .

Nervous System  Meningitis  Definition  Inflammation of the brain covering (meninges)  Encephalitis  Definition  Inflammation of the brain tissue  Causes damage to brain tissues .

Digestive System  Gastroenteritis  Affects   Stomach Intestines   Highly contagious Symptoms   Vomiting Diarrhea   More severe in young Dehydration and electrolyte imbalance .

 Types       Rotavirus Coronavirus Parvovirus Feline panleukopenia Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) Swine transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) .

intestine Lungs Skin System Nervous General General Reproductive Nervous Gastrointestinal Respiratory Skin .Summarize Viral condition Encephalitis Hepatitis Anemia Abortion Meningitis Gastroenteritis Pneumonitis Warts Affects Brain Liver Blood Fetus Meninges Stomach.

 Meningoencephalitis  Symptoms        Depression Blindness Partial or complete paralysis Wobbling Seizures Coma Delirium .

  Vaccination is important No treatment Types    Rabies Equine encephalomyelitis  VEE. EEE    Canine distemper Parvovirus Swine pseudorabies . WEE.

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