Chapter 1: Psychology Schools of Thought Psychology hopes to predict and control human behavior.

But, it does so within different approaches. There is no one agreed upon method.

Biological Approach
To understand human behavior, the physiological underpinnings must be understood. Brain & Central Nervous System Role of drugs, Use animal models as means to understand human behavior What role do our senses play? Endocrine system ± glands, hormones (fight or flight response)

Behavioral Approach
1913 quote from John B. Watson: ³« give me a dozen healthy young infants« I will take any one and create« a doctor, a lawyer, and yes, even a beggar man thief«´ According to Watson, set up environmental conditions & give rise to the desired behavior. Rewards = reinforcements in behavior Skinner took Watson¶s ideas to new heights.

Cognitive Approach
Memory, language, thought and attention ± cognitive measures are worth examination. Semantic relatedness ± connectedness of ideas in memory. When given two words to say out loud, a person will say 2 words that are related much faster than 2 that are unrelated Very popular today ± social, developmental, personality, & clinical psychology. In order to understand the individual, one must understand the way people think, remember, process information, and reason about the world.

Humanistic Approach People are goal related and driven Self-actualization: (Maslow) Someone who has reached his or her own unique potential. Free will & motivation ± We are in complete control In therapy, psychologists attempt to help individuals see the misconceptions they hold in their subjective view of reality. If those views are corrected, the individual will feel better about themselves.

Psychoanalytic Approach
Some of the most controversial approaches Humans are controlled by forces that are out of their control. Specifically buried deep within their unconscious. Sigmund Freud ± unconscious conflicts cause discomfort, so feel stress but do not understand why To help cope, they encourage lots of free association and ³talk therapy´ to understand the roots of these anxieties. But, little evidence supports this approach*

Sociocultural Approach Focuses on the diversity of the human experience Context (developmental) Influence of groups (social) or an Applied aspect (forensic psychology) Human behavior does not occur in a vacuum & groups, cultures, and situations all have impact on human behavior. Behavior can be predicted by the presence or absence of another person.

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