CHAPTER 4

METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION

Ch 4

1

Primary and Secondary Data Ch 4 2 .

Ch 4 3 . ‡ Secondary data: information that has previously been gathered by someone other than the researcher and/or for some other purpose than the research project at hand.Primary Versus Secondary Data ‡ Primary data: information that is developed or gathered by the researcher specifically for the research project at hand.

METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION Primary Method Interview Methods Delphi Techniques Projective Techniques Ch 4 Secondary Method Internal Sources External Sources 4 Questionnaire Method .

survey. research study. WHY? Because some of your questions can possibly have been already answered by other investigators or authors.g. Why reinvent the wheel ? Ch 4 5 .Secondary Data Data gathered by another source (e. interview) Secondary data is gathered BEFORE primary data. WHY? Because you want to find out what is already known about a subject before you dive into your own investigation.

‡ Obtained quickly with less effort ‡ Inexpensive ‡ Usually available ‡ Enhances existing primary data ‡ May achieve research objective Ch 4 6 .Advantages of Secondary Data ‡ Secondary data has many uses in marketing research and sometimes the entire research project may depend on the use of secondary data.

Problems encountered with Secondary Data ‡ Availability of Data ‡ Relevance ± Incompatible reporting units ± Measurement units do not match«need per capita income and only have household income ‡ Accuracy ‡ Sufficiency ‡ Data are outdated ‡ A number of assumptions have to be Ch 4 made. 7 .

purchase requisitions.Internal Sources of Secondary Data This is data that have been collected within the firm such as sales records. and invoices. maintaining customer (internal) databases and other (internal) databases for the purpose of contacting. CRM and DATA Mining ± Ethical Issue? How much information should companies have about consumers? Ch 4 8 . and building relationships. ‡ Internal secondary data is used for database marketing. transacting. ± Database marketing is the process of building.

and reports purchased from outside for prior problems may have relevance for current problems.) Ch 4 9 ‡ Internal Experts . sales force. advertising expenditures.Categories of Internal Sources of Data ‡ Accounting Records (Eg: sales invoice. expenditures and data inventories) ‡ Sales Force Reports ‡ Customer Database and Customer Feedback ‡ Miscellaneous Reports (Eg: Previous Research Studies. Special Audits.

Basic Statistic Relating to Indian Economy Ch 4 ± Agricultural Situation in India 10 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± .External Secondary Data ‡ Computer Databases: ± On-Line Databases ± CD-ROM Databases ‡ Government Agencies: Central Statistics Organization (CSO) RBI Bulletin NSS (National Sample Survey) Economic Survey Indian Labour Journal Indian Labour Year Book Planning Commission .

External Secondary Data ‡ Publications of Non Government Agencies: Eg: ± Handbook and Directory of Indian Industries ± Commerce Year Book of Public Sector ‡ Directories: Eg: ± Trade Directories ‡ Publications of International Organizations Ch 4 11 .

highly specialized and not available in libraries.External Secondary Data ‡ Syndicate Services: Data: are provided by firms that collect data in a standard format and make them available to subscribing firms -. ± Consumer Offtake ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Retail Store Audit on Consumer Products Retail Store Audit on Pharmaceutical Poducts Prescription Audit Market Pulse National Readership Survey Business Readership Survey Television Rating Points Telefacts ± Media Research Ch 4 12 .

Evaluating Secondary Data ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ What was the purpose of the study? Who collected the information? What information was collected? How was the information attained? How consistent is the information with other information? Ch 4 13 .

‡ Step 4: Compile the literature you have found and evaluate your findings. ‡ Step 2: Develop a list of key words and names. ‡ Step 5: If you are unhappy with what you have found or are otherwise having trouble and the reference librarian has not been able to identify sources.Locating Secondary Data Sources ‡ Step 1: Identify what you wish to know and what you already know about your topic. Ch 14 ‡ 4Step 6: Report results. use an authority. ‡ Step 3: Begin your search using several library sources. .

Sources of Primary Method of Data Collection ‡ Interview Methods* ± ± ± ± Personal Interviews Focus Group Interviews Mail Interviews Telephone Interviews ‡ Computer Assisted Telephone Interview ‡ Fully Computerized Interview ‡ Observation Method ± Behavioural Observation ‡ Non Verbal Observation ‡ Spatial Observation ‡ Linguistic Observation Ch 4 *(Do the merits and demerits on your own) 15 .

Sources of Primary Method of Data Collection ± Non Behavioural Observation ‡ Record analysis ‡ Physical condition analysis ‡ Process or activity analysis ‡ Interviewer error ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Ch 4 Failure to secure cooperation Failure to execute interview procedures Failure to establish appropriate environment Falsification of answers Inappropriate interviewing behavior Failure to accurately record answers Physical presence bias 16 .

Sources of Primary Method of Data Collection ‡ Projective Techniques ± ± ± ± Thematic Appreciation Test (TAT) Role Playing Cartoon Completion Sentence/ Word Completion ‡ Delphi Technique ‡ Questionnaire Method ± ± ± ± Ch 4 Mail Questionnaire Telephone Questionnaire Personal Questionnaire Electronic Questionnaire 17 .

What do you perceive? Ch 4 18 .

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