“If you wait to do everything until you're sure it's right, you'll probably never do much of anything.

” (Win Borden)

PED4470 ASSESSING SPECIAL POPULATIONS - AGING
Ovande Furtado, M.S.

Kinesiology and Sports Studies Department

Chapter 11 Outline
 

   

Aging and Fitness Effect of Aging on Fitness Aerobic Fitness Body Composition Strength Evaluation of Adult Fitness Evaluation of Functional Fitness

Aging and Fitness

U.S. population is aging
 Median

age (1990) = 32.9 years  Median age (2000) = 35.3 years

1990-2000 saw increase in older adults (65+ years) from 32 million to 35 million Baby boomers will start retiring from

Need to promote physical activity in order to improve quality of life and

Aerobic Fitness
 

Declines with age during adulthood Decline in maximal heart rate is major contributing factor Other factors: decline in physical activity, reduction in muscle mass, increase in fat mass Cross-sectional data: decline is 0.4-.05 ml/kg/year Longitudinal data: decline is 0.04 to 1.43

Body Composition
 

 

Body weight and body fatness increase during adulthood BMI levels off around 45 years in men, and 55 years in women Percent fat levels off during 50s Increase in percent fat:
 combination

of fat mass increase  fat-free mass decrease (especially muscle mass)

Strength
  

Maximal strength attained between 20 and 30 years of age Gradual decline thereafter (WHY?) Decline in activity appears to be major factor Manual workers appear to maintain strength during middle and later adult years Sedentary older adults can gain strength from training (Tai Chi)

Evaluating Adult Fitness
 

  

YMCA test battery (all adults) Army Physical Fitness Test (military personnel) AAHPERD Test (older adults) Senior Fitness Test (older adults) Groningen Test (older adults)

Y’s Way to Physical Fitness
   

Fitness test battery Comprehensive fitness training program Normative database from over 20,000 adults Aerobic fitness
• •

3-minute step test submaximal cycle ergometer test (multistage) sum of 3 skinfolds (converted to percent fat) sum of 4 skinfolds (converted to percent fat)

Body composition
• •

Y’s Way to Physical Fitness

Muscular strength

submaximal bench press test to fatigue 1-minute timed sit-up trunk flexion test

Muscular endurance

Flexibility

U.S. Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT)
    

Maintenance of fitness a requirement of military personnel APFT consists of three tests Criterion-referenced standards, provided for age and gender groups Alternative tests are available for medically excused personnel Personnel over 40 years require cardiovascular screening prior to testing

Army Physical Fitness Test

Push-up test
• •

self-determined cadence maximum in 2 minutes self-determined cadence maximum in 2 minutes walking permitted, but discouraged

Sit-up test
• •

2-Mile Run test

Army Physical Fitness Test

Alternate tests:
• • • •

800-yard swim test 6.2-mile cycle ergometer test, 2 kilopond resistance 6.2-mile bicycle test 2.5-mile walk test not part of APFT, but must meet percent fat standards, or go on weight-loss program

Body composition

Functional Fitness
 

Important for older adults Capacity to meet demands of everyday functional activities Activities of daily living (ADLs)
 Dressing,

bathing, cooking, mobility

Important to independent living, reduction in health care costs

Functional Fitness

Functional capacity categories:
• • • • •

Physically Physically Physically Physically Physically

dependent frail independent fit elite

AAHPERD Test

Developed by committee appointed by AAHPERD Council on Aging and Adult Development Body composition

Ponderal index Trunk/Leg flexibility test Agility/Dynamic balance test

Lower body flexibility

Agility

AAHPERD Test

Fine motor abilities

“Soda Pop” Coordination test Seated Biceps Curl test 880-yard walk

Upper body strength

Aerobic fitness

Senior Fitness Test
 

Developed over several years, as part of LifeSpan Project Extensive data collected to evaluate reliability and validity, and provide norms Detailed description given of test development, reliability and validity procedures, and theoretical rationale Thorough consideration given to 11 important test development criteria

Senior Fitness Test

Lower body strength

Chair Stand test Arm Curl test Chair Sit-and-Reach test Scratch test

Upper body strength

Lower body flexibility

Upper body flexibility

Senior Fitness Test

Aerobic fitness
• •

6-Minute Walk test 2-Minute Step-in-Place test 8-Foot Up-and-Go test Body Mass Index

Agility, dynamic balance

Body composition

Groningen Fitness Test for the Elderly

Used in longitudinal study of age-related fitness changes in older adults (Netherlands) Concurrent validity data obtained by correlating with laboratory tests Aerobic fitness

Walking Endurance test Grip Strength test

Upper body strength

Groningen Fitness Test for the Elderly
   

Lower body flexibility
• • • • •

Upper body flexibility
Balance Platform test

Hip Flexibility test

Agility and/or Balance Fine motor abilities
Manual Dexterity test Reaction Time test

Shoulder Flexibility test

Test Battery Comparison
Fitness Component  AAHPERD Test  Aerobic fitness  Upper body  strength  Lower body  strength  Upper body  flexibility  Lower body  flexibility  Agility/balance  Body composition  Fine motor  abilities  880­yard walk  Arm curl  None  None  Sit­and­reach  Agility/dynamic  balance  Ponderal index  “Soda pop”  Senior Fitness Test  Groningen Test  6­minute walk  walking endurance  2­min step­in­place  Arm curl  Grip strength  Chair stand  Scratch test  None  Shoulder flexibility 

Chair sit­and­reach  Sit­and­reach  8­foot up­and­go  Body mass index  None  Balance platform  None  Manual dexterity 

   

Computer Applications
    

Important for adult fitness settings Database management Recording workouts Monitoring progress Providing feedback (norm- or criterionreferenced) Exercise prescription

Biological Decline (Regression)
 

Chronological vs. Biological aging Body is aging continuously (conception  death) After about age 30
 Regression

in some form develops

Many theories attempting to explain
 Gerontology

Biological Theories of Advanced Aging

Def.: is the diminished capacity to regulate the internal environment, which results in a reduced probability of survival

1

Gabbard (2004)

Biological Regression and Motor Performance

Biological Regression and Motor Performance

Motor Behavior
 Peak

Performance (25-30)
motor performance in several

 Maximum

activities
 Regression
 Usually

develops after the age of 30  Most physiological functions begins to show decrements

General rate at of 0.75 to 1 percent a year.

Fighting aging

Reasons of this loss physiological function:
 Inactivity  Poor

health habits in movement patterns

Late adulthood
 Deterioration
 Walk,

run, jump

 How

can it be delayed ? (Video Japan)