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Guided By Dr. Gaurav Jain
y Definitions y Why cryptography is important? y Encryption & Decryption y Available technologies y Benefits & problems y Future of cryptography
.Essential Terms y Cryptography y Encryption Plain text Cipher text y Decryption Cipher text Plain text y Cryptanalysis : is the study of methods for obtaining the meaning of encrypted information y Cryptology : The practice of analysing encoded messages. in order to decode them.
y Decryption : Decryption is the process of converting encrypted data back into its original form. that cannot be easily understood by unauthorized people.Encryption & Decryption y Encryption :Encryption is the conversion of data into a form. so it can be understood. . called a cipher text.
Information Security used for y Defending against external/internal hacker y Securing E-commerce y Securing bank accounts/electronic transfers y Securing data transfer .
g.Threats to Information Security y Online storage of sensitive information y Insecure technologies (e. wireless) y Trend towards paperless society y Weak legal protection of email privacy .
Types of Secret Writing Secret writing Steganography Substitution Code Cipher Cryptography Transposition .
Steganography y Steganography covered writing is an art of hiding information y Popular contemporary steganographic technologies hide information in images .
Hiding information in pictures Image in which to hide another image Image to hide within the other image .
Retrieving information from pictures Image with other hidden within Recreated image .
Public Key Cryptography y Public-key cryptography: refers to a cryptographic system requiring two separate keys. . y One to unlock or decrypt the cipher text. y One to lock or encrypt the plain text. y One of these keys is public and the other is kept private. y Neither key will do both functions.
. y Problem of key distribution arises.Public Key Cryptography y Private (symmetric) key the same key used for encryption/decryption. y Key distribution problem solved. y Public (asymmetric) key cryptography a public key used for encryption and private key for decryption.
Currently Available Crypto Algorithms (private key) DES (Data Encryption Standard) and derivatives: double DES and triple DES IDEA (International Data Encryption Standard) Blowfish RC5 (Rivest Cipher #5) AES (Advance Encryption Standard) .
Currently Available Crypto Algorithms (public key) RSA (Rivest. Shamir. Adleman) DH (Diffie-Hellman Key Agreement Algorithm) ECDH (Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman Key Agreement Algorithm) RPK (Raike Public Key) .
Currently Available Technologies PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) a hybrid encryption technology y Message is encrypted using a private key algorithm (IDEA) y Key is then encrypted using a public key algorithm (RSA) y For file encryption. only IDEA algorithm is used y PGP is free for home use .
Authentication and Digital Signatures Preventing impostor attacks Preventing content tampering Preventing timing modification Preventing repudiation .
Digital Signatures y It is made by encrypting a message with the sender s private key y Receiver decrypts with the sender s public key (roles of private and public keys are flipped) y Digital signature does not confirm identity .
security package includes classes used for authentication and digital signature y javax.JAVA and XML Cryptography y java. different encryption for different recipients. .crypto package contains Java Cryptography Extension classes y XML makes it possible to encrypt or digitally sign parts of a message. etc.
Benefits of Cryptographic Technologies y Data secrecy y Data integrity y Authentication of message originator y Electronic certification and digital signature .
Problems with Cryptographic Technologies? y False sense of security if badly implemented y Government regulation of cryptographic technologies restrictions y Encryption prohibited in some countries .
etc. y TEMPEST attacks.How Secure are Today s Technologies? y Encryption does not guarantee security! y Many ways to beat a crypto system NOT dependent on cryptanalysis. hackers. y Unauthorized physical access to secret keys y y Cryptography is only one element of comprehensive computer security . worms. such as: Viruses.
The Future of Secret Writing Quantum cryptanalysis y A quantum computer can perform practically unlimited number of simultaneous computations y Factoring large integers is a natural application for a quantum computer y Quantum cryptanalysis would render ALL modern cryptosystems instantly obsolete .
The Future of Secret Writing (continued) Quantum encryption No need for a quantum computer y A key cannot be intercepted without altering its content y It is theoretically unbreakable y Central problem is transmitting a quantum message over a significant distance y .
y Decryption is the reverse. in other words. moving from the cipher text back to plain text. .Summary y Cryptography referred almost exclusively to encryption. The detailed operation of a cipher is controlled both by the algorithm and in each instance by a key. which is the process of converting plaintext into cipher text. A cipher is a pair of algorithms that create the encryption and the reversing decryption.