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Dr Vikas Madhukar Professor Amity Business School,
Fundamental Concern of Management Worldwide
Quality Cost, and Productivity
Meaning of Quality
degree of excellence of a thing totality of features and characteristics that satisfy needs
American Society for Quality Consumer’s and Producer’s Perspective
(ISO 8402: Quality Vocabulary) . Crosby) •Quality of a product or services is its ability to satisfy the needs and expectations of the customer •‘WOW’ your customers •Producing with ‘Zero Defect’ •The totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied need of customers.What is Quality? •Quality is “fitness for use” (Joseph M Juran) •Quality is “conformance to requirements” (Philip B.
prestige. Ambiance. Conformance to specifications Defining Quality – 5 Ways Does product/service meet targets and tolerances defined by designers? Evaluates performance for intended use Evaluation of usefulness vs.g. price paid Quality of support after sale e. friendly staff Fitness for use Value for price paid Support services Psychological .
blending. basic quality planning. involve all operations. sorting. grading. . comprehensive quality manuals. paperwork control. Policy deployment. failure mode and effects analysis. product testing. process performance data. Quality systems development. process management. corrective actions. involvement of non-production operations. performance measurement. teamwork. involve supplier & customers.Evolution of Quality Management Inspection Quality Control Quality Assurance TQM Salvage. employee involvement. advanced quality planning. use of basic statistics. use of quality costs. identify sources of non-conformance Develop quality manual. self-inspection. SPC.
Evolution of TQM – New Focus .
” but with different design dimensions . Dimensions of Quality: Manufactured Fitness for use Products how well product or service does what it is supposed to Quality of design designing quality characteristics into a product or service A Mercedes and a Ford are equally “fit for use.
such as a stereo CD or a leather interior in a car probability that a product will operate properly within an expected time frame. that is. how well a car is handled or its gas mileage “extra” items added to basic features. Dimensions of Quality: Manufactured Performance Products basic operating characteristics of a product. a TV will work without repair for about seven years Features Reliability .
courtesy and competence of repair person Serviceability .Dimensions of Quality: Manufactured Products (cont.) Conformance degree to which a product meets pre– established standards Durability how long product lasts before replacement ease of getting repairs. speed of repairs.
Dimensions of Quality: Manufactured Products (cont. smells. or tastes Safety assurance that customer will not suffer injury or harm from a product. advertising. sounds.) Aesthetics how a product looks. an especially important consideration for automobiles subjective perceptions based on brand name. feels. and the like Perceptions .
Time and Timeliness Dimensions of Quality: Service How long must a customer wait for service. and is it completed on time? Is an overnight package delivered overnight? Is everything customer asked for provided? Is a mail order from a catalogue company complete when delivered? Completeness: .
Dimensions of Quality: Service (cont.) Courtesy: Courtesy: How are customers treated by employees? Are catalogue phone operators nice and are their voices pleasant? Is the same level of service provided to each customer each time? Is your newspaper delivered on time every morning? Consistency .
) Accessibility and convenience How easy is it to obtain service? Does a service representative answer you calls quickly? Is the service performed right every time? Is your bank or credit card statement correct every month? How well does the company react to unusual situations? How well is a telephone operator able to respond to a customer’s questions? Accuracy Responsiveness .Dimensions of Quality: Service (cont.
the hotel is not functioning according to specifications of its design .Meaning of Quality: Producer’s Perspective Quality of Conformance Making sure a product or service is produced according to design if new tires do not conform to specifications. they wobble if a hotel room is not clean when a guest checks in.
Meaning of Quality: A Final Perspective Consumer’s and producer’s perspectives depend on each other Consumer’s perspective Producer’s perspective Consumer’s view must dominate .
What is TQM? .
Act. TQM is the art of managing the whole to achieve excellence.degree of excellence a product or service provides Management . art or manner of planning.Made up of the whole Quality . Therefore. .….TQM Total . directing. controlling.
. A mistake anywhere in the process affects everyone in one way to another.How Work Gets Done in an Organization? Inputs Processes Delivered by suppliers Steps to transform inputs Outputs Goods and Services valued by customers Quality of outputs depends on the correct execution of FIRST two steps.
Concept of Internal Customers Improveme nts Improveme nts External Supplier s Interna l Suppli ers Interna l Suppli ers Extern al Custo mer Requireme Requireme .
and training. .What does TQM mean? Total Quality Management means that the organization's culture is defined by and supports the constant attainment of customer satisfaction through an integrated system of tools. techniques. This involves the continuous improvement of organizational processes. resulting in high quality products and services.
Total Quality Management “TQM is a management philosophy embracing all activities through which the needs and expectations of the customer and the community and the objectives of the organisation are satisfied in the most efficient and effective way by maximising the potential of the employees in a continuous drive for improvement” .
services. and processes along with proper problem solving methodology. .Total Quality Management TQM is integrated organisational approach in delighting customers (both internal and external) by meeting their expectations on a continuous basis through everyone involved in the organisation. working on continuous improvement in all products.
partners. TQM is all managers leading and facilitating all contributors in everyone’s two main objectives: satisfaction through quality (1) total client products and services. and (2) continuous improvements to processes.Another way to put it At it’s simplest. products. suppliers. systems. people. . and services.
. continuous commitment to improvement. Total Quality Management and Continuous TQM is the management process used to make Improvement continuous improvements to all functions. TQM represents an ongoing. The foundation of total quality is a management philosophy that supports meeting customer requirements through continuous improvement.
Continuous Improvement versus Traditional Approach Improvement Continuous Improvement Traditional Approach Continuous Market-share focus Individuals Focus on ‘who” and “why” Short-term focus Status quo focus Product focus Fire fighting Customer focus Cross-functional teams Focus on “what” and “how” Long-term focus Continuous improvement Process improvement focus Problem solving .
sales.” . “All departments of the company must strive to improve the quality of their operations. and service after the sale. and how the product is serviced after the sale. how managers treat subordinates. packaging. how courteous sales and repair people are. service during the sale. deliver.Quality Throughout “A Customer’s impression of quality begins with the initial contact with the company and continues through the life of the product.” Customers look to the total package . Quality extends to how the receptionist answers the phone.
The TQM System Objective Continuous Improvement Principles Customer Focus Process Total Improvement Involvement Top Management Commitments Customer Focus Elements Employees Involvement and Empowerment Process Focus and improvement Continuous improvement Measurement of performance Education and Training Supportive structure Communications Reward and recognition .
Manufacturing Quality vs. promptness. performance. consistency . waiting time. Service Quality Manufacturing quality focuses on tangible product features Conformance. friendliness. reliability. features Service organizations produce intangible products that must be experienced Quality often defined by perceptional factors like courtesy.
TQM Philosophy – What’s Different? Focus on Customer Identify and meet customer needs Stay tuned to changing needs.g. e. e. fashion styles Continuous learning and problem solving. Kaizen.g. external and internal customers Continuous Improvement Quality at the Source Employee Empowerment . prevention & problem solving Empower all employees. 6 sigma Inspection vs.
& implementation tools Teams formed around processes – 8 to 10 people Meet weekly to analyze and solve problems Studying practices at “best in class” companies Certifying suppliers vs. receiving inspection Team Approach Benchmarking Managing Supplier Quality . assessment. and correction.TQM Philosophy– What’s Different? (continued) Understanding Quality Tools Ongoing training on analysis.
What is TQM? Constant drive for continuous improvement and learning. Management by Fact Concern for employee involvement and development Result Focus Passion to deliver customer value / excellence Organisation response ability Partnership perspective (internal / external) Actions not just words (implementation) Process Management .
BASIC PRINCIPLES/APPROACHES OF TQM Approach Scope Scale Philosophy Standard Control Theme Management Led Company Wide Everyone is responsible for Quality Prevention not Detection Right First Time Cost of Quality On going Improvement .
LEARNING AND TQM Learning Process Improvement Quality Improvement Customer Satisfaction Shareholder Satisfaction Employee Satisfaction .
and price reductions include complaints.Cost of Quality Cost of Achieving Good Quality Prevention costs costs incurred during product design costs of measuring. liability. warranty claims. rework. returns. testing. and lost sales External failure costs . downtime. and analyzing Appraisal costs Cost of Poor Quality Internal failure costs include scrap. process failure.
and development of reports on quality performance Information costs Process costs costs expended to make sure productive process conforms to quality specifications .Prevention Costs Quality planning costs costs of developing and implementing quality management program costs of designing products with quality characteristics Training costs Product-design costs costs of developing and putting on quality training programs for employees and management costs of acquiring and maintaining data related to quality.
to make equipment adjustments to maintain quality.Appraisal Costs Inspection and testing costs of testing and inspecting materials. parts. and product at various stages and at the end of a process costs of maintaining equipment used in testing quality characteristics of products costs of time spent by operators to gather data for testing product quality. and to stop work to assess quality Test equipment costs Operator costs .
including labor. material. selling products as “seconds” . and indirect costs costs of fixing defective products to conform to quality specifications costs of determining why production process is producing poor-quality products Process downtime costs Rework costs costs of shutting down productive process to fix problem Price-downgrading costs Process failure costs costs of discounting poor-quality products— that is.Internal Failure Costs Scrap costs costs of poor-quality products that must be discarded.
External Failure Costs Customer complaint costs costs of investigating and satisfactorily responding to a customer complaint resulting from a poor-quality product costs of handling and replacing poor-quality products returned by customer costs of complying with product warranties Product liability costs Product return costs litigation costs resulting from product liability and customer injury costs incurred because customers are dissatisfied with poor quality products and do not make additional purchases Lost sales costs Warranty claims costs .
Quality Gurus W Edwards Deming Joseph Juran Philip Crosby Shigeo Shingo Kaoru Ishikawa Yoshio Kondo Taiichi Ohno .
. Productivity and Competitive Position. Quality. 1986/88 British Deming Association. University of Wyoming. 1939/40 Teaching Shewhart methods.. Chicago US census statistician.. 1942 invited to Japan after the war .W Edwards Deming (1900 1993) the key to quality: reducing variation Electrical Engineering. 1982 Out of the Crisis. Salisbury . 1921 PhD. Yale University Western Electric Hawthorne.
they can be decreased and quality raised” quality is about people.W Edwards Deming regarded by the Japanese as the chief architect of their industrial success “all processes are vulnerable to loss of quality through variation: if levels of variation are managed. not products .
W Edwards Deming
Core element is the “management circle”
planning do/implementation check/study action PDCA (or PDSA) cycle
Continuous improvement (Kaizen)
teamwork and competence in problem solving
The Deming Cycle or PDCA Cycle PLAN
Plan a change to the process. Predict the effect this change will have and plan how the effects will be measured
Adopt the change as a permanent modification to the process, or abandon it.
Implement the change on a small scale and measure the effects
Study the results to learn what effect the change had, if any.
W Edwards Deming
Out of the Crisis (1984)
having a satisfied customer is not enough profit in business comes from
repeat customers customers that boast about your product and service customers that bring friends with them
necessary to anticipate customer needs
We can no longer live with commonly accepted levels of delays. statistical evidence that quality is built in.1) Create constancy of purpose towards improvement of product and services. mistakes. . 3) Cease dependence on mass inspection. defective workmanship. Edwards Deming’s 14 Points 2) Adopt the new philosophy. Require. W. 4) End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag. instead.
8) Drive out fear that everyone may work effectively for the company. . The responsibility of foremen must be changed from numbers to quality.W. 6) Institute modern methods of training on the job. 7) Institute modern methods of supervision of production workers. It is management’s job to work continually on the system. Edwards Deming’s 14 Points 5) Find problems.
12) Remove barriers that stand between the hourly worker and his right to pride of workmanship. Edwards Deming’s 14 Points 9) Break down barriers between departments. 10) Eliminate numerical goals. .W. 11) Eliminate work standards that prescribe numerical quotas. posters and slogans for the workforce asking for new levels of productivity without providing methods.
W. Edwards Deming’s 14 Points 13) Institute a vigorous programme of education and retraining. . 14) Create a structure in top management that will push everyday on the above 13 points.
fewer more jobs Stay in business mistakes. snags. fewer delays.Deming’s Chain Reaction Improve Quality Cost decreases because Provide jobs and of less rework. better use of machine time and materials Productivity improves Capture the market with better quality and lower price .
1920s AT&T manufacturing Quality Control Handbook. 1988 . 1951 Management of Quality courses Juran on Planning for Quality.Joseph Juran (b.1904) company wide quality cannot be delegated Western Electric manufacturing.
Joseph Juran structure CWQM concept: Company-Wide Quality Management essential for senior managers to involve themselves define the goals assign responsibilities measure progress .
Joseph Juran empowerment of the workforce quality linked to human relations and teamwork key elements identifying customers and their needs creating measurements of quality planning processes to meet quality goals continuous improvements .
Joseph JURAN Quality just not just happen but has to be planned Trilogy of Quality: Quality Planning Quality Control Quality Improvement .
Joseph JURAN Quality PLANNING consists of: Identifying customers and their needs Establishing optimum quality goals Creating measurements of quality Plan to meet quality goals under operating conditions Produce continuing results .
Joseph JURAN Emphasises the importance of internal as well as external customers Concept of ‘fitness for use’ to be applied to the interim product for all internal customers Actions should consist of 90% substance. 10% exhortation (not the reverse) .
1984: Quality without Tears “Do It Right First Time” “Zero Defects” Philip Crosby (19262001) . then corporate VP 1979: Quality is Free Philip Crosby Associates Inc. conformance to requirements Martin missiles QM at ITT.
Philip CROSBY Quality is defined as conformance to requirements Traditional quality control represent failure Manufacturing companies spend 20% revenues doing things wrong so… ‘Do it Right First Time’ ‘Zero Defects’ .
Philip CROSBY Without reservation senior management is entirely responsible for quality Goal should be to give all staff training and tools of quality improvement to apply the concepts of Prevention management Quality improvement has to be ongoing .
People do things right first time 2. New products and services appear when needed 5. Growth s consistent and profitable 4.Philip CROSBY Characteristics of continuing success… 1. Everyone is happy to work there . Change is anticipated and used to advantage 3.
not appraisal Performance standard should be ‘Zero Defects’ Measurement of quality is the price of nonconformance Hence ‘QUALITY IS FREE’ . 4. 2. 3. Quality is conformance to requirements Create quality by prevention.Philip CROSBY Four absolutes of Quality Management 1.
Four Absolutes of Quality Management (Crosby. 1979) Cost of Quality classified as: x Prevention costs x Appraisal costs x Failure costs .
Cost of Quality: prevention costs design reviews product qualification drawing checking engineering quality orientation supplier evaluations supplier quality seminars specification review process capability studies tool control operation training quality orientation acceptance planning zero defects programme Quality Audits preventative maintenance .
Cost of Quality: appraisal costs prototype inspection and test production specification conformance analysis supplier surveillance receiving inspection and test product acceptance process control acceptance packaging inspection status measurement and reporting .
Cost of Quality: failure costs consumer affairs redesign engineering change order purchasing change order corrective action costs rework scrap warranty service after service product liability .
Taiwan consultant with Japan Management Assn 1955: training at Toyota Motor Company 1959: Institute of Management Improvement 1961-64: concept of Poka-Yoke .19091990) 1930: ME degree from Yamanashi Tech Taipei Railway Factory.Poka-Yoke: mistake-proofing Shigeo Shingo (b.
Shigeo Shingo Poka-Yoke: mistake-proofing identify errors before they become defects stop the process whenever a defect occurs. define the source and prevent recurrence 1967: source inspection + improved PY prevented the worker from making errors so that defects could not occur Zero Quality Control .
Pareto and cause-and-effect 1939: engg. graduate of Tokyo Univ diagrams Kaoru Ishikawa (19151989) 1947: Assistant Professor 1955-60: Company-wide QC movement 1960: Professor .
the company itself and human life” . but also of after sales service. quality of management.Kaoru Ishikawa “quality does not only mean the quality of the product.
rational production schedules are possible wasteful work and rework are reduced technique is established and improved inspection and testing costs are reduced .Kaoru Ishikawa (points 1-7 of 15) product quality is improved and becomes uniform. Defects are reduced reliability of goods is improved cost is reduced quantity of production is increased.
Kaoru Ishikawa (points 815 of 15) rational contracts between vendor/vendee sales market is enlarged better relationships between departments false data and reports are reduced freer. more democratic discussions smoother operation of meetings more rational repairs and installation improved human relations .
1924) 1945: graduated from Kyoto University 1961: doctorate in engineering & Prof 1987 Emeritus Professor 1989: Human Motivation .Yoshio Kondo (b.a key factor for management 1993: Companywide Quality Control motivation of employees is important leadership is central to implementation of TQM .
Yoshio Kondo Human work should include: creativity the joy of thinking the joy of working with sweat on the forehead the joy of sharing pleasure and pain with colleagues physical activity sociality .
Yoshio Kondo Four points of action to support motivation when giving work instruction. clarify the true aims of the work see that people have a strong sense of responsibility towards their work give time for the creation of ideas nurture ideas and bring them to fruition .
Yoshio Kondo Leaders must have a dream (vision and shared goals) strength of will and tenacity of purpose ability to win the support of followers ability to do more than their followers. without interfering when they can do it alone successes ability to give the right advice .
. graduated with mech eng degree from Nogoya worked for the Toyoda Weaving Company 1939: transferred to Toyota Motor Company as a machine shop manager 1988: Workplace Management ~ just-intime and Toyota Production System (later known as Lean Manufacturing).Taiichi Ohno (1912-1990) regarded as the father of Just-In-Time (JIT) at Toyota.
Ohno: seven forms of waste overproduction waiting transportation motion inventory defects overprocessing .
Review of Main Ideas of the Quality Guru W. it must be planned. Also given 14 points and has summarized his 70 years experience in his System of Profound Knowledge. PDCA or PDSA cycle. which later became know as the Deming. There is no shortcuts to quality . control and improvement. Juran – Quality does not happen by accident. Deming . E. and quality planning is part of the trilogy of planning.introduced concepts of variation to the Japanese and also a systematic approach to problem solving.
He based his quality improvement approach on four absolutes of quality management. the cost of quality and quality improvement process. 2) Company Wide Quality Control (CWQC). 3) Quality Circle Movement.Review of Main Ideas of the Quality Guru Philip Crosby – ‘DO it right first time’ and ‘Zero defects’. . Kaoru Ishikawa’s – 1) 7 tools of Quality Control. Shiegeo Shingo – Poka-Yoke system to ensure ‘zero-defects’ in production by preventive measures.
Review of Main Ideas of the Quality Guru Yoshio Kondo – identifies that quality is more compatible with human nature than cost and productivity. He developed a four point approach to motivation which makes it possible for work to be reborn as a creative activity. Taiichi Ohno – JIT (Just-in-time). Lean Manufacturing. Seven form of WASTE (MUDA) .
Seven Problem Solving Tools Pareto Analysis Flowcharts Checklists Histograms Scatter Diagrams Control Charts Cause-and-Effect Diagrams .
USES to prioritize problems to analyze a process to identify root causes to verify that whatever improvement process you implement continues to work .PARETO CHART DEFINITION A Pareto Chart is a vertical bar chart in which the bars are arranged in the descending order of their height starting from the left and prioritize the problems or issues.
Pareto Analysis NUMBER OF DEFECTS 80 16 12 7 4 3 3 125 CAUSE PERCENTAGE 64 % 13 10 6 3 2 2 100 % Poor design Wrong part dimensions Defective parts Incorrect machine calibration Operator errors Defective material Surface abrasions .
Percent from each cause 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 W ro ng (64) (13) (10) (6) (3) Causes of poor quality (2) (2) Pareto Chart Po or De si gn di m en De si fe on ct s iv e M pa ac r ts hi ne ca O pe l ibr at ra io to ns re rr De or fe s ct iv e Su m at r fa er ce ia ls ab ra si on s .
Flow Charts Flow charts are nothing but graphical representation of steps involved in a process. they are the excellent means of documenting the steps that are carried out in a process. Thus. Flow charts give in detail the sequence involved in the material. Start/ Finish Operation Operation Decision Operation Operation Operation Decision Start/ Finish . machine and operation that are involved in the completion of the process.
Check Sheet Check sheets are nothing but forms that can be used to systematically collect data. Check sheet give the user a place to start and provides the steps to be followed in Collecting the data COMPONENTS REPLACED BY LAB TIME PERIOD: 22 Feb to 27 Feb 2002 REPAIR TECHNICIAN: Bob TV SET MODEL 1013 Integrated Circuits Capacitors Resistors Transformers Commands CRT |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| || || |||| | .
CHECK SHEET USES STEPS to gather data to test a theory to evaluate alternate solutions to verify that whatever improvement process you implement continues to work team agrees on what to observe decide who collects data decide time period for collecting data design Check Sheet collect data compile data in the Check Sheet review Check Sheet .
It also helps in estimating the process capability.Histogram Histograms help in understanding the variation in the process. 20 15 10 5 0 1 2 6 13 10 16 19 17 12 16 2017 13 5 6 2 1 .
Scatter Diagram It is a graph of points plotted. Y X . this graph is helpful in comparing two variables. The distribution of the points helps in identifying the cause and effect relationship Between two variables.
Control Chart A control chart is nothing but a run chart with limits.67 LCL = 1.99 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Sample number .35 c = 12. This is helpful in finding the amount and nature of variation in a process. 24 Number of defects 21 18 15 12 9 6 3 2 UCL = 23.
This diagram is helpful in representing the relationship between an effect and the potential or possible causes that influences it.Cause and Effect Diagram Developed by Dr Kaoru Ishikawa in 1943. 2)Fishbone diagram. It is also known by the name of 1) Ishikawa diagram. . This is very much helpful when one want to find out the solution to a particular problem that could have a number of causes for it and when we are interested in finding out the root cause for it.
Cause-and-Effect Diagram Measurement Measurement Faulty testing equipment Incorrect specifications Improper methods Human Human Poor supervision Lack of concentration Inadequate training Machines Machines Out of adjustment Tooling problems Old / worn Inaccurate temperature control Quality Quality Problem Problem Defective from vendor Not to specifications Poor process design Ineffective quality management Deficiencies in product design Dust and Dirt Materialhandling problems Environment Environment Materials Materials Process Process .
Quality Circles Organization 8-10 members Same area Supervisor/moderator Presentation Implementation Monitoring Training Group processes Data collection Problem analysis Solution Problem results Problem Identification List alternatives Consensus Brainstorming Problem Analysis Cause and effect Data collection and analysis .
A process for developing and delivering near perfect products and services Measure of how much a process deviates from perfection 3.4 defects per million opportunities Champion
an executive responsible for project success
Black Belts and Green Belts
Master Black Belt
a teacher and mentor for Black Belts project team members
Six Sigma: DMAIC
DEFINE DEFINE MEASURE MEASURE ANALYZE ANALYZE IMPROVE IMPROVE CONTROL CONTROL
67,000 DPMO 67,000 DPMO cost = 25% of cost = 25% of sales sales
3.4 DPMO 3.4 DPMO
. immediate feedback and action at the 1) source of raw material 2) start of the production process 3) production point where an error may occur. It is used when defects occur and require 100 per cent inspection.Pokayoke (Error Proofing) To design an operation in such a way that specific errors are prevented from causing major problems to the customer.
. It is more cultural attitude and a life style rather than techniques.Kaizen A Japanese term meaning ‘change for the better’ the concept implies a CONTINUOS IMPROVEMENT in all company functions at all levels.
Seiso . Seiketsu – Personal cleanliness. Seiton . .Discipline. get rid of the unnecessary and keep the necessary. putting things in order.Reorganisation. ‘there is healthy mind in healthy body’ Shitsuke . follow procedure in the work place and workshop with utmost sense of discipline.Cleanliness. clean work condition of work and to get rid of trash and dirt.Arrangements.5 S Framework for Good Housekeeping Seiri .
quality. .Business Process Reengineering (BPR) BPR is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical. and speed. such as cost. contemporary measures of performance.
.Steps in BPR Process identification and mapping Choosing or selection of process to reengineer Focus on critical processes Feasible processes Understanding the process Re-design the process.
Creating TQM Culture From Traditional Culture Hierarchical style Top down information flow Inward quality focus Functional focus Short-term planning Episodic improvements Top down initiatives Manage and delegate Direct Counsel Functional and narrow scope of jobs Enforcement Fire – fighting with few individuals/group To TQM Culture Participative style Top down. lateral and upward information flow Customer defined quality focus Process focus A vision for the future Comprehensive/Continuous improvements All staff involved and engaged Lead and Coach Empower Ownership and participation Integrated functions Promoting mutual trust Team initiatives group focussing on continuous improvement .
Total people involvement and empowerment Communication Training to employees Management thoughts and action towards delighting its customers Removing organisational boundaries and internal competition Using fact based decision making Use of Kaizen Steps for Creating TQM Culture . Management accountability and a deep sense of responsibility & commitment towards employees is the starting point.
Benchmarking and Continuous Improvement Benchmarking The practice of establishing internal standards of performance by looking to how world-class companies run their businesses The company makes small incremental improvements toward excellence on a continual basis Continuous Improvement .
ISO Standards ISO 9000 Standards: Certification developed by International Organization for Standardization Set of internationally recognized quality standards Companies are periodically audited & certified ISO 9000:2000 QMS – Fundamentals and Standards ISO 9001:2000 QMS – Requirements ISO 9004:2000 QMS .Guidelines for Performance ISO 14000: Focuses on a company’s environmental responsibility .
Quality is a Journey. not a Destination .
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