PREPARED BY -S A R I T A R A T H O D ( 7 7 ) -- N E H A L P A T E L ( 6 3 ) -N E E L A M D A R J I ( 1 6 ) -- M I T T A L -- A S H W I N S O N I ( 9 9 ) -- M A N A N P A T E L ( 6 2 )

Basics of Job Analysis
Job Analysis :  The procedure for determining the duties and skill requirements of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for it. Job Description :  A list of job duties, responsibilities, reporting relationships, working conditions and supervisory information. Job Specifications :  A list of job¶s ³human requirement´ i.e., the requisite education, skills, personality and so on.

Basics of Job Analysis (continued)
Type of information collected via job analysis: 
Work activities  Human behavior  Machines, tools, equipments and work aids  Performance standards  Job context  Human requirements

Basics of Job Analysis (continue) Uses of Job Analysis :  Recruitment and Selection  Compensation  Training  Performance Appraisal  Legal Compliance .

since this will determine the data you collect and how will you collect them. Process chart shows the flow of inputs to and outputs from the job you are analysing. 1. 2. process charts and job descriptions. Organisation chart shows organisation wide division of work. Review the relevant background information such as organisation charts. .Steps in Job Analysis Decide how will you use the information. how the job in question relates to other jobs and where the job fits in the overall organisation.

4. working conditions and human traits and abilities needed to perform the job. Develop a job description and job specification. Verify the job analysis information with the worker performing the job and with his/her immediate supervisor. 5.Steps in Job Analysis (continued) Select representative positions. Actually analyze the job ± by collecting data on job activities. 3. This will confirm that the information is factually correct and complete. required employee behaviours. . 6.

Methods for collecting Job Analysis Information Interviews Questionnaires Observations Participant¶s Diary .

 Managers may conduct individual interviews or group interviews.  They may range from completely unstructured to highly structured once in which detailed questionnaires is followed in asking questions. .Methods for collecting Job Analysis Information The Interview :  Popular method for obtaining job-related information.

.Methods for collecting Job Analysis information (continued) Pros :  Widely used for identifying a job¶s duties and responsibilities.  Simple and quick way to collect information that might never appear on a written form.  Provides an opportunity to explain the need for and function of the job analysis.

Methods for collecting Job Analysis information (continued) Cons :  Distortion of information is the main problem. .  There may be a tendency for people to inflate their job¶s importance when abilities involved. so as to impress the perceptions of others.

Methods for collecting Job Analysis information (continued) Interviewing Guidelines :  The job analyst and supervisors should work together to identify the workers who knows the job best.  Follow the structured guide or checklist.  After completing the interview.  Quickly establish rapport with the interviewee. one that lists questions and provides space for answers. review and verify the data. .  When duties are not performed in regular manner ask the worker to list his/her duties in order of importance and frequency of occurrence.

Methods for collecting Job Analysis information (continued) Questionnaires :  Having employees fill out questionnaires to describe their job-related duties and responsibilities is another popular way to obtain ob analysis information. .  Here you need to decide how structured the questionnaire should be and what questions to include.

 Less costly than interviewing hundreds of workers. .Methods for collecting Job Analysis information (continued) Pros :  A quick and efficient way to obtain information from a large number of employees. Cons :  Developing the questionnaire and testing it can be expensive and time-consuming.

 Its usually not appropriate when the job entails a lot of mental activity ± lawyer.Methods for collecting Jon Analysis information (continued) Observation :  Direct observation is especially useful when jobs consist mainly of observable physical activities ± assembly line workers. . engineer. etc.

Methods for collecting Job Analysis information (continued) Participant¶s Diary/Logs :  Employees are asked to keep a diary/log of what they do during the day. the employee records the activity in the log.  For every activity he/she engages in.  This can produce a very complete picture of the job. .

each of which represents a basic element that may or may not play an important role in the job. .Quantitative Job Analysis Techniques Position Analysis Questionnaire :  Its a very structured job analysis questionnaire.  It contains 194 items.

Quantitative Job Analysis Techniques (continued) Advantage : PAQ provides a quantitative score/profile of any job in terms of how that job rates on 5 basic activities :  Having decision making/communication/social responsibilities.  Operating vehicles/equipments.  Being physically active.  Processing information.  Performing skilled activities. .

but also on the extent to which performing the task requires specific instructions. but rates job not just on data.S. mathematical ability and verbal language facilities. Functional Job Analysis :  Its similar to DOL procedure. . Department of Labor (DOL) Procedure :  A standardized method by which different jobs can be quantitatively rated. classified and compared based on data. people and things. people and things. reasoning and judgement.Quantitative Job Analysis Techniques (continued) U.

most description contain sections that cover : 1. Job specification . Responsibilities and duties 4. Authority of incumbent 5.  There is no standard format for writing a job description. However.Writing Job Description  A written statement of what the worker actually does. Working conditions 7. how he/she does it and what the job¶s working conditions are. Job identification 2. Job summary 3. Standard of performance 6.

.Writing Job Description (continued) Job identification :  Job title ± specifies the name of the job.  Date ± when the job description was actually written.  Space to indicate who approved the description. Job Summary :  Job summary should summarize the essence of the job and include only its major functions or activities.

 Presents list of job¶s significant responsibilities and duties. Responsibilities and Duties :  Its heart of job description. which shows the jobholder¶s relationships with others inside and outside the organisation.Writing Job Description (continued) Relationships :  There may be a ³relationship´ statement. including his/her decision-making authority.  Also defines the limits of the jobholder¶s authority. direct supervision of other personnel and budgetary authority. .

hazardous conditions. etc. . Working Conditions :  Lists working conditions involved on the job like noise level.Writing Job Description (continued) Standards of Performance :  Lists the standards the employee is expected to achieve under each of the job description¶s main duties and responsibilities.

Writing Job Specification  Job Specification takes the job description and answers the question. . ³what human traits and experience are required to do the job well?´  It shows what kind of person to recruit and for what qualities the person should be tested.

Writing Job Specification (continued) Specification for Trained V/s Untrained Personnel:  Its usually not too difficult to determine the human requirements for placing already trained people on a job.  The problems are more complex when filling jobs with untrained people as one needs to specify qualities such as physical traits. interests or sensory skills that imply some potential for performing or for being trained to do the job. personality. .

 Managers could simply review the job¶s duties and deduce from those what human traits and skills job requires.Writing Job Specification (continued) Specifications based on Judgement :  Most job specifications come from the educated guesses of people like supervisors and HR managers. .

.Writing Job Specification (continued) Job Specification based on Statistical Analysis :  Its the most defensible approach but also the most difficult. such as performance as rated by supervisor.  The aim is to determine statistically the relationship between some predictor or human trait such as height or intelligence and some indicator or criterion of job effectiveness.

Select personal traits that you believe should predict successful performance. 4.Writing Job Specification (continued)  The procedure involved following steps : 1. Analyze the job and describe how to measure job performance. Test candidates for these traits. 3. 5. Measure these candidates subsequent job performance. . Statistically analyze the relationship between the human trait and job performance. 2.

.Job Analysis in a ³Jobless´ World  Job is generally defined as ³ a set of closely related activities carried out for pay´.  But over years the concept of a job has actually changed quite dramatically.

. growth and recognition. Job Enrichment :  Redesigning jobs in a way that increases the opportunities for the worker to experience feelings of responsibility. thus increasing the number of activities they perform. Job Rotation :  Systematically moving workers from one job to another. achievement.Job Analysis in a ³Jobless´ World (continued) Job Enlargement :  Assigning workers additional same-level activities.

Factors leading to dejobbing :  Flatter Organizations  Self-Managing Work Teams  Reengineering .Job Analysis in a ³Jobless´ World (continued) Why managers are ³Dejobbing´ their Companies :  Dejobbing is broadening the responsibilities of the company¶s jobs and encouraging employee not to limit themselves to what¶s on their job description.

. observable.Competency-based Job Analysis Competencies :  Demonstrable characteristics of a person that enable performance of a job. behavioral competencies that an employee doing that job must exhibit to do the job well. Competency-based job analysis :  Describing job in terms of the measurable.

knowledge and competencies supports the employer¶s Performance Management Process. appraisal and rewards on fostering and rewarding the skills and competencies he/she needs to achieve his/her goals. knowledge and competencies the worker needs is more strategic. Performance Management means basing your employees¶ training.Competency-based Job Analysis (continued) Reasons to use Competency Analysis :  Traditional job may backfire if a High Performance Work System is your goal. .  Describing the job in terms of the skills.  Measurable skills.

ask open-ended questions regarding job responsibilities and activities and perhaps. manager will interview job incumbents and their supervisors.Competency-based Job Analysis (continued) How to write Competency-based Job Description :  Defining the job¶s competencies and writing them up involves a process that is similar in most respects to traditional job analysis. . identify crucial incidents that pinpoint success on the job.  In other words.


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