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SECTION 8 DESIGN OF MEMBERS SUBJECTED TO BENDING 8.1 General 8.2 Design Strength in Bending (Flexure) 8.2.1 Laterally Supported Beam 8.2.2 Laterally Unsupported Beams 8.3 Effective Length of Compression Flanges 8.4 Shear ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8.5 Stiffened Web Panels 8.5.1 End Panels design 8.5.2 End Panels designed using Tension field action 8.5.3 Anchor forces 8.6 Design of Beams and Plate Girders with Solid Webs 8.6.1 Minimum Web Thickness 8.6.2 Sectional Properties 8.6.3 Flanges Cont...

Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras 2

SECTION 8 DESIGN OF MEMBERS SUBJECTED TO BENDING 8.7 Stiffener Design 8.7.1 General 8.7.2 8.7.3 8.7.4 8.7.5 8.7.6 8.7.7 8.7.8 8.7.9 Design of Intermediate Transverse Web Stiffeners Load carrying stiffeners Bearing Stiffeners Design of Load Carrying Stiffeners Design of Bearing Stiffeners Design of Diagonal Stiffeners Design of Tension Stiffeners Torsional Stiffeners

8.7.10 Connection to Web of Load Carrying and Bearing Stiffeners 8.7.11 Connection to Flanges 8.7.12 Hollow Sections Box Girders Purlins and sheeting rails (girts) Bending in a Non-Principal Plane

Plastic hinge formation Lateral deflection and twist Local buckling of i) Flange in compression ii) Web due to shear iii) Web in compression due to concentrated loads Local failure by i) Yield of web by shear ii) Crushing of web iii) Buckling of thin flanges

Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras 4

LOCAL BUCKLING

(b)

Beams compression flange buckles locally Fabricated and cold-formed sections prone to local buckling Local buckling gives distortion of c/s but need not lead to collapse

w L Plastic hinges Plastic hinges Mp Mp Bending Moment Diagram Bending Moment Diagram Collapse mechanism

First yield moment My Plastic moment Mp Shape factor S = Mp/My Rotation Capacity

SECTION CLASSIFICATION

Plastic Mp Compact My

Semi-compact Slender

Jy

Ju

Rotation J

Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras 8

F1

F2

F3

F=b/t

Moment Capacities of Sections For Compression members use compact or plastic sections

Type of Element Type of Section Plastic (F1)

Outstand element of compression flange Rolled Welded Internal element of compression flange bending Axial comp. NA at mid depth bending Axial comp. Circular tube with outer diameter D

Class of Section Compact (F2) b/t e 10.5I b/t e 9.4I b/t e 33.5I applicable d/t e 105I b/t e 10.5I applicable D/t e 63I2

I ! 250

fy

Semi-compact (F3) b/t e 15.7I b/t e 13.6I b/t e 42I b/t e 42I d/t e 126I b/t e 15.7I b/t e 15.7I (b+d)/t e 25I D/t e 88I2

b/t e 9.4I b/t e 8.4I b/t e 29.3I not d/t e 84.0I b/t e 9.4I not D/t e 44I2

Web Angles

10

Condition for Beam Lateral Stability 1 Laterally Supported Beam The design bending strength of beams, adequately supported against lateral torsional buckling (laterally supported beam) is governed by the yield stress 2 Laterally Unsupported Beams When a beam is not adequately supported against lateral buckling (laterally un-supported beams) the design bending strength may be governed by lateral torsional buckling strength

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Design Strength in Bending (Flexure) The factored design moment, M at any section, in a beam due to external actions shall satisfy

M e Md

8.2.1 Laterally Supported Beam Type 1 Sections with stocky webs d / tw e 67I The design bending strength as governed by plastic strength, Md, shall be found without Shear Interaction for low shear case represented by V <0.6 Vd

12

V exceeds 0.6Vd

Md = Mdv

Mdv= design bending strength under high shear as defined in section 9.2

13

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8.2 Design Strength in Bending (Flexure) The factored design moment, M at any section, in a beam due to M eM

d

external actions shall satisfy 8.2.1 Laterally Supported Beam The design bending strength as governed by plastic strength, Md, shall be taken as Md = Fb Z p fy / Km0 e 1.2 Ze fy /K m0 8.2.1.4 Holes in the tension zone (Anf / Agf) u (fy/fu) (Km1 /K m0 ) / 0.9

Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras

15

16

Mcr

17

LATERAL BUCKLING OF BEAMS y FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED y Distance between lateral supports to the compression flange. y Restraints at the ends and at intermediate support locations (boundary conditions). y Type and position of the loads. y Moment gradient along the unsupported length. y Type of cross-section. y Non-prismatic nature of the member. y Material properties. y Magnitude and distribution of residual stresses. y Initial imperfections of geometry and eccentricity of loading.

Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras

18

Both have tendency to fail by buckling in their weaker plane

Column Short span Axial compression & attainment of squash load Long span Initial shortening and lateral buckling Pure flexural mode Function of slenderness Beam Bending in the plane of loads and attaining plastic capacity Initial vertical deflection and lateral torsional buckling Coupled lateral deflection and twist function of slenderness

19

20

EA l

EI y " 3 l

LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING OF SYMMETRIC SECTIONS Assumptions for the ideal (basic) case Beam undistorted Elastic behaviour Loading by equal and opposite moments in the plane of the web No residual stresses Ends are simply supported vertically and laterally The bending moment at which a beam fails by lateral buckling when subjected to uniform end moment is called its elastic critical moment (Mcr)

21

A M A Elevation l M z x y Lateral Deflection

Section

Plan

22

1 2

M cr

! v I y v G v J L

v Iy v L2

or

M cr ! L

E v I

vGv J

1 2

2vEv 1 2 L vG v J

1 2

23

Support Conditions effective (unsupported) length Level of load application stabilizing or destabilizing ? Type of loading Uniform or moment gradient ? Shape of cross-section open or closed section ?

24

EQUIVALENT UNIFORM MOMENT FACTOR (m) Elastic instability at M = m Mmax (m e 1) m = 0.57+ 0.33 + 0.12 > 0.43 = Mmin / Mmax (-1.0 e e 1.0)

Mmax Mmin Mmax Mmin

Mmax PositiveF

Mmin

Mmax NegativeF

Mmin

25

8.2.2 Laterally Unsupported Beams The design bending strength of laterally unsupported beam is given by: Md = Fb Zp fbd fbd = design stress in bending, obtained as ,fbd = GLT fy / m0 GLT = reduction factor to account for lateral torsional buckling given by:

G LT !

1 [ J LT J LT PLT

2 0 .5

A]

e 1.0

2

PLT !

ELT = 0.21 for rolled section, ELT = 0.49 for welded section

Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras

A

Cont 26

F b Z p f y / M cr

T 2 EI y T 2 EI w GI t M cr ! 2 KL
2 KL

F LT T h 1 KL r 1 ( KL) 0 tf

0.5

M cr !

APPENDIX F ELASTIC LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING F.1 Elastic Critical Moment F.1.1 Basic F.1.2 Elastic Critical Moment of a Section Symmetrical about Minor Axis

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Provision of proper lateral bracing improves lateral stability Discrete and continuous bracing Cross sectional distortion in the hogging moment region

Discrete bracing

Level of attachment to the beam Level of application of the transverse load Type of connection

Bracing should be of sufficient stiffness to produce buckling between braces Sufficient strength to withstand force transformed by beam before connecting

28

BRACING REQUIREMENTS Effective bracing if they can resist not less than 1) 1% of the maximum force in the compression flange 2) Couple with lever arm distance between the flange centroid and force not less than 1% of compression flange force. Temporary bracing

29

Web buckling

Dr S R Satish Kumar, IIT Madras

Web crippling

30

Web Buckling

Pwb ! ( b1 n1 ) t f c

d/2

b1

n1 450

0.7 d L P! E ! ry ry ry ! Iy t t3 ! ! 12t 2 3 A

d/2

LE 2 3 d ! 0.7 d } 2.5 ry t t

Effective width for web buckling

31

Web Crippling

crip ! ( b1 n2 ) t f yw

b1 n2 1:2.5 slope

Root radius

32

SUMMARY

Unrestrained beams , loaded in their stiffer planes may undergo lateral torsional buckling The prime factors that influence the buckling strength of beams are unbraced span, Cross sectional shape, Type of end restraint and Distribution of moment A simplified design approach has been presented Behaviour of real beams, cantilever and continuous beams was described. Cases of mono symmetric beams , non uniform beams and beams with unsymmetric sections were also discussed.

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