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Instructor: Dr. AGGARWAL Presenter: Liu Lun
Introduction to Mobile Agent(MA) Introduction to Mobile Agent System(MAS) Some issues of Mobile Agent Mobile Agent application Concluding remarks
state and location.What is mobile agent? Mobile agents are defined as active objects (or clusters of objects) that have behavior. Mobility: Agents that can travel in network Autonomy: Agent itself decides when and where to migrate next Opposite : Stationary agent Mobile code (Applets) 3 .
Comparison of 3 Network computing paradigm Client-Server Paradigm Server Client Knowhow Code-on-Demand Paradigm Client Knowhow Download (Applet) Know how Server Mobile Agent Paradigm Agent Know.how Agent Network Know.how Host Host 4 .
which enable it to resume its activities after moving to another host. Attributes . but the agent must not be able to modify the attributes 5 . its movement history. Part of this may be accessible to the agent itself. State .the program (in a suitable language) that defines the agent's behavior. authentication keys etc. its origin and owner.information describing the agent.the agent's internal variables etc..A Mobile Agent Dissected A mobile agent contains the following 3 components: Code . resource requirements.
Dispatch: an agent travels to a new host. 6 .Events in Mobile Agent·s life-time Creation: a brand new agent is born and its state is initialized. Cloning: a twin agent is born and the current state of the original is duplicated in the clone. Deactivation: an agent is put to sleep and its state is saved in persistent storage. Activation: a deactivated agent is brought back to life and its state is restored from persistent storage.
Communication: Notifies the agent to handle messages incoming from other agents . which is the primary means of inter-agent correspondence. Disposal: an agent is terminated and its state is lost forever.Contd Retraction: an agent is brought back from a remote host along with its state to the home machine. 7 .
agent systems. have a privileged relationship with each other and less expensive mobility. places. in general. or a company.MA System Arichitecture The main components include mobile agents (defined before) places supports the execution of particular procedures and provides access to local resources. and regions are associated with a number of principals that represent real-world entities such as a person. Principals Agents. code. agent systems Places inside an agent system may share resources. or security mechanisms and. A region represents a security domain where network-wide resources are accessed following a uniform policy. 8 . Regions Agent systems may be grouped in regions. an organization.
10 .Requirement of a MAS Agent Execution Support. Management Support. Unique Identification of Agents Support. Transaction Support. Security Support. and Communication Support. Mobility Support.
data and execution state Migration of only the agent code and data If the agent code is interpreted. Weak Mobility Strong mobility is difficult to accomplish! 11 . is a nontrivial task. access to the execution state is difficult to obtain If the agent code is compiled before execution. Transporting the stack and rebuilding it on a different host. which can be an entirely different architecture.Object mobility Strong Mobility Migration of agent code. the execution state is represented by the stack.
Create once. but java language is the most popular because: Platform independence. Mobile agent could be implement by various languages.Support Languages for mobile agent The first language for programming mobile agents called TeleScript was introduced in 1994. Object-oriented feature Security model 12 . go everywhere.
host security Authentication of user Determination of whether the user has the authorization to execute Determination of agents ability to pay for the service provided by the server 13 .Security issue .
Trusted and un-trusted mobile agent Some MA platform treat trusted and untrusted agent differently Untrusted agents are prohibited to run dangerous command. 14 .
agent security Example: An agent roams around the Internet to look for the lowest price of a air ticket. it remembers the lowest price it finds most recently Data tampering: change of execution state of agents by malicious hosts (³brain-flush´ the agent of the lowest price it remembers) Solution: Agent tampering detection (e. execution of encrypted functions) 15 .g.g. cryptographic watermarks) Prevention (e.Agent Security.
Consider an mobile agent only have the following limited power: to alter its own internal state variables to make database queries in the current server to move to another server to send text message back to its owner 16 .Virus detection One Solution: to make the system Turing-complete.
rapid proliferation of agent technology 17 . Aglets. MOA.Standardization of mobile agent There are various mobile agent system available such as AgentTcl . Grasshopper and Odyssey. These differ widely in architecture and implementation. thereby impeding interoperability.
18 .Standardization of mobile agent (contd) MASIF is a Standardization effort by the Object Management Group (OMG) to enable different mobile agent systems to interoperate. Agent System Type and Location Syntax. MASIF provide 2 sets of interfaces to standardizes: Agent Management Agent Transfer Agent and Agent System Names.
KQML) to improve interoperability between agents..g.Standardization of mobile agent (contd) Other standardization effort include developing a common Agent Communication Languages (e. and between agents and mobile agent middleware 19 .
other issues related to mobile agent Execution performance Execution performance is often sacrificed in order to achieve portability via code interpretation. Robustness. coping with hosts crashing) and is key for trust and acceptance of the technology in companies. Adding robustness involves fault tolerance schemes (e.g. Justintime compilation is one way towards better performance. 20 ..
Distributed objects frameworks are decentralized but their functionality is fixed 21 .Competing Technologies Message passing systems Remote Method Invocation (RMI) Common Object Remote Broker Architecture (CORBA) etc.
especially in wide area network Every node is a server 22 .Mobile Agent vs. Remote Procedure Call(RPC) RPC: using Synchronous protocol-High Efficiency and low latency Scaling -.Multiple servers Mobile Agent: Messaging(Asynchronous) :Robustness.
Application Areas for Mobile Agents Data collection from many places Searching and filtering Monitoring Negotiating 23 .
Application area for Mobile Agent(cont·) Bartering Parallel processing Entertainment Targeted information dissemination 24 .
3. Even when connected they have limited bandwidth They have limited storage and processing capability Mobile agents¶ feature: Reduction of Network traffic Asynchronous interaction Remote searching and filtering 25 . 2. 3. 1.Potential usage for mobile client 1. 2. Mobile clients¶ feature: They only intermittently connected to a network.
secrecy and complexity(easy to deploy but hard to debug). Open issue: Security. MA can improve both flexibility and communication robustness.Concluding Remarks Achievement: MA can effectively reduce network load and overcome network latency. MA has proved to be beneficial to information collection and monitoring. and execution performance remain a big challenge for its industrial use. Limited availability of quantitative performance evaluation Further standardization work still required for heterogeneous environments 26 .
edu/×agent/ http://mole.iit.dartmouth.it/MAP http://www.informatik.html http://www.reston.uni-stuttgart.trl.unict.Reference http://www.de/ http://www.de/products/grasshopper/ http://www.ac.us/home/koe/index.jumpingbeans.va.ibm.il/fargo/ http://sun195.cnri.com http://www.ikv.com/aglets/ 27 .dsg.cs.technion.
Thankyou 28 .
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