SPRINKLER IRRIGATION SYSTEMS

SPRINKLER PRINCIPLES
WHERE THERE ARE LIMITATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH SOURCING OF WATER WITH AN OBJECTIVE OF HIGHER APPLICATION EFFICIENCY IS DESIRED, SPRINKLER IRRIGATION SYSTEMS IS RECOMMENDABLE.

SPRINKLER PRINCIPLES
SPRINKLER

IRRIGATION USE LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS FOR MOBILITY. BECAUSE IT IS LIGHT WEIGHT IT ALLOWS THE EASY TRANSFER OR MOVEMENT OF THE SYSTEM COMPONENT TO OTHER LOCATIONS.

SPRINKLER PRINCIPLES
IN

SPRINKLER IRRIGATION, WATER IS UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED OVER THE SOIL SURFACE.

SPRINKLER PRINCIPLES
SPRINKLER

IRRIGATION SYSTEMS ARE INTENSIVELY USED IN CULTIVATED AREAS GROWING IN HIGH INCOME CROPS LIKE SUGARCANE AND PINEAPPLE PLANTATIONS, FRUITS AND SOME VEGETABLES.

SPRINKLER PRINCIPLES
SPRINKLER

IRRIGATION SCHEME IS PARTICULARLY ADOPTED TO HILLY LAND, WHERE IT MAY BE EXPENSIVE OR NOT FEASIBLE TO GRADE FOR SURFACE IRRIGATION.

SPRINKLER PRINCIPLES
SPRINKLER

IRRIGATION HAS THE ABILITY TO APPLY WATER AT LOW RATES IN LAND WITH LOW INFILTRATION CAPACITY.

SPRINKLER PRINCIPLES
 THESE

SYSTEMS USUALLY HAVE A RELATIVELY HIGH COST OF INSTALLATION WITH POWER NEEDED TO PROVIDE PRESSURE TO PROPERLY OPERATE THE SPRINKLER AND THE SPRAY MAY RESULT IN THE REMOVAL OF CHEMICALS FO INSECT CONTROL.

ADVANTAGES OF SPRINKLER IRRIGATION
SEEPAGE

LOSSES ELIMINATED MUCH LESS WATER NEEDED NO LEVELING REQUIRED MAXIMUM LAND USE SUITED COARSE SOIL ELIMINATION OF RUNOFF AND PERCOLATION LOSSES

ADVANTAGES OF SPRINKLER IRRIGATION
ACCURATE

MOISTURE

CONTROL MAXIMUM RETURN MULTIPLE CROPS GENTLE PENETRATION SOIL EROSION ELIMINATED CROP DAMAGE REDUCED

ADVANTAGES OF SPRINKLER IRRIGATION
PORTABLE

SYSTEM OF IRRIGATION UNIFORM WATER APPLICATION DANGER OF WATERLOGGING ELIMINATED MECHANICAL CULTIVATION

ADVANTAGES OF SPRINKLER IRRIGATION
LEACHES

DOWN SALTS LOW LABOR REQUIREMENT WEEDS AND PEST CONTROL EARLY PRODUCTION ASSIST GERMINATION HIGHER CROP YIELD QUANTITY

ADVANTAGES OF SPRINKLER IRRIGATION
SUPPLEMENTAL

TO RAINFALL

SPECIAL USES OF SPRINKLERS
CONTROL

OF ALKALI IRRIGATION WITH HIGH SALT CONTENT WATER FROST PROTECTION CROP COOLING AERATION IRRIGATION FERTILIZER APPLICATION

LIMITATIONS OF SPRINKLER IRRIGATION
POOR

UNIFORMITY IS ACHIEVED WHEN WIND VELOCITY IS MORE THAN 16 KM PER HOUR.

LIMITATIONS OF SPRINKLER IRRIGATION
HIGH

TEMPERATURE WITH HIGH WIND VELOCITY AND LOW HUMIDITY THERE COULD BE COULD BE A CONSIDERABLE EVAPORATION LOSS FROM NOZZLE TO GROUND SURFACE.

LIMITATIONS OF SPRINKLER IRRIGATION
INITIAL

COST OF SPRINKLER SET IS HIGH. SPRINKLERS ARE NOT SUITED FOR CROPS REQUIRING LARGE DEPTH OF IRRIGATION, AS IN THE CASE OF A PADDY.

LIMITATIONS OF SPRINKLER IRRIGATION
SOIL

BORNE ORGANISMS ARE SOMETIMES TRANSPORTED TO PLANTS THROUGH SPLASHING FROM SOIL WHICH MAY RESULT IN SPREADING SOME INFECTIOUS DISEASE.

LIMITATIONS OF SPRINKLER IRRIGATION
SPRINKLER

SYSTEM REQUIRES CONTINUOUS SUPPLY OF WATER UNTIL REQUIRED APPLICATION HAS BEEN MADE.

LIMITATIONS OF SPRINKLER IRRIGATION
WATER

HAS TO BE FREE FROM SAND AND OTHER INSOLUBLE IMPURITIES. OTHERWISE PUMPING WILL GET DAMAGED.

LIMITATIONS OF SPRINKLER IRRIGATION
MANUAL

VALUE OF CANAL IS

ABSENT. IT REQUIRES POWER FOR ITS OPERATION.

CONDITIONS FAVORING SPRINKLER IRRIGATION
SOILS

TOO POROUS FOR GOOD DISTRIBUTION BY SURFACE METHODS. SHALLOW SOILS THE TOPOGRAPHY OF WHICH PREVENTS PROPER LEVELING FOR SURFACE IRRIGATION METHODS.

CONDITIONS FAVORING SPRINKLER IRRIGATION
LAND

HAVING STEEP SLOPES AND EASILY ERODIBLE SOILS. IRRIGATION STREAM IS TOO SMALL TO DISTRIBUTE WATER EFFICIENTLY BY SURFACE IRRIGATION.

CONDITIONS FAVORING SPRINKLER IRRIGATION
UNDULATING

LAND TOO COSTLY TO LEVEL SUFFICIENTLY FOR GOOD SURFACE IRRIGATION LABOR AVAILABLE FOR IRRIGATION IS EITHER NOT EXPERIENCED IN SURFACE METHODS OF IRRIGATION

CONDITIONS FAVORING SPRINKLER IRRIGATION
LANDS

NEED TO BE BROUGHT UP IN TOP PRODUCTION QUICKLY SPRINKLER SYSTEMS CAN BE DESIGNED AND INSTALLED QUICKLY

SPRINKLER DESIGN
SPRINKLER COMES IN VARIOUS DESIGN DEPENDING UPON ITS APPLICATION. SPRINKLERS FOR LARGE SCALE COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS ARE MADE OUT OF METALLIC MATERIALS

SPRINKLER DESIGN

WHEREAS THOSE MEANT FOR GARDEN OR SMALL SCALE APPLICATION ARE MADE OUT OF PLASTIC MATERIALS.

SPRINKLER VS. SURFACE METHODS
WATER

MEASUREMENTS IS EASIER WITH SPRINKLERS THAN WITH SURFACE METHODS. CAN BE DESIGNED SO THAT LESS INTERFERENCE WITH CULTIVATION AND OTHER FARMING OPERATIONS OCCURS.

SPRINKLER VS. SURFACE METHODS
HIGH

WATER APPLICATION EFFICIENCY CAN NORMALLY BE OBTAINED BY SPRINKLER IRRIGATION.

SPRINKLER VS. SURFACE METHODS
WHEN

WATER IS ALREADY BEING PUMPED TO THE POINT OF USE , THE WATER NEEDED FOR SPRINKLING CAN BE OBTAINED WITH OF A MINIMUM ADDITIONAL CAPITAL INVESTMENT.

SPRINKLER VS. SURFACE METHODS
WHEN

DOMESTIC AND IRRIGATION WATER COMES FROM THE SAME SOURCE, A COMMON DISTRIBUTION LINE CAN BE FREQUENTLY USED.

SPRINKLER VS. SURFACE METHODS
FOR

AREAS REQUIRING INFREQUENT IRRIGATION, SPRINKLER IRRIGATION CAN BE PROVIDED AT A LOWER CAPITAL INVESTMENT PER HECTARE OF LAND IRRIGATED THAN CAN SURFACE IRRIGATION.

SPRINKLER VS. SURFACE METHODS
WHENEVER

WATER CAN BE DELIVERED TO THE FIELD UNDER GRAVITY PRESSURE, SPRINKLER IRRIGATION IS PARTICULARLY ATTRACTIVE.

SPRINKLER VS. SURFACE METHODS
FREQUENT AND

SMALL APPLICATIONS OF WATER CAN BE APPLIED READILY BY SPRINKLE SYSTEMS.

APPLICATION RATES

THE RATE OF APPLICATION IS LIMITED TO THE INFILTRATION CAPACITY OF THE SOIL.

APPLICATION RATES
RATES IN EXCESS OF THE SOIL INFILTRATION CAPACITY RESULTS TO RUNOFF, POOR DISTRIBUTION OF WATER, LOSS OF WATER AND EROSION.

APPLICATION RATES

THE RATE OF APPLICATION BELOW THE MAXIMUM HAVE BEEN FOUND TO BE MORE BENEFICIAL.

APPLICATION RATES

RATES OF ONE HALF THE INFILTRATION RATE OF SOIL COMBINED WITH NOZZLE PRESSURE PROVIDES A FINE SPRAY THAT RESULTS TO

APPLICATION RATES

IMPROVED PERFORMANCE, MAINTENANCE OF SOIL STRUCTURE AND MINIMIZATION OF SOIL COMPACTION.

TYPES OF SPRINKLERS SPRINKLERS WITH FIXED HEAD

NO ANIMALS WERE HARMED IN THIS PRESENTATION.

TYPES OF SPRINKLERS

FIXED HEAD SPRINKLERS CONVERTS PRESSURE HEAD ONTO VELOCITY HEAD, WHICH CARRIES WATER IN FORM OF A JET OUTWARD FROM THE SPRINKLER LOCATION.

TYPES OF SPRINKLERS SPRINKLERS WITH ROTATING HEAD

TYPES OF SPRINKLERS

THE ROTATION OF SPRINKLER IS CAUSED BY IMPACT TO A LEVER ARM THAT OSCILLATES IN AND OUT OF THE NOZZLE JET.

CLASSES OF SPRINKLERS PERMANENT SYSTEMS, THE MAIN AND LATERALS ARE LAID ONCE FOR ALL, PREFERABLY UNDERGROUND TO AVOID INTERFERENCE IN AGRICULTURAL OPERATIONS.

CLASSES OF SPRINKLERS ADVANTAGES:
1)

2)

PERFECT CONTROL OF WATER IS ACHIEVED. FERTILIZER, INSECTICIDES, FUNGICIDES, AND WEEDICIDES CAN BE EASILY APPLIED TO SYSTEM

CLASSES OF SPRINKLERS ADVANTAGES:
3)

THE METHOD PAYS HIGH IN CASH RETURN CROPS IN AREAS SUSCEPTIBLE TO HIGH TEMPERATURE VARIATIONS AND FROST.

CLASSES OF SPRINKLERS
DISADVANTAGES: INTERFERENCE OF RISERS AND SPRINKLERS WITH FROM OPERATIONS LIMITS THE USE OF THIS SYSTEM.

CLASSES OF SPRINKLERS
PORTABLE SYSTEMS CONSTITUTE OF MOVABLE MAIN AND LATERAL PIPES WHICH ARE PROVIDED WITH QUICK ACTION COUPLINGS FOR ASSEMBLING LINES

CLASSES OF SPRINKLERS

OF THE DESIRED LENGTH. IT IS DESIGNED TO MOVED FROM THE FIELD OR TO DIFFERENT PUMP SITES IN THE SAME FIELD.

CLASSES OF SPRINKLERS
ADVANTAGES: 1. ECONOMIZES ON REQUIREMENTS OF PIPE LENGTHS 2. CHEAPER THAN THE PERMANENT SYSTEM 3. PROFITABLE

CLASSES OF SPRINKLERS
DISADVANTAGES: 1. INSTALLATION REQUIRE MORE LABOR 2. SOILS CAN DRY A BIT DURING SHIFTING OPERATION

CLASSES OF SPRINKLERS
SEMI-PORTABLE SYSTEM CONSISTS OF BURIED MAINS, PERMANENTLY FIXED PUMPING PLANT LOCATED CENTRALLY AND FULLY PORTABLE LATERALS AND SPRINKLERS.

SPRINKLER DESIGN FACTOR

APPLICATION RATE – WATER SHOULD NOT BE APPLIED AT A RATE FASTER THAN THE SOIL ABSORPTION, BUT FAST ENOUGH TO PREVENT EVAPORATION LOSSES.

SPRINKLER DESIGN FACTOR

DEPTH OF APPLICATION – AMOUNT OF WATER SHOULD NOT EXCEED FIELD CAPACITY.

SPRINKLER DESIGN FACTOR

SYSTEM CAPACITY – THERE SHOULD BE ENOUGH EQUIPMENT, AND SUFFICIENT SIZE, TO REPLENISH THE SOIL MOISTURE AT A RATE AT LEAST EQUAL TO THE PEAK RATE OF USE BY CROP

SPRINKLER DESIGN FACTOR

UNIFORMITY OF APPLICATION – THE POINT OF LIGHTEST APPLICATION USUALLY SHOULD HAVE A DEPTH OF APPLICATION OF AT LEAST 80% OF THE AVERAGE DEPTH ALL OVER THE FIELD.

SPRINKLER DESIGN FACTOR

ECONOMICAL PIPE SIZES – THE DISTRIBUTION PIPE SHOULD BE SUCH THAT THERE IS AN ECONOMIC BALANCE BETWEEN PIPE COST AND POWER COST.

SPRINKLER DESIGN FACTOR

CROP DAMAGE – WATER MUST BE APPLIED IN SUCH A MANNER THAT IT WILL NOT PHYSICALLY DAMAGE THE CROP.

SPRINKLER SYSTEM DESIGN STRATEGY
1.

2.

3.

4.

GATHER INFORMATION ABOUT THE SITE DETERMINE IRRIGATION SYSTEM REQUIREMENT DETERMINE WATER SUPPLY REQUIREMENT LOCATION OF HEAD CONTROL

SPRINKLER SYSTEM DESIGN STRATEGY
5.

6.

7.

SELECT SPRINKLER TYPE AND SPACING RANGES DETERMINE SPRINKLER PATTERNS AND PRECIPITATION RATES PARTITIONING AREAS AND BLOCKS

SPRINKLER SYSTEM DESIGN STRATEGY
8.

9.

10.

LAYOUT SPRINKLERS, CONTROL VALVES AND MAINLINE PIPES CALCULATE THE CIRCUIT OPERATING TIME AND DURATION OF IRRIGATION PIPE SIZING AND PRESSURE REQUIREMENTS.

SPRINKLER SYSTEM DESIGN STRATEGY
11.

12.

13.

DETERMINE SIZE OF HEAD CONTROL PREPARE FOR FINAL IRRIGATION PLAN PREPARE BILL OF MATERIALS

SPRINKLER DESIGN LAYOUT

THE SYSTEM MUST HAVE A CAPACITY TO SUPPLY ENOUGH LATERALS, BASED ON THE TIME TO SET EACH LATERAL, TO IRRIGATE THE AREA BEFORE SOIL MOISTURE IS DEPLETED TO AN UNDESIRABLE LEVEL.

SPRINKLER DESIGN LAYOUT

LATERAL LENGTH SHOULD BE SHORT ENOUGH SO THAT PRACTICAL PIPE SIZES WILL RESULT AND PRESSURE ALONG THE LATERAL WILL NOT VARY MORE THAN 20%.

SPRINKLER DESIGN LAYOUT

LATERALS SHOULD BE PLACED ACROSS THE SLOPE AS NEARLY LEVEL AS POSSIBLE TO MINIMIZE VARIATION.

SPRINKLER DESIGN LAYOUT

CHANGES IN PIPE NECESSARY FOR PRESSURE CONTROL SHOULD BE MADE ON THE MAIN LINE WHENEVER POSSIBLE.

SPRINKLER DESIGN LAYOUT

LATERAL PIPES SHOULD BE OF ONE SIZE IF POSSIBLE AND NEVER MORE THAN TWO. THE SOURCE OF WATER SHOULD BE LOCATED IN THE FIELD CENTER FOR MOST ECONOMICAL USE OF PIPE.

SPRINKLER DESIGN LAYOUT

SPLIT LINE OPERATION SHOULD BE USED WHENEVER POSSIBLE.

SPRINKLER DESIGN LAYOUT

BOOSTER PUMP SHOULD BE CONSIDERED FO SMALL AREAS IN THE DESIGN REQUIRING HIGH PRESSURE IN ORDER TO AVOID CARRYING HIGH PRESSURES FOR THESE AREAS IN THE MAIN SYSTEM.

SPRINKLER PATTERNS
SPRINKLER PATTERNS DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF SPRINKLER NOZZLES AND THEIR LOCATION IN THE DISTRIBUTION OR PIPE SYSTEM.

SPRINKLER PATTERNS

SQUARE PATTERN

SPRINKLER PATTERNS

TRIANGULAR PATTERN

SPRINKLER PATTERNS

TRIANGULAR PATTERN

SPRINKLER PATTERNS
 

STAGGERED PATTERN SLIDING PATTERN

SPRINKLER MAIN LINE DESIGN
FRICTION LOSS ON THE MAIN LINE OF A SPRINKLER LINE IS ONE OF THE MOST CRITICAL PARAMETER IN THE DESIGN OF THE SPRINKLER MAIN LINES.

SPRINKLER MAIN LINE DESIGN

FRICTION LOSS IS CRITICAL BECAUSE IT AFFECT THE MAIN LINE ITSELF.

LATERAL DESIGN
THE DESIGN OF SPRINKLER LATERALS IS A FUNCTION OF WATER APPLICATION RATE, IRRIGATION INTERVAL, SPRINKLER/NOZZLE DISCHARGE, LATERAL MOVEMENTS.

EFFECTS OF WIND
HIGH WINDS SPEEDS CAN GREATLY AFFECT THE PERFORMANCE OF THE SPRINKLER SYSTEMS. WITH STRONG WINDS THERE WOULD BE IMPROPER WATER DISTRIBUTION.

EFFECTS OF WIND
TO AVOID OR AT LEAST MINIMIZE THE IMPACT OF WIND EFFECT IN THE FIELD, THE ASPECTS OF WIND EFFECTS ON VARIOUS SPRINKLER PATTERNS SHOULD BE CAREFULLY ADDRESSED.

END OF PRESENTATION PREPARED BY: NUYLAN , RAYMOND S.

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