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The third set of notes for MATH 1201

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You are on page 1of 39

GOALS OF THIS CHAPTER

- define matrix multiplication

- matrix multiplication as linear combinations - see properties of sigma notation - see properties of matrix multiplication

MULTIPLICATION OF MATRICES

Matrix multiplication is NOTHING like regular multiplication! If A is an m x p matrix and B is a p x n matrix, then we can do the following preliminary steps:

STEP ONE: Check to see if the number of columns of the first matrix is equal to the number of rows of the second matrix. If not, the multiplication doesnt exist.

Am x p

Bp x n

MULTIPLICATION OF MATRICES

Matrix multiplication is NOTHING like regular multiplication! If A is an m x p matrix and B is a p x n matrix, then we can do the following preliminary steps:

STEP TWO: The other two letters or numbers will tell you the size of the new matrix AB.

Am x p

Bp x n

MULTIPLICATION OF MATRICES

If steps one and two make sense, then we calculate the entries of AB by doing a summation. If we label the entries of AB, A and B as abij, aij, bij, respectively, then:

p

ab ij

= k=1

a ik b kj

This just means that the (i,j) entry of AB uses all the information from row i of A and all the information from column j of B. We will revisit this again later.

MULTIPLICATION OF MATRICES

These couple calculations are the most important. I will show you how to break bigger multiplications down into these ones.

-1

1

=

-1

B B1 x 3 B1 x 3

3 -5 0

0 10

Calculate BC:

C3 x 1 C3 x 1

BC exists

BC is 1 x 1

MULTIPLICATION OF MATRICES

Ex. 1 Row and column matrices

BC

3 -5 0

-1 0 10

3*(-1) +

MULTIPLICATION OF MATRICES

Ex. 1 Row and column matrices

BC

3 -5 0

-1 0 10

3(-1) + (-5)*0 +

MULTIPLICATION OF MATRICES

Ex. 1 Row and column matrices

BC

3 -5 0

-1 0 10

MULTIPLICATION OF MATRICES

Ex. 1 Row and column matrices

BC

3 -5 0

-1 0 10

-3

MULTIPLICATION OF MATRICES

These couple calculations are the most important. I will show you how to break bigger multiplications down into these ones.

-1 3 -5 0

1

=

0 10

-1

Calculate AB:

A2 x 1 A2 x 1

B1 x 3 B1 x 3

AB exists

AB is 2 x 3

MULTIPLICATION OF MATRICES

Ex. 1 Row and column matrices Recall that the (1,1) entry of AB comes from all the information in row one of A and column one of B.

3 -5 0

AB

-1

=

1*3

MULTIPLICATION OF MATRICES

Ex. 1 Row and column matrices

3 -5 0

AB

-1

=

The (1,2) entry of AB comes from all the information in row one of A and column two of B.

1*3

1*(-5)

MULTIPLICATION OF MATRICES

Ex. 1 Row and column matrices

3 -5 0

AB

-1

=

The (1,3) entry of AB comes from all the information in row one of A and column three of B.

1*3

1*(-5) 1*0

MULTIPLICATION OF MATRICES

Ex. 1 Row and column matrices

3 -5 0

AB

-1

1*3 (-1)*3 1*(-5) 1*0

The (2,1) entry of AB comes from all the information in row two of A and column one of B.

MULTIPLICATION OF MATRICES

Ex. 1 Row and column matrices

3 -5 0

AB

-1

1*3 1*(-5) 1*0

(-1)*3 -1*(-5)

MULTIPLICATION OF MATRICES

Ex. 1 Row and column matrices

3 -5 0

AB

-1

1*3 1*(-5) 1*0

MULTIPLICATION OF MATRICES

Ex. 1 Row and column matrices

3 -5 0

AB

-1

3 -5 0 0

-3 5

MULTIPLICATION OF MATRICES

These couple calculations are the most important. I will show you how to break bigger multiplications down into these ones.

-1 3 -5 0

1

=

0 10

-1

Calculate AC:

A2 x 1

C3 x 1

These numbers are not equal, so we say AC is not defined or AC does not exist.

MULTIPLICATION OF MATRICES

Next we will break down a larger multiplication into a row/column matrix multiplication.

2 1

-1 4

-2

5 -3 1

B B3 x 2 B3 x 2

4 2

Calculate AB:

A2 x 3 A2 x 3

AB exists

AB is 2 x 2

MULTIPLICATION OF MATRICES

Ex. 2 Some larger matrices

-2 2 1 -1 4 4 2

5 -3 1

AB

1 2

1

=

3

-1 -2 4

MULTIPLICATION OF MATRICES

Ex. 2 Some larger matrices

-2 2 1 -1 4

1 2

5 -3 1

-1 5 -3

AB

1 2

1

=

4 2

3

-1 -2 4

MULTIPLICATION OF MATRICES

Ex. 2 Some larger matrices

-2 2 1 -1 4

1 2

5 -3 1

-1 5 -3

AB

1 2

1

=

4 2

3

-1 -2 4

2 3 1 4 -2

4 2

MULTIPLICATION OF MATRICES

Ex. 2 Some larger matrices

-2 2 1 -1 4

1 2

5 -3 1

-1 5 -3

AB

1 2

1

=

4 2

3

-1 -2 4

2 3 1 4 -2

4 2

1 3 1 4 5

-3 1

MULTIPLICATION OF MATRICES

Ex. 2 Some larger matrices

1(-2)+2*4+(-1)2

1*5+2(-3)+(-1)1

3*5+1(-3)+4*1

AB

3(-2)+1*4+4*2 4

=

-2 16

Recall that the identity matrix is the square matrix with only ones on the main diagonal.

I=

1

0

0

1

When we multiply numbers, any number multiplied by the number 1 is just itself.

When we multiply a matrix by an identity matrix of the right size, we get the matrix we started with (provided the multiplication makes sense)!

Lets say that I is a 2x2 matrix, A is a 2x3 matrix and B is a 3x2 matrix.

I=

1

0

0

1

2

1

-1

4

-2

5 -3 1

4 2

When multiplying with I, all you really have to do is check that the multiplication makes sense:

Calculate AI:

A2 x 3

I2 x 2

Lets say that I is a 2x2 matrix, A is a 2x3 matrix and B is a 3x2 matrix.

I=

1

0

0

1

2

1

-1

4

-2

5 -3 1

4 2

Calculate IA:

I2 x 2 I2 x 2

A2 x 3 A2 x 3

IA exists

IA is 2 x 3

Lets say that I is a 2x2 matrix, A is a 2x3 matrix and B is a 3x2 matrix.

I=

1

0

0

1

2

1

-1

4

-2

5 -3 1

4 2

In fact, IA is just equal to A (you should check this)! So provided the multiplication makes sense, multiplying by I is pretty easy.

IA=A

Lets say that I is a 2x2 matrix, A is a 2x3 matrix and B is a 3x2 matrix.

I=

1

0

0

1

2

1

-1

4

-2

5 -3 1

4 2

IB = B

BI = B

Since B is 3x2, we must multiply by I on the right for the multiplication to make sense!

Let A be an mxn matrix and let x be an n-vector (or an nx1 column matrix). Consider the multiplication Ax:

a11 a21

a12 a22

a1n a2n

x1 x2

am1 am2

amn

xn

a11

a21

a12

a22

a1n

= x1

am1

+ x2

am2

+ + xn

a2n amn

By re-labeling the n-vectors as c1, c2, , cn (the subscript denotes the column of A), we express the multiplication Ax as a linear combination of the column vectors of the matrix A.

a11

a21

a12

a22

a1n

Ax = x1

am1

+ x2

am2

+ + xn

a2n amn

We have shown that the product of an mxn matrix A and a column vector x is a linear combination of the columns of A.

Linear combinations play an important role in higher linear algebra courses and are a fundamental tool in digital music.

We could generalize this finding to a matrix A that is mxn and a matrix B that is nxp. The product AB is a linear combination of the columns of A as well! (see page 69-70 of the text for more info)

Ex. 4 - Lets see an example of this:

1 7

-3

-1

0 10 1

= -1 =

-31 51 93 0

+ 0

-1 2

10 4

-31 51 93

-3

+ 10

-1

10

SIGMA NOTATION

Let A be an mxn matrix, and let B be an nxp matrix. We have shown that the product AB is defined and is of size mxp. To figure out the (i,j) entry of the matrix AB, we could use the formula:

p

ab ij

= k=1

a ik b kj

SIGMA NOTATION

Lets say we want the (1,1) entry of AB. This means we fill in i=1 and j=1 in our formula:

p

ab 11

= k=1

a1kbk1

Next, we let the variable k=1 to start, then we add the term k=2, k=3, all the way up to k=p:

ab 11

k=1 k=2 ... k=p

SIGMA NOTATION

Ex. 6 Sum of the first five squares - done on overhead

- done on overhead - no proof required

Thm. 8 Properties of matrix multiplication

Provided that A, B and C are matrices of the right size for multiplication, and that r is any number, we have the following:

(3) (A+B)C = AC+BC (4) A(rB) = r(AB) (5) (AB)T = BTAT

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