By Sanjeev Ghimire Email: sanjeev.ghimire@ntc.net.

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GSM TECHNOLOGY

GSM Overview by Sanjeev Ghimire

1ST GENERATION
The first generation of mobile cellular telecommunications systems appeared in the 1980s.  The first generation used analog transmission techniques for traffic, which was almost entirely voice.  There was no dominant standard but several competing ones.

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GSM Overview by Sanjeev Ghimire

Such as  Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) – used in Scandinavia,southern Europe etc  It comes in two variations:  o NMT-450  o NMT-900  Total Access Communications System (TACS) – used in UK,and middle Eastern countries.It uses 900MHz band.  Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS).used in US,Australia,New Zealand.It uses 800MHz band

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GSM Overview by Sanjeev Ghimire

2ND GENERATION
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It has been introduced from the year 1992. It uses digital radio transmission for traffic. The 2G networks have much higher capacity than the first-generation systems. GSM is by far the most successful and widely used 2G system. Data rate supported : 9.6kbps to 14.4 kbps It uses Circuit switching

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5 . Singapore etc. CDMA uses different codes to separate transmissions on the same frequency.such as#Global System for Mobile (GSM) communications-Designed and developed by a number of different organization working together. It is used in the United States. # Code-division multiple access (CDMA) IS-95-Designed and developed by a single company. Hong Kong. Japan.GSM Overview by Sanjeev Ghimire  There are several standards for 2G systems. South Korea.Qualcomm.

and Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE) in addition to the 2G systems.GSM Overview by Sanjeev Ghimire GENERATION 2.5” is a designation that broadly includes all advanced upgrades for the 2G networks 2. of time slots used( 1 up to 8) It uses circuit switching and packet switching both It supports the data rate up to 384 kbps       6 . Data rate supported: depending on the coding scheme(CS) and the no.5   It has been introduced in the year 2000-2001 “Generation 2.5G GSM system includes General Packet Radio Services (GPRS).

It supports both circuit switching and packet switching  7 .GSM Overview by Sanjeev Ghimire 3RD GENERATION  It has been introduced in the year 2001 as trial version It supports the data rate up to 2 mbps   Evolution of GSM and CDMA has taken them as WCDMA(UMTS) and CDMA-2000 in third generation.

Multimedia.mobile broadband wireless access etc will be possible because of its high band width.   It will support the data rate up to 100 mbps. mobile TV.GSM Overview by Sanjeev Ghimire 4TH GENERATION AND NGN  This technology is expected to arrive not before the year 2010 .  It will support both circuit switching and packet switching 8 .

GMSK . Modulation Technique.960Mhz. Frequency range example*Uplink Frequency: 890 Mhz –915Mhz *Downlink Frequency: 935Mhz.GSM OVERVIEW >GSM stands for ― Global System for Mobile communication‖ >GSM Technology is one of the different types of the wireless communication available in the world.

)  Band width:each radio channel in the GSM system has a frequency bandwidth of 200khz. 10 .Each 20ms sample is encoded using 260 bits.(That requires 13 kbps.GSM Overview by Sanjeev Ghimire  Speech is divided into 20 msec sample.  Number of Channels:124 radio channel on 900Mhz.

Broadcast channels.Dedicated Control Channels *SDCCH-used as signaling channel *SACCH-used to carry measurement reports *FACCH-used during handover 5.used for synchronization of the base station 2. *BCCH-used to carry signaling and control info * FCCH-used to correct the frequency of Mobile * SCH.common control channels *PCH-used to page the mobile *AGCH-used to access the signaling channel *RACH-used by MS to request for signaling channel  4.Traffic Channels * TCH .Used to carry traffic.LOGICAL CHANNELS   GSM Overview by Sanjeev Ghimire Five types of logical channels: 1.CellBroad cast channel *CBCH-used to broadcast short messages in cells 11 .  3.

GSM Overview by Sanjeev Ghimire Timeslot and Frame structure Frequency 200KHz time 15/26ms interval 12 .

GSM Overview by Sanjeev Ghimire FREQUENCY RESOURCE GSM900 : up: 890~915MHz down: 935~960MHz duplex interval: 45MHz bandwidth: 25MHz, frequency interval: 200KHz GSM1800 : up: 1710-1785MHz down: 1805-1880MHz duplex interval: 95MHz, working bandwidth: 75MHz, frequency interval: 200KHz EGSM900 : up: 880~915MHz down: 925~960MHz duplex interval: 45MHz bandwidth: 35MHz, frequency interval: 200KHz GSM1900MHz: up:1850~1910MHz down:1930~1990MHz duplex interval: 80MHz, working bandwidth: 60MHz, frequency interval: 200KHz 13 .

GSM Overview by Sanjeev Ghimire Frequency Resource Single Band 900MHz 1800MHz Dual Band Triple Band 1900MHz 14 .

GSM Overview by Sanjeev Ghimire Frequency Resource Propagation characteristic The higher the propagation frequency The higher the propagation loss The smaller the cell coverage radius. Cell coverage radius : 900MHz 1800MHz 1900MHz 15 .

GSM Overview by Sanjeev Ghimire CELL CLUSTERS ACTUAL COVERAGE AREA OF CELL 3 CELL 1 OVERLAPS 6 OTHERS DIFFERENT FREQUENCIES MUST BE USED IN ADJACENT CELLS SEVEN DIFFERENT SETS OF FREQUENCIES REQUIRED ACTUAL COVERAGE AREA OF CELL 1 16 .

GSM Overview by Sanjeev Ghimire FREQUENCY REUSE MANY CELLS CAN SHARE SAME FREQUENCIES IF SEPARATED IN SPACE AVOID CO-CHANNEL INTERFERENCE AND ADJACENT CHANNEL INTERFERENCE 17 .

CELL HANDOVER GSM Overview by Sanjeev Ghimire AS PHONE MOVES FROM CELL “A” TO CELL “B”: • CELL “A” MUST HAND THE CALL OVER TO “B” • PHONE MUST CHANGE FREQUENCIES • CELL “A” MUST STOP TRANSMITTING Minimum performance contour A x y B z Handover threshold contour 18 .

GSM Overview by Sanjeev Ghimire CELL SIZES FOR CAPACITY GSM: MACROCELL: FAST-MOVING SUBSCRIBERS PICOCELLS MICROCELL: SLOW-MOVING SUBSCRIBERS 19 .

same time. different ―codes‖ 20 . different times  TDMA (time division)   CDMA (code division)  Use same frequency.GSM Overview by Sanjeev Ghimire MULTIPLE ACCESS    Many users sharing a resource at the ―same time‖ Needed because user must share cells FDMA (frequency division)  Use different frequencies Use same frequency.

TV. 1G cellular Advantages:  No dynamic coordination Disadvantages:  Inflexible & inefficient if channel load is dynamic and uneven t k1 k2 k3 k4 k5 k6 c f EACH CHANNEL OCCUPIES SAME FREQUENCY AT ALL TIMES 21 .FREQUENCY DIVISION MULTIPLEXING (FDMA) GSM Overview by Sanjeev Ghimire Each channel gets a band (range) of frequencies Used in traditional radio.

1/3 of power consumption Disadvantage: Requires precise synchronization 22 .GSM Overview by Sanjeev Ghimire TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING (TDMA) Each channel gets entire spectrum for a certain (rotating) time period k1 c k2 k3 k4 k5 k6 FREQUENCY BAND f t Advantage: Can assign more time to senders with heavier loads 3X capacity of FDMA.

Example: GSM Advantages: • More robust against frequencyselective interference • Much greater capacity with time compression • Inherent tapping protection Disadvantages • Frequency changes must be coordinated k1 c f k2 k3 k4 k5 k6 t 23 .GSM Overview by Sanjeev Ghimire COMBINING TDMA AND FDMA Each channel gets a certain frequency band for a certain amount of time.

GSM Overview by Sanjeev Ghimire TIME-DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS 24 .

GSM Overview by Sanjeev Ghimire CODE DIVISION MULTIPLEXING (CDMA)      Each channel has unique ―code‖ k1 k2 All channels use same spectrum at same time but orthogonal codes Advantages:  bandwidth efficient – code space is huge  no coordination or synchronization between different channels  resists interference and tapping  3X capacity of TDMA. 1/25 power consumption Disadvantages:  more complex signal regeneration Implemented using spread spectrum t k3 k4 k5 k6 c f 25 .

5 Erlang) GOS: defined as the probability of call blocking or the probability when the call delay time is longer than a given queuing time. 26 . For example.Traffic Concept System capacity Erlang : GSM Overview by Sanjeev Ghimire the traffic intensity of a totally occupied channel (i.e. the traffic of a channel occupied for 30 minutes in an hour is 0. the call hour of a unit hour or the call minute of a unit minute).

Traffic. in Erlang  If one call is made by a subscriber within an hour and last 120 seconds. the traffic is usually defined as 25mErl per subscriber. n.average duration of each call(in seconds) A .GSM Overview by Sanjeev Ghimire TRAFFIC Traffic refers to the numbers of subscribers the network can support and is usually described as follows: A=n×T/3600 where. the traffic is calculated as: A=1×120/3600=33mErl。 For convenience of engineering calculation. 27 .calls made by a subscriber within an hour; T.

For network operators.GSM Overview by Sanjeev Ghimire GOS  Grade of Service(GOS):GOS refers to the degree of network congestion or call loss rate. 28 . GOS=2% means that 98% of subscribers can make calls successfully and 2% of subscribers will end up with unsuccessfulness. 2-5% of GoS is adopted.

84 6.1 85.3 78.8 #TrunksErlangs 150 152 154 156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172 174 176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 196 198 136.9 15.3 113.6 150.1 194.3 178.3 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 41.2 82.2 21 21.4 166.4 162.6 71.6 154.3 20.83 10.63 4.8 285.1 123.7 68.2 #TrunksErlangs 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216 218 220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234 236 238 240 242 244 246 248 186.1 61 62 62.2 119.9 219.9 229.3 28.8 140.8 47.4 19.1 60.3 176.6 148.2 59.1 486.3 57.7 144.7 69.9 46.5 156.9 32.8 33.8 16.8 138.1 192.6 50.9 215.1 198.For P.9 223.9 22.9 91.7 335.61 7.5 12.7 142.9 #TrunksErlangs #TrunksErlangs 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 64.5 52.34 5.1 43.9 217.4 39.4 27.8 233.9 130.4 54.08 5.6 103.1 121.3 115.8 66.9 231.3 80.9 221.3 29.1 44 44.7 24.3 56.5 160.6 17.5 26.6 152.4 164.4 587.6 101.8 67.7 97.5 #TrunksErlangs #TrunksErlangs 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 18.5 37.9 227.3 40.9 436.01 9.9 134.2 789.7 385.2 42.4 76.3 170.5 73.4 174.02 Grade of Service Only #TrunksErlangs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 0.5 74.4 77.4 55.6 72.9 225.2 58.3 172.5 53.1 190.2 83.2 180.2 81.5 75.6 36.5 107.1 1093 29 .2 688.223 0.2 188.7 146.5 38.8 #Trunks Erlangs 250 300 350 400 450 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 235.7 99.9 45.9 63.4 8.6 25.9 132.9 65.4 111.2 30.09 1.7 35.2 14 14.602 1.2 9.6 999.66 2.0204 0.4 109.8 23.6 70.1 86 87 88 100 102 104 106 108 110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 130 132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 88 89.94 3.GSM Overview by Sanjeev Ghimire Erlang-B Traffic Tables Abbreviated .8 95.3 79.8 48.5 105.6 51.8 34.7 11.28 2.1 196.4 168.2 117.5 158.1 84.1 31 31.3 13.2 182.3 890.7 49.1 125 127 128.2 184.1 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 213.9 93.

GSM Overview by Sanjeev Ghimire SUGGESTED CHANNEL CONFIGURATION  Based on 2% GoS.9 4 2 30 22 5 3 37 28 6 7 3 3 45 53 35. consider the following traffic model.2 14.5 43 TRXs CCHs TCHs Traffic(Erl) 30 . 1 2 3 1 2 2 7 14 22 2.94 8.

H1H2H3H4 9XXXXXX. 1) MCC: country code. to each province H3H4: assigned by each province/city the IMSI of user will be written into the SIM card by specific device and software and be stored into the HLR with other user information. 31 . H1H2H3H4: subscriber registering place H1H2: assigned by the P&T Administrative Bureau (operator )to different provinces. 00 or 01 3)MSIN: subscriber identification.GSM Overview by Sanjeev Ghimire Numbering Arrangement International mobile subscriber identification number (IMSI) It identifies a unique international universal number of a mobile subscriber. 460 2)MNC: network code. which consists of MCC+MNC+MSIN.

86 NDC: network code. 135—139. 130 H1H2H3H4: HLR identification code ABCD: mobile subscriber number inside each HLR 32 .GSM Overview by Sanjeev Ghimire Numbering Arrangement Mobile subscriber ISDN number(MSISDN) It is the subscriber number commonly used. China uses the TDMA independent numbering plan: CC+NDC+ H1H2H3H4 +ABC CC: country code.

GSM Overview by Sanjeev Ghimire Numbering Arrangement International Mobile Equipment Identification code (IMEI) It will uniquely identify a mobile station. Its structure is: TAC+FAC+SNR+SP TAC=model ratification code. 6 digits FAC=factory assembling code. 6 digits SP=reserved. 2 digits SNR=sequence code. 1 digit 33 . It is a decimal number of 15 digits.

135—139. 86 NDC: mobile network code. 130 M1M2: same as the H2H3 of MSISDN ABC: 000 -.GSM Overview by Sanjeev Ghimire Numbering Arrangement Mobile subscriber roaming number (MSRN) The MSRN is temporarily distributed to the subscriber by the VLR according to the request by the HLR when this subscriber is called. The MSRN is released and can be assigned to other subscriber later.999 34 . CC + NDC + 00 + M1M2M3 + ABC CC: country code.

It is used locally only and is a 4-byte TMSI number BCD code.GSM Overview by Sanjeev Ghimire Numbering Arrangement Temporarily Mobile Subscriber Identification Number (TMSI) To insure the IMSI security. the VLR will assign an unique TMSI number for the accessed subscriber. 35 .

BSS&NSS MS –carried by the subscriber It consists of *ME-mobile equipment .hand portable or vehicle mounted unit. *SIM.it contains the entire customer related information (identification.GSM Overview by Sanjeev Ghimire BASIC GSM NETWORK CONSIST OF MS.secret key for authentication etc) 36 .Subscriber identity module .

BSC(Base Station Controller)-Controls multiple BTSs and manages radio channel set up and handovers. It consists of – BTS (Base transreceiver Station)-It defines a cell and is responsible to establish the radio link control protocol with MS.  37 .Controls radio link with mobile station.GSM Overview by Sanjeev Ghimire BSS BSS.BSC is the connection between BTS and the MSCs.

GSM Overview by Sanjeev Ghimire NSS    Network & Switching Subsystem(NSS)-Mobility management and Switching of calls between mobile users and between mobile and fixed network users. Operates all switching functions for mobiles within its jurisdiction.is the central component of the NSS. It consists of : MSC. Manages the location of mobile 38 .Interfaces with mobile and other (Including fixed) networks.

Controls hand over between BSCs Resources management Interworks with and manages network database. Collects traffic statistics for performance monitoring.GSM Overview by Sanjeev Ghimire CONTINUED…        Switches calls Manages security features. 39 . Collect call billing data and sends to Billing center.

Is a protected database that stores the security information for each subscriber.is only a temporary storage while the particular subscriber is located in the geographical area controlled by the MSC/VLR.(A copy of the secret key is stored in the SIM) 40 . GSM Overview by Sanjeev Ghimire HLR-Contains all subscriber information for the purposes of call control and location determination.. VLR.CONTINUED. AUC.

Suspected numbers Black list-Totally barred. 41 . White list.-Valid mobile equipment in the network Grey list.GSM Overview by Sanjeev Ghimire CONTINUED…  EIR-It contains three list of IMEI number..

GSM Overview by Sanjeev Ghimire GSM ARCHITECTURE 42 .

GSM Overview by Sanjeev Ghimire ANY QUESTIONS?  Thank you! 43 .

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