A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source available across the visible, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths

, with very high brightness.
There are major 3 types of displays based on LED 1. Light-emitting diode (LED) based displays 2. LED-backlit LCD television displays 3. Active-matrix OLED

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Drawbacks of CRT Display Large size and weight, especially for bigger screens (a 20-inch (51 cm) unit weighs about 50 lbs (23 kg) High power consumption Generates a considerable amount of heat when running Produces noticeable flicker at low refresh rates Color displays cannot be made in sizes smaller than 7 inches

The first true all LED flat panel television TV screen was developed, demonstrated and documented by J. P. Mitchell in 1977. The modular, scalable display was initially designed with hundreds of MV50 LEDs and a newly available TTL memory addressing circuit from National Semiconductor  The ¼ in thin flat panel prototype and the scientific paper were displayed at the 29th ISEF expo sponsored by the Society for Science and the Public in Washington D.C. May 1978.

CRT Display

Flat Panel LED Display

•An LED-backlight LCD television is an LCD television, flat panel display that uses LED backlighting instead of the Cold cathode (CCFL) used in traditional LCD televisions. It is not a true LED display but is called "LED TV" by some manufacturers. •The use of LED backlighting has a dramatic impact, resulting in a thinner panel, less power consumption and better heat dissipation, and a brighter display with better contrast levels.

The LEDs can come in three forms : 1) Dynamic RGB LEDs 2) White Edge-LEDs 3) A full-array of LEDS

RGB dynamic LEDs positioned behind the panel.

This method of backlighting allows dimming to occur in locally specific areas of darkness on the screen. This can show truer blacks, whites at much higher dynamic contrast ratios.

White Edge-LEDs positioned around the rim of the screen using a special diffusion panel to spread the light evenly behind the screen (the most common).

This method of backlighting allows for LED-backlit TVs to become extremely thin. The light is diffused across the screen by a special panel which produces a uniform brightness distribution across the screen. A full-array of LEDS which are arranged behind the screen but are incapable of dimming or brightening individually. Many brands use LED backlighting technology and may offer a range of benefits over CCFL LCD TVs such as reduced energy consumption, better contrast and brightness, greater colour range, more rapid response to changes in scene and a capacity to provide the means to render an image more accurately.

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Produce images with greater dynamic contrast. With Edge-LED lighting they can be extremely slim. Models on the market can be approximately one inch thick. Offer a wider color range when RGB-LED backlighting is used. Less environmental pollution on disposal. Higher price. Generally 20-30% lower power consumption. Improved reliability.

LED backlights are often dimmed by applying pulse-width modulation to the supply current, switching the backlight off and on again like a fast strobe light. If the frequency of the pulse-width modulation is too low and or the user is very sensitive to flicker, this may cause discomfort and eye-strain, similar to the flicker of CRT displays. This can be tested by a user simply by waving a hand or object in front of the screen. If the object appears to have sharply-defined edges as it moves, the backlight is strobing on and off at a fairly low frequency. BUT… If the object appears blurry, the display either has a continuously-illuminated backlight or it is operating at a frequency that is too high for the brain to perceive. The flicker can be reduced or eliminated by setting the display to full brightness, though this has a negative impact on image quality and battery life due to increased power consumption.

Active-matrix OLED (active-matrix organic light-emitting diode or AMOLED) is a display technology for use in mobile devices and televisions. OLED describes a specific type of thin film display technology in which organic compounds form the electroluminescent material, and active matrix refers to the technology behind the addressing of pixels. OLED: An organic light emitting diode (OLED) is a lightemitting diode (LED) in which the emissive electroluminescent layer is a film of organic compounds which emit light in response to an electric current. AMOLED technology is used in mobile phones, media players and digital cameras and continues to make progress toward low-power, low-cost and large-size (for example 40 inch) applications.

An active matrix OLED display consists of a matrix of OLED pixels that generate light upon electrical activation that have been deposited or integrated onto a thin film transistor (TFT) array, which functions as a series of switches to control the current flowing to each individual pixel. Typically, this continuous current flow is controlled by at least two TFTs at each pixel, one to start and stop the charging of a storage capacitor and the second to provide a voltage source at the level needed to create a constant current to the pixel and eliminating need for the very high currents required for passive matrix OLED operation

TFT backplane technology is crucial in the fabrication of AMOLED displays. Two primary TFT backplane technologies, namely polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) and amorphous silicon (a-Si), are used today in AMOLEDs. These technologies offer the potential for fabricating the active matrix backplanes at low temperatures (below 150°C) directly onto flexible plastic substrates for producing flexible AMOLED displays

Magnified image of the AMOLED screen on the Google Nexus One

Lower cost in the future  Light weight & flexible plastic substrates  Wider viewing angles & improved brightness  Better power efficiency  Faster response times:200 Hz, theoretically have less than 0.01 ms response time enabling 100,000 Hz refresh rates.  Active-matrix OLED displays provide higher refresh rates than their passive-matrix OLED counterparts, and they consume significantly less power

Current costs  Shorter Lifespan  Efficiency of blue OLED(20% red,19% of green, blue only 4-5%)  Water damage  Outdoor performance  Screen burn-in  UV sensitivity

Thinner & better displays in TV ,monitors

In Smartphone & mobile devices’ display

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