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# Scalars and Vectors

**• The motion of objects can be described by words.
**

– going fast, stopped, slowing down, speeding up, and turning provide a sufficient vocabulary for describing the motion of objects. – In physics, we use these words and many more. We will be expanding upon this vocabulary list with words such as distance, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration.

Vector

• A vector has

– magnitude as well as direction, and – vectors follow certain (vector) rules of combination. – A vector quantity is a quantity that has both a magnitude and a direction and thus can be represented with a vector. Some physical quantities that are vector quantities are displacement, velocity, and acceleration.

Scalar

• A Scalar has

– Involved Magnitude only. – Not involved a direction. – Temperature, pressure, energy, mass, and time, for example, do not "point" in the spatial sense. – We call such quantities scalars, and we deal with them by the rules of ordinary algebra.

In short

– Scalars are quantities that are fully described by a magnitude (or numerical value) alone. – Vectors are quantities that are fully described by both a magnitude and a direction.

Vector

• A vector is a quantity that has both magnitude and direction. The magnitude is a scalar quantity, a scalar being defined as a quantity which may be completely specified by a number and perhaps a unit. Common textbook representations of vectors include boldfaced letters and boldface with an arrow above them. For example a displacement vector of 30 meters east could be represented in a variety of ways: The magnitude of the vector might be represented by absolute value signs around the vector symbol, or just the letter without the boldface. A vector might also be expressed in terms of unit vectors.

**Check your understanding??
**

Quantity 5m 30 m/sec, East 5 mi., North 20 degrees Celsius 256 bytes Category

Example

• Distance and displacement are two quantities that may seem to mean the same thing yet have distinctly different definitions and meanings. • Distance is a scalar quantity that refers to "how much ground an object has covered" during its motion. • Displacement is a vector quantity that refers to "how far out of place an object is"; it is the object's overall change in position.

• distance = 12 m; displacement = 0

**Adding vector geometrically
**

• AC is the vector sum of the vectors AB and BC.

Adding vector geometrically

Components of Vector

Unit Vector

Self study

• Sample Problem

• Sample Problem

Vectors and Laws of Physics

Multiplying Vectors

• Scalar Product

Appendix

Appendix

Try Urself

• A hiker takes a trip involving three segment path A is 20m long at a direction of 30 degree N of E, path B is 30m due East, path C is 5m long at a direction of 45 degree E of S. Find the resultant displacement?

Good Luck!!!