What is Cloud computing
Cloud computing is a general term for anything that involves delivering hosted services over the Internet. These services are broadly divided into three categories: Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS), Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS). A cloud service has three distinct characteristics that differentiate it from traditional hosting. It is sold on demand, typically by the minute or the hour; it is elastic -- a user can have as much or as little of a service as they want at any given time; and the service is fully managed by the provider.

Types of Cloud :

A cloud can be private or public. A public cloud sells services to anyone on the Internet. (Currently, Amazon Web Services is the largest public cloud provider). A private cloud is a proprietary network or a datacenter that supplies hosted services to a limited number of people. When a service provider uses public cloud resources to create their private cloud, the result is called a virtual private cloud.
Private or public, the goal of cloud computing is to provide easy, scalable access to computing resources and IT services. requirements change.

Amazon EC2 reduces the time required to obtain and boot new server instances to minutes. Amazon EC2’s simple web service interface allows you to obtain and configure capacity with minimal friction. both up and down. allowing you to quickly scale capacity. Amazon EC2 changes the economics of computing by allowing you to pay only for capacity that you actually use. as your computing requirements change. It provides you with complete control of your computing resources and lets you run on Amazon’s proven computing environment.Introduction :     Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) is a web service that provides resizable compute capacity in the cloud. .

Amazon. Salesforce. and terminate server instances as needed. Yahoo & Zoho  Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (also known as "EC2") is a commercial web service that allows customers to rent computers on which to run their own computer applications. paying by the hour for active servers. Microsoft. A customer can create. A customer can set up server instances in zones insulated from each other for most failure causes so that one may be a backup for the other and minimize down time   . hence the term "elastic". launch.Overview of cloud computing including Google.

What is Amazon EC2 Amazon EC2. provides a resizable compute capacity over the cloud using web services  Designed to make web scale computing easier for various needs  . S3 along with other components for a Cloud infrastructure  EC2.

Amazon EC2 service highlights          Elastic Completely controlled Flexible Designed for use with Amazon Web services Reliable Secure Inexpensive On Demand instances Reserved instances .

Start/terminate and monitor your instances using webservice api’s Determine whether you want to run in multiple locations. load them into your custom application environment. or attach a persistent block storage for your instances Pay only for resources you consume.Amazon EC2 functionality   Use webservices interface to launch instances with variety of operating systems. like instance hours and data transfer . manage your network access permissions and run your image using as many few systems as you desire To use Amazon       Create Amazon Machine Image Upload AMI into Amazon S3 Use Amazon EC2 to configure network security and access Choose instance types and operating system. utilize static IP endpoints.

Amazon EC2 Features Amazon Elastic Block store  Multiple Locations  Elastic IP Addresses  Amazon Cloud Watch  Auto scaling  Elastic Load Balancing  .

EC2     Amazon Elastic Block Store (EBS) offers persistent storage for Amazon EC2 instances. and can protect your data for long term durability.Features . and automatically replicated across multiple Availability Zones. Amazon EBS volumes provide off-instance storage that persists independently from the life of an instance. Amazon EBS provides the ability to create point-in-time consistent snapshots of your volumes that are then stored in Amazon S3.These snapshots can be used as the starting point for new Amazon EBS volumes. Amazon EBS volumes offer greatly improved durability over local Amazon EC2 instance stores. Amazon EBS volumes are highly available. . highly reliable volumes that can be attached to a running Amazon EC2 instance and are exposed as standard block devices. as Amazon EBS volumes are automatically replicated on the backend (in a single Availability Zone).

By launching instances in separate Availability Zones. Europe and USA. Availability Zones are distinct locations that are engineered to be insulated from failures in other Availability Zones and provide inexpensive. Regions consist of one or more Availability Zones. are geographically dispersed. you can protect your applications from failure of a single location. low latency network connectivity to other Availability Zones in the same Region. and will be in separate geographic areas or countries. .Amazon EC2 locations are composed of Regions and Availability Zones.Multiple Locations    Amazon EC2 provides the ability to place instances in multiple locations.

however.   . or waiting for DNS to propagate to all of your customers.Elastic IP Addresses  Elastic IP addresses are static IP addresses designed for dynamic cloud computing. Unlike traditional static IP addresses. Elastic IP addresses allow you to mask instance or Availability Zone failures by programmatically remapping your public IP addresses to any instance in your account. Rather than waiting on a data technician to reconfigure or replace your host. and you control that address until you choose to explicitly release it. Amazon EC2 enables you to engineer around problems with your instance or software by quickly remapping your Elastic IP address to a replacement instance. An Elastic IP address is associated with your account not a particular instance.

Like other Amazon Web Services. Amazon CloudFront works seamlessly with Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) which durably stores the original. It integrates with other Amazon Web Services to give developers and businesses an easy way to distribute content to end users with low latency. high data transfer speeds.Amazon CloudFront  Amazon CloudFront is a web service for content delivery. Amazon CloudFront delivers your content using a global network of edge locations.   . and no commitments. so content is delivered with the best possible performance. there are no contracts or monthly commitments for using Amazon CloudFront – you pay only for as much or as little content as you actually deliver through the service. definitive versions of your files. Requests for your objects are automatically routed to the nearest edge location. that you can use to reference your objects through the network of edge locations. abc123.g. they are automatically routed to the nearest edge location for high performance delivery of your content. your distribution’s domain name in your web pages or application. Create a distribution to register that bucket with Amazon CloudFront through a simple API call. . A distribution has a unique CloudFront.Amazon CloudFront Functionality In Amazon CloudFront. To use Amazon CloudFront. your objects are organized into distributions.  Pay only for the data transfer and requests that you actually use. When end users request  Use an object using this domain name. you:  Store the original versions of your files in an Amazon S3 bucket. A distribution specifies the location of the original version of your domain name (e.

Auto Scaling is particularly well suited for applications that experience hourly. daily.Auto Scaling  Auto Scaling allows you to automatically scale your Amazon EC2 capacity up or down according to conditions you define. or weekly variability in usage. and scales down automatically during demand lulls to minimize costs. you can ensure that the number of Amazon EC2 instances you’re using scales up seamlessly during demand spikes to maintain performance.   . With Auto Scaling.

The messages are stored by Amazon across multiple servers and data centers to provide the redundancy and reliability you need from a messaging system. You can send and retrieve messages from anywhere using simple REST-based HTTP requests.Once an application reads a message from the queue.Each message can contain up to 8KB of text data.Amazon Simple Queue Service  Amazon Simple Queue Service (SQS) provides access to the reliable messaging infrastructure used by Amazon. The only Unicode characters that are legal in a message are #x9 | #xA | #xD | [#x20 to #xD7FF] | [#xE000 to #xFFFD] | [#x10000 to #x10FFFF].   . the message will not be visible to any other readers until the timeout period expires.Each queue can have a configurable visibility timeout. which is used to control access to the queue by multiple readers. You can create an unlimited number of queues and send an unlimited number of messages.

The AWS Management Console gives you a quick.AWS Management console A Web-based Interface to Manage Your Services. web-based user interface. global picture of your cloud computing environment so that you can see what resources you’re operating and conveniently manage those resources.Access and manage Amazon’s growing suite of infrastructure web services through our new point-andclick.  .

Amazon Elastic MapReduce.AWS Dashboard  The AWS Management Console provides a graphical user interface for Amazon EC2. with additional Amazon infrastructure services . and Amazon CloudFront.

One EC2 Compute Unit equals 1. large or extra large. functions as a virtual private server in one of three sizes. small. . Amazon.Cloud  EC2 uses Xen virtualization.Available instances .com sizes instances based on "EC2 Compute Units" — the equivalent CPU capacity of physical hardware. Each virtual machine. called an "instance".0-1.2 GHz 2007 Opteron or 2007 Xeon processor.

you will need to upload it to Amazon S3. .g. Your AMIs are your unit of deployment. webservers. and databases).. You might have just one AMI or you might compose your system out of several building block AMIs (e. appservers.AMI -Amazon Machine Images  An Amazon Machine Image (AMI) is simply a packaged-up environment that includes all the necessary bits to set up and boot your instance.Once you create a custom AMI.

formatting it with a file system or installing applications on it directly. it will appear as a mounted device similar to any hard drive or other block device. At that point. it can be attached to any Amazon EC2 instance in the same Availability Zone.EBS – Elastic Block Store  Amazon EBS volumes are created in a particular Availability Zone and can be from 1 GB to 1 TB in size. Once attached. Once a volume is created. . the instance can interact with the volume just as it would with a local drive.

80 and 443 respectively).Instances within the same security group will be able to communicate with each other. Amazon Security Groups are EC2 region-specific. HTTP. the default group we provide allows ingress on the SSH. and HTTPS ports (22.  . For sub-accounts.AWS -Security Group  The Security Group defines which ports are opened in Amazon's firewall to allow incoming connections to your instance.You cannot use a Security Group that you created in EC2-US for an instance in EC2EU.

from anywhere on the web.Amazon S3 provides a simple web services interface that can be used to store and retrieve any amount of data. It is designed to make web-scale computing easier for developers.Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3)  Amazon S3 is storage for the Internet. . at any time. while ensuring that the data will always be available when you need it. Store any amount of data inexpensively and securely.

if needed. Simplicity:S3 is built on simple concepts and provides great flexibility for developing your applications. You can build more complex storage schemes. Amazon provides a service-level agreement (SLA) to maintain 99.    Scalability:The design provides a high level of scalability and allows an easy ramp-up in service when a spike in demand hits your Web-scale applications.Amazon S3 Features Reliability:It is designed to tolerate failures and repair the system very quickly with minimal or no downtime. Inexpensive:S3 rates are very competitive with other enterprise and personal data-storage solutions on the market.99 percent availability.  . by layering additional functions on top of S3 components.

You can affect the geographical location of your buckets by specifying a location constraint when you create them. Buckets cannot be nested within each other. if you have a bucket named "nirvikar. Each object stored in Amazon S3 is contained within a bucket.s3. on the file system.amazonaws. This will automatically ensure that any objects that you store within that bucket will be stored in that geographical location.The three basic concepts underpinning the S3 framework 1). For example.Think of a bucket as analogous to a folder." it can be addressed using the URL http://nirvikar. so you can't create a bucket within a bucket.    . or a directory. One of the key distinctions between a file folder and a bucket is that each bucket and its contents are addressable using a Buckets are the fundamental building blocks.

Though names can have numbers and is invalid.   . Your bucket name must be unique across the entire S3.   A valid name can contain only lowercase letters. they cannot be in the IP address format. For example. numbers. The bucket namespace is shared among all buckets from all of the accounts in S3. periods.168. You cannot name a bucket 192.254. myfavorite. and dashes. underscores.1.bucket. The name cannot end with a dash.Bucket names need to conform to the following S3 requirements: The name must start with a number or a letter and must be between 3 and 255 characters.

the date the object was last modified. Think of an object as the file you want to store. a video file. there are no restrictions on the number of objects.2). Objects  Objects contain the data stored within the buckets in S3. etc. The metadata for an object is specified by the developer as key-value pairs when the object is sent to S3 for storage. and any other metadata specific to you or your application. such as a PDF file. and each object can contain up to 5 GB of data. Each object stored is composed of two entities: data and metadata. You can store an unlimited number of objects in your buckets.Some examples of metadata are the content type of the object being stored.    .Unlike the limitation on the number of buckets. The stored data also has associated metadata for describing the object. Word document. The data is the actual thing being stored.

The file name within a folder on your hard drive must be unique. This is similar in concept to the name of a file in a folder on your file system. that object can be addressed using the URL http://nirvikar.Keys  Each object stored within an S3 bucket is identified using a unique key.3). If you store an object with the key my_favorite_video.   Every object within S3 is addressable using a URL that combines the S3 service URL.s3.amazonaws. The name of the bucket and the key are together used to provide the unique identification for each object stored in S3. Each object inside a bucket has exactly one .mov inside the bucket named nirvikar. and unique key. bucket name.

Authorization: Ensures that the user trying to access the resource has the permissions or rights to the resource.Security  Authentication: Ensures that the request is being made by the user that owns the bucket or object.   Integrity: Each S3 request must be digitally signed by the requesting user with an Amazon Web Services secret key. Encryption: You can access S3 through the HTTPS protocol to ensure that the data is transmitted through an encrypted connection. Nonrepudiation: Each S3 request is time-stamped and serves as proof of the transaction. Each S3 request must include the Amazon Web Services access key that uniquely identifies the user. On receipt of the request.   . Each S3 object has an accesscontrol list (ACL) associated with it that explicitly identifies the grants and permissions for that resource. S3 will check the signature to ensure that the request has not been tampered with in transit.

Standard  One Ec2 unit provides  Equivalent CPU capacity of 1. 4 EC2 units(2 virtual cores with 2 EC2 compute units each) 850 GB instance storage. 1 EC2 compute unit.7 GB RAM. 64 bit platform  Small Instance   Large Instance    Extra Large Instance  . 160 GB instance storage.Amazon Instance Types .5 GB of RAM.0-1. (4 virual cores with 2 EC2 units each). 1690 GB of instance storage. 64 bit platform 15GB. 8 EC2 compute units. 32 bit platform 7.2 GHz 2007 opteron or 2007 Xeon processor 1.

5 EC2 units.7GB of Mem.5 EC2 units). 20 EC2 instances. 1690 GB of instance storage. 7GB of Mem. 64 bit platform  . 5 EC2 units. 2 Virtual cores with 2.High CPU Instances High-CPU Medium instance 1.Amazon . 350 GB of storage. 32 bit platform  High CPU extra large instance. (8 virtual cores with 2.

Amazon operating systems and software  Operating systems     Red Hat Enterprise Linux . MySQL Enterprise. Gentoo Linux. Open MPI IBM Webspehere. Condor. Ubuntu Linux . Rub On Rails Wowza Media Server Pro Windows Media Server  Video Encoding and Streaming   . Debian Windows Server 2003 Oracle Enterprise Linux OpenSolaris Databases   Software  IBM DB2 . Fedora . IBM Informix Dynamic Server. Jboss Enterprise Edition. Oracle WebLogic Server  Application Servers   Application Development  IBM Smash. Jboss. openSUSE Linux . Microsoft SQL Server Standard 2005.Net . Oracle 11g Apache HTTP. IBM Lotus Web Content Management IBM WebSphere Portal Server  Web Hosting   Batch Processing  Hadoop. IIS/Asp.

Amazon EC2 Pricing On-Demand instance Linux/Unix Usage Small Large Extra Large High CPU Medium High CPU Large Reserved Instances Small Large Extra Large Windows Usage 0.80 0.Extra $2600 Large $4000 0.24 per hour .12 per hour 0.00 per hour 0.06 per hour High CPU $650 Medium High CPU.30 per hour 1.125 per hour 0.4 0.2 per hour 0.03 per hour 0.24 per hour 0.8 per hour 1 yr term $325 $1300 $2600 3 yr term $500 $2000 $4000 $1000 Usage 0.2 per hour 0.5 per hour 1.10 per hour 0.

10 per 1 million I/O requests Amazon EBS snapshots to Amazon S3  $0.01 per non-attached Elastic IP address per complete hour  $0.15 per GB-month of data stored  $0.10 per GB-month of provisioned storage  $0.008 per GB of data processed by an Elastic Load Balancer Amazon Cloud Watch  $0.000 GET requests (when loading a snapshot) Elastic IP addresses  $0.17 per GB  Next 40 TB per Month $0.000 PUT requests (when saving a snapshot)  $0.Amazon Pricing contd..01 per 1.10 per Elastic IP address remap – additional remap / month over 100 Elastic load balancing  $0.01 per 10.   Internet data transfer charges  All Data Transfer In $0.10 per GB  Data Transfer out  First 10 TB per Month $0.10 per GB Amazon EBS volumes  $0.015 per instance-hour (or partial hour)     .13 per GB  150 TB per Month $0.025 per Elastic Load Balancer-hour (or partial hour)  $0.00 per Elastic IP address remap – first 100 remaps / month  $0.

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