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Offshore Safety

BY Khaled Ismail

Introduction to HSE importance
 Protect your production basic elements , Equipment , Material and Environment Workers

 HSE regulations is sound barrier between the production resources and the workplace hazards .  Accidents and injuries are more expensive than any realize.  The production objectives & accident prevention can not be achieved without sound HSE management.


Engineering Controls

Administrative Controls


The Accident Rate and HSE Controls .
Engineering Safety management
Accident rate

Human factors

Time I need to design better engineering More procedures! Behavioural modification will fix it…(theirs not mine)

 HSE : Health , safety and environment
 Hazards : Source or situation or act with a potential for harm in terms of injury or ill health, damage to property, damage to work place environment, or a combination of these  Hazard identification : Process of recognizing that a hazard exists and defining its characteristics.

 Risk : It is the chance low or high which somebody or something can harmed by the hazard Combination of the likelihood and consequences
 Risk assessment : Overall process of estimating the magnitude of risk and deciding whether or not the risk is tolerable.  Tolerable risk : Risk that has been reduced to a level that can be endured by the organization having regard to its legal obligations and its HSE policy

 Dispatcher
 The person responsible for the safe loading and unloading of personnel at the Heli-Pad and HeliDeck and for ensuring that they are wearing a life jacket and are securely strapped into their seats before take-off.

 Heli-Pad
 The Onshore Helicopter base from where Helicopters operate.

 Heli-Deck
 The Offshore Helicopter landing area on platforms and barges.

 Tail-Rotor
 The vertical propeller at the rear of a Helicopter which is at a height where it can inflict fatal injuries to anyone walking into it.

 Life Jacket
 The life saving equipment which you place your head through and tie tightly round your waist with tie straps attached. Used only in an emergency or when transferring from ship to platform or vice versa.

Life Vest
 The 3 piece-foam filled life saving equipment, which fits over the shoulders and fastens at the chest with 2 metal hooks. Used only for safety when working in exposed areas.

 Muster Station
 Area of platform at the life rafts where you gather together to await instruction in emergencies.

 Tailing Rope
 light rope attached to a load being moved by crane operator which allows the swing and orientation to be controlled.

 Live Platform
 An operational platform where there is gas and hydrocarbons present.

 Gamma Ray Source
 An ionizing source, which produces Gamma Rays, used in radiography.

 Sea-Anchor
 conical shaped piece of canvas equipment supplied in the life rafts attached to a line when launched provides a drag, which keeps the raft from drifting away.

 OIM Operation Installation Manager

 Physical hazards  Chemical hazards  Mechanical hazards  Fire hazards  Passive hazards  Biological hazards

Injuries Occupational illness ( ill health )

Property Loss or Damage
Damage to environment Reputation



Hazard Identification techniques

What IF ?


Risk Assessment Process

Identify the Hazard

Analyze The Risk

Evaluate the Risk

Control The Risk

Record and Review






How Is Risk Estimated ?
LIKELIHOOD measure of the frequency at which an event might occur


measure of the adverse effects of an event





For an event

Offshore related standards
 SOLAS : Safety Of Life At Sea  Offshore installations ( Safety case ) regulations 2005 ( SCR )  Prevention of Fire and Explosion and Emergency Response regulation 1995 ( PFEER )  Offshore installations and wells ( Design and Construction ) regulation 1996 ( DCR )  Offshore Installations and pipeline works ( Management and Administration ) Regulations 1995 ( MAR )  The lifting operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1999 ( LOLER )  Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 ( HSWA )  Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 ( MHSWR)  The Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 ( PUWER )

Offshore Accidents

 Safety zones around oil and gas installations , What is a safety zone?
 A safety zone is an area of 500 m radius established automatically around all offshore oil and gas installations which project above the sea at any state of the tide. Some sub sea installations also have safety zones . Vessels of all nations are required to respect them. It is an offence to enter a safety zone except under the special circumstances . The purpose of a safety zone is to protect :  the safety of people working on or in the immediate vicinity of the installation  the installation itself against damage. They also provide the additional benefit of protecting fishermen and other mariners by reducing the risk of collision with the installation


Offshore Platform 500 M Zone Entry Permit
 Introduction
– The 500 meter Zone permit has been established to enhance verbal communications between the offshore platform OIM and all vessels, rigs and barges associated with the company Offshore Operations and Projects. This will allow the Platform OIM to be aware of the vessels entering his area of responsibility and their intent.

It also allows the OIM to describe any potential safety or operational concerns and local vessel traffic to the Vessel Masters

Offshore Platform 500 M Zone Entry Permit Objectives  The 500 meter Zone permit is intended to ensure:
– Communication links are clearly defined – Current work or operational conditions of the platform and Vessel are discussed, i.e. isolations, anchor pattern requirements, subsea pipeline location, etc. – Permission is granted before entering the 500 meter zone.

Offshore Platform 500 M Zone Entry Permit
Application of the 500 Meter Permit  Before vessel enters the 500 meter Zone
– the Vessel Master completes the zone entry permit by:  Describing the vessel name, vessel type , date, platform, and reasons why to enter.  Entering the vessel preparation information  Contacting the platform and requesting permission to enter.  As applicable, request for a copy of the Isolation Confirmation Certificate – ICC, in English.  Testing the communication link in the event of emergencies.  Fax the Form to the Platform OIM for his approval to enter.

Offshore Platform 500 M Zone Entry Permit
The Platform OIM will complete the lower section by:
 
   

Providing the Vessel Master with a copy of the ICC Describing current operational conditions of the platform Informing of other local vessels operating in the area. Verifying communications with the Vessel. Granting permission to enter or decline based on safety or operational upsets. Faxing the signed form back to the vessel

After entering the 500 meter zone, the OIM and Vessel Master contact each other at a minimum twice per shift.

Safety Systems Shall be considered
      Separation and segregation Heating , ventilation and air conditioning Fire and gas detection and alarm systems Isolation , emergency shutdown and blow down Emergency power , communication and lighting . Escape ,evacuation and rescue arrangements .

– MUSTERING including public address system and flashing lights , radios shall be provided to personnel entering areas not covered by public address Secondary muster point should be identified in the event of primary muster point is impaired by an event . Totally Enclosed Motor Propelled Survival crafts ( TEMPSC )shall be provided with sufficient numbers according to loss prevention design basis .

Lifeboats shall be provided and signage to its locations shall be considered

– Life jackets shall be located adjacent to life rafts . – Safety patrol vessels equipped with firefighting equipment shall be available . – Specific emergency plan shall be developed and emergency drills shall be implemented regularly – Emergency escape route drawings shall be posted at strategic locations – T-Card system shall be available at muster point – Permit to work system shall be implemented for any construction and /or maintenance activities .

Traveling To / From Offshore
• Traveling by Helicopter
 All persons required to travel to platforms, barges or to other facilities by Helicopter shall strictly adhere to the following instructions without question or variance.
 Boarding The Helicopter (On shore or Offshore)

– Do not approach the helicopter until instructed to do so by the dispatcher. – Remove all headwear, caps, safety hats etc. before approaching the helicopter and extinguish cigarettes. – Approach the helicopter from a forward direction. – Never approach a helicopter from the rear. – Never duck under the tail of a helicopter. – The dispatcher will be in position at the cargo door

 Never go beyond his position. beware of the tail rotor and If you have to go, go to the other side of the helicopter go round the nose of the helicopter never round the tail.  on entering the helicopter immediately put on your life jacket and when properly seated secure your seat belt.  you are now in the complete charge of the captain of the helicopter and you must obey any instructions he may give during flight.

Main Rotor

Tail Rotor

Hazards from Helicopter

Danger Zone

Hazards from Helicopter

 Leaving The Helicopter
• On landing you must not unfasten your seat belt or life jacket until the indicator lights have been switched off or you have been instructed to do so by the captain of the Helicopter. On leaving the Helicopter you must never:  Go round the tail of the helicopter.  Duck under the tail of the helicopter  Put on caps, safety hats etc until you have left the heli-deck.  The dispatcher will be in position at the cargo door, do not go beyond his position and be ware of the tail rotor.  If you have to go to the other side of the helicopter go round the nose of the helicopter never round the tail.  Leave the heli-deck immediately, do not stand on the heli-deck talking to others.

Traveling By Supply Boat
•All persons traveling to platforms, barges or other offshore facilities shall strictly adhere to the following instructions and other instructions pertaining to the vessel or as may be advised by the captain

 Boarding the vessel (From the Dockside)

– Boarding the vessel from the dockside is a relative easy and safe operation since the vessel is moored against the jetty in calm waters – Boarding may be simply stepping onto the deck of the vessel or by walking up a gangway. However, if a gangway is not provided the vessel must be moored "Close snubbed" alongside the dock with no space between ship and jetty where persons may fall in.

Traveling By Supply Boat
– There must be a life jacket aboard the vessel for every person sailing on the vessel. All persons must be shown the location of the life jackets. – All persons, on boarding the vessel, should be advised as to safety regulations and instructions for passengers. i. Emergency procedures ii. Location of life rafts

• Ring Buoy

•Quick Access? •Line attached? •Light attached?

• Life raft mount

• Service Date
• Hydrostatic release Date

Life raft capacity *

General Precautions
• The following circumstances:precautions apply in all

• Weather and sea conditions must be such that the boat Captain is able to keep the boat close to the platform and is happy for the transfer to take place •During the transfer, hands should be kept free. Baggage etc should be handed across after the transfer is complete •A life jacket must always be worn during the transfer and while on the boat landing platform

•Swing ropes must be in good condition. At least 3 swing ropes should be provided
•Particular care should be taken to keep feet and legs clear of the platform landing face so as to avoid being trapped by the boat bumping against the platform

•The transfer should be done under close supervision from the area authority supervisor and/or a representative from the boat crew.
•Boat Captain -The Boat Captain will prohibit transfer if he is not satisfied it can be undertaken safely

•Any broken or missing safety equipment such as gratings or handrails must be reported immediately to the area authority of the platform or the boat captain.

 Contractors/subcontractors personnel require to disembark to or embark from a barge. The method of disembarkation and embarkation will depend entirely upon the weather condition and sea state, however, this must never be attempted without wearing a life jacket and someone standing by to render assistance or raise the alarm should anyone fall overboard.  THIS IS A VERY DANGEROUS OPERATION AND SHOULD ANYONE FALL BETWEEN THE VESSEL AND THE BARGE HE COULD BE SERIOUSLY INJURED OR CRUSHED TO DEATH BETWEEN THE TWO VESSELS.

Disembarking and embarking (at the platform)
 Weather conditions and the sea state will dictate the method of disembarkation from the vessel to the platform and embarkation onto the vessel from the platform.  A. In calm seas the vessel shall come along side the boat landing of the platform and hold station tight against the fenders
 B. All personnel shall wear a life jacket and disembark onto the boat landing. Platform HSE engineer or persons delegated shall stand by on the boat landing to give assistance as required.  C. Embarking from the platform in calm seas will be done in reverse of a, and b, of this section.  D. When weather does not permit the vessel to come alongside the boat landing, embarkation and disembarkation shall be by personnel basket. All persons shall wear a life jacket during this operation.  WARNING: Never disembark or embark over the stern of the vessel since, should you fall overboard you will be sucked into the propellers and killed.

Cranes and Personnel Baskets

   

Numbers of recorded personnel transfer basket incidents are low, but basket transfers to or from offshore installations are considered a high-risk operation. Personnel baskets should only be used in exceptional circumstances, ie emergencies or when transfer is essential and it is not practicable to gain access by less hazardous means. All personnel baskets must possess a current thorough examination report undertaken by a competent person in accordance with LOLER regulation 9. The safe working load (SWL) should be clearly marked on all personnel baskets, together with instructions for their use. Procedures should include the methods of maintenance and storage together with instructions related to inspection before use. 'Freefall' or non-powered lowering should not be adopted when personnel are carried in baskets.

Cranes and Personnel Baskets
 The following minimum lifting practices are recommended for all cranes assisted personnel transfer net devices:  Any offshore facility making personnel transfers with a personnel carrier should have a written procedure for this task.  A pre-use inspection should be conducted prior to any personnel carrier transfer.  Cranes assigned to personnel lifting duties should be suitable for this purpose per relevant API spec.  Crane operators assigned to personnel lifting duties should be certified and competent to perform this task per 46 CFR 109.527.  A tag line should be affixed to all personnel carriers.  Crane hooks used for personnel transfers must have a positive locking Latch

Cranes and Personnel Baskets
 Only approved personnel carriers should be used for lifting personnel per API RP spec.  Personnel carriers should not be used as a workbasket or cargo net.  Before any attempt is made to lift personnel with a carrier, clear instructions should be given to all persons involved.  No person suffering from acute sea sickness or vertigo shall be transported by personnel carrier.  Any individual has the right to refuse transfer by a personnel basket.

Cranes and Personnel Baskets
 All personnel riding on a personnel carrier should stand on the outer rim, evenly spaced, and adjacent to a sidewall opening in the netting, facing inward. Passenger forearms should be interlocked on inside of sidewall netting.  If crane operator’s view of the primary signalman is obstructed, the personnel carrier should not be moved until alternative communication or signal devices are placed in service.  A designated primary landing zone should be marked in a safe area as determined by a Job Hazard Analysis (JHA).

 When transferring personnel, the personnel carrier should be lifted only high enough to clear obstructions. It should then be gently lowered to the deck.
 The crane operator may refuse to lift any person who does not comply with the operator’s instructions.

Cranes and Personnel Baskets
  Personnel will be transferred by basket in greater safety and with less apprehension if they have received training in the techniques involved Transfer operations should be conducted during daylight hours. However, the OIM may agree night-time transfers provided that the circumstances requiring transfer by basket are exceptional and the operation is conducted under their personal direction. People being transferred should wear life jackets, suitable clothing and immersion suits. All life jackets should be equipped with suitable means of illumination during night transfers. Appropriate rescue and recovery arrangements must be in place (eg standby vessel equipped with a fast rescue craft ready to launch).

Responsibilities of personnel basket transfer

– – – – – – – – –

The Offshore Installation Manager ( OIM )should:
be satisfied with the fitness, training and briefing of the people to be transferred; be content with the suitability of the vessel; know the limitations of visibility and sea state; be aware of the limitations on transfer by night; be aware of the suitability of the crane for personnel transfer; check the wind speed limitations on crane operations; establish and maintain communication with the Master of the Vessel; be satisfied with the competence and experience of the crane operator; ensure appropriate emergency precautions are in place, eg notify the standby vessel before the transfer;

be satisfied with the inspection and testing of the personnel basket

Responsibilities of personnel basket transfer  The Master of the Vessel should confirm to the OIM that:
– the transfer has been accepted and the procedures understood; – the vessel has a satisfactory station keeping capability; – the deck crew have been fully briefed; – the people to be transferred have been adequately briefed and are fit to be transferred.

Responsibilities of personnel basket transfer  The crane operator should establish that:
– the crane is fully operational; – the wind speed is satisfactory for safe operation; – the requirements and procedures have been understood; – the banks man has an unobstructed view and the transfer areas are clear; – adequate communications have been established with the vessel Master and banks man.

Responsibilities of personnel basket transfer
 The Banks man and Deck Supervisor should ensure that:
– – – – – – the transfer procedure is understood; they can be clearly identified as banks man and deck supervisor; the personnel basket is correctly used; the individuals are fit to transfer and have understood the procedures; proper communications have been established; they each have a full view of the transfer area.

 On arrival at the platform, site personnel shall report immediately to platform manager and / or HSE manager who will carry out the following : a. Conduct each person to his accommodation. b. Instruct the arriving site personnel on the emergency procedures and direct them to their life raft/muster station. c. Familiarize everyone with the escape routes and the location of the first aid room.  All site personnel shall sign the log book which will show their presence on the platform and that they have received HSE induction. On leaving the platform, all site personnel shall sign off in the logbook.  This is of the utmost importance since, in the event of an emergency, rescue services must know how many persons were on the platform, how many have been accounted for and how many are still on the platform.  LIVES MAY BE LOST SEARCHING FOR SOMEONE WHO HAS GONE ONSHORE BUT WHO DID NOT SIGN OFF IN THE LOGBOOK.

Mandatory Instructions On The Platform
 The adherence to the following instructions is mandatory and there shall be no relaxation of these requirements by anyone at any time.  All persons whilst on the platform shall wear as a minimum: Hard hat, safety goggles and safety boots. Other personal safety equipment such as ear protection, safety harness shall be worn as and when required.  All persons working over the side of the platform, under Cellar decks, under the bridge or on the flare boom or other exposed areas shall only do so in pairs, i.e. one man is on look out in case of accidents or incidents . Whilst working in these positions they shall wear a safety harness securely fixed to a non movable part of the structure and shall wear a life vest.
 Where men are working at a height without proper scaffolding they shall wear a safety harness secured to a non-movable part of the structure. These men shall also work in pairs or have someone standing by in case of accidents.

Mandatory Instructions On The Platform
 During crane operations the operator shall be directed at all times by the rigging foreman or a person designated by him. For greater safety radio communication shall be set up between the crane operator and rigger in charge.  All items, loads etc. being moved by crane shall have a "tailing" rope attached to control the swing and orientation of the load. This includes the personnel basket.  Transfer of persons to and from a supply vessel and the platform shall be by personnel basket only. RIDING WITH A LOAD IS FORBIDDEN.  If a load must be lifted over the head of other persons at workstations then the rigger in charge must warn those persons before lifting the load.

Mandatory Instructions On The Platform
 Smoking is not permitted on a live platform except in specific areas such as within the accommodation module.  No matches, cigarette lighters, or smoking requisites are permitted out with the smoking areas. Any person found in possession of any of these within a no smoking area shall be immediately removed from the platform and recommendation for his dismissal made to higher management.  In any event he will not be permitted to return to the platform.  Work is not permitted on a live platform without the relevant hot or cold work permit being in force.  Gamma Ray sources may not remain permanently on the platform. It must be removed as soon as possible after use.

Offshore Cranes
 With guidance from the crane manufacturer or a competent person, duty holders should;  review the design of their cranes to ensure they have identified whether any single line components exist in hoisting and braking systems. Techniques such as 'failure mode effects analysis' should be employed;  where such components are identified, ensure that the maintenance and inspection activities undertaken on these components are sufficient  verify that the 'competent person' who undertakes the 'thorough examination' of the crane thoroughly examines the hoisting and braking systems

Offshore Cranes
 Verify that the 'competent person' who undertakes the 'thorough examination' of the crane thoroughly examines the hoisting and braking systems  ensure the scope of the thorough examination, the scope of the inspection scheme and the maintenance activities relating to all hoisting and braking systems (e.g testing, inspection, component replacement intervals etc)

Offshore Helidecks
 The net needs to be strong enough to support the weight of any person who may inadvertently stand on it;  The offshore standards ( CAP) increased the drop test weight from 75 kg to 100 kg (dropped from a height of 1 m);  the adequacy of examination and test procedures to identify possible corrosion and deterioration of the whole of the net, its attachments and supports due to wear and tear, weathering, ageing etc (BS EN ISO 9554:2005 provides guidance on discard criteria);  ensure a suitable net replacement schedule is in place.

Classification Of Emergencies
         Minor fire Major fire Minor gas leak ( Combustible or Toxic ) Major gas leak ( Combustible or Toxic ) Minor oil leak ( Hydrocarbons ) Major oil leak ( Hydrocarbons ) Chlorine gas leak Man Over Board Marine Vessel Collision

Main Concerns during major accidents  Pool fires  BLEVE ( Shutdown , Isolation , Activation of fire cooling and extinguishing systems and evacuation )  Jet fires  Un-Ignited gas release or H2S Gas cloud

 Emergencies come under the following headings and descriptions.  LOCAL EMERGENCIES ( Level 0 ) A local emergency can be a small fire that does not threaten life or damage to the platform but people must be alerted to stay out of that area till the emergency is over.  GENERAL EMERGENCY ( Level 1 & 2 ) A general emergency is a situation where there is a possibility of danger to lives but not to such a degree that evacuation may be required. However, this may call for the crew to standby at their muster station and await instructions. Everyone must wear a life jacket

 An emergency evacuation is a situation where there is imminent danger to life and damage to the platform. This could be caused by a fire getting out of control, an explosion or a wellhead blow out where everyone must evacuate the platform as quickly as possible.  However, this must be done in an orderly manner to avoid panic and injury to personnel.  Where there is time and the loudspeaker system is operating and manned then the following instructions will be given in Arabic and English. a.Go to your muster station. b.Launch life rafts. c. Take to the rafts.

 There must be a responsible person nominated to be in charge of each life raft who shall activate these instructions. He will be in command of the raft and personnel until rescued.  Where the loudspeaker system is not operational and only the abandon ship signal is given everyone will go to their muster station and the person in charge of the life raft will be responsible for getting his crew off the platform.  When everyone is on board the life raft the rope attaching it to the platform must be cut to allow the raft to drift free.  Once the raft is clear of danger from the platform the sea anchor that must be launched, which will keep the raft on station till help arrives.  There is other SOLAS (Safety of Life at Sea) equipment in the raft and the person in charge must ensure that these are used properly

Man Over Board ( MOB )
A major concern of maritime operations is recovering personnel who have fallen overboard and safely transferring them from the water to the deck of a boat or hatch of a lifeboat. Several recovery systems are demonstrated.

Recovery should not exceed 6 to 8 minutes

Man Over Board
If you observe Man Over Board - Throw out the nearest lifebuoy - Shout “ Man Over Board “ - Dial the emergency number or call by radio control room operator - Describe the situation - Keep eye contact with the person



Emergency Control Team
 Emergency Manager ( Operation Manager )  Emergency Coordinator ( HSE Manager )  Incident Post Commander ( Senior Operation Supervisor )  Assistance Services Manager  Fire Chief ,fire fighting and rescue team  Medical and first aid team  Maintenance team  Security Manager  Control Room Operator

Hazard Detection System
        Smoke detection and alarm systems Heat detection and alarm systems Gas detection and alarm systems H2S detectors Hydrocarbon detectors Chlorine gas detectors Fire / Flame detectors and alarm systems Manual alarm call point ( MACs)

Fire Fighting System and Equipment
 CO2 ,FM200 Extinguishing system  Fire water system ( Deluge system , Monitors , Hydrants )  Foam system  Fire fighting boats  Portable and wheeled fire fighting equipment

Escape and Evacuation Equipment
 Life Boat -Totally Enclosed Motor Propelled Survival Craft ( TEMPSC)  Inflatable Life Rafts  Inflatable Life Jackets  Life buoys

Platform Safe Operation Procedure ( SOP )

The following are safe operation procedure requirements
1.0 Steps for each operating phase Initial startup , normal operations ,temporary operation , emergency shutdown , emergency operations , normal shutdown . 2.0 Operating Limits - Operation deviations and consequences - Steps to correct or avoid the deviations 3.0 Safety and health considerations   Hazards presented by material involved in the process Precautions to prevent exposure

 Part of a safe system of work  The objective of the permit to work system is to ensure that written permission and authorization is given to carry out a defined work which is potentially hazardous and that all possible measures are taken to maintain the safety of personnel , equipment and environment I all areas of operation

Area Authority (AO)  The area authority shall be person delegated by site manager and competent in process isolation and de-isolation within his area of responsibility ( Operation team leaders )  A list of area authorities shall be posted and updated in the control room , except drilling rigs ( By drilling Mgr ) and Barges ( By senior barge engineer )  HSE Manager shall ensure that those persons receive the necessary training .

Area Authority Responsibilities
 Identifying the hazards and specifying precautions  Ensuring that work site inspections are undertaken before , during and after the performance of every task  Issuing permits and related isolation certificates  Ensuring handover take place at shift change  Maintaining a display of all permits and certificates in use in the area

Performing Authority ( PO ) - Supervisor or foreman in charge of the work .The performing authority shall be trained and hold a performing authority card for the type of work being conducted - The performing authority will normally be expected to remain on site but if he has to leave the work location , he must designate another authorized person as a performing authority - All permits must be displayed at work site

Performing Authority Responsibilities
 Compliance with the conditions and precautions specified on the permits  Adequately briefing his team on the conditions and precautions .  Ensuring that no other activities are performed except that included in the work permit  Immediately informing the area authority of any event which might impact on the safe performance of the task  Ensuring adequate hand over take place at shift change  On completion or suspension of the task , ensuring that the work team have been withdrawn and the work site left in a safe and clean condition  Conducting regular inspection of the work areas to ensure compliance of the permit

Isolation Authority ( IO ) He shall be responsible for isolation and deisolation in accordance with company isolation procedures and that the isolation confirmation certificates ( ICC ) is issued . Immediately informing the area authority of any event which might impact the security of isolation

Control Room operator ( CRO )  Inhibition and re-instatement of the detection and protection system in accordance of requests made by AO on the permit  Immediately inform the AO of any event which might impact on the safe performance of the task or on the associated procedure . Maintaining up PTW and Certificates register .

Field Safety Engineer  He has no formal signing role on the PTW .  He will be available to advise , inspect and audit  At the permit planning meeting he can advice on procedures and precautions to be followed for tasks to be carried safely  While work proceeds he can inspect equipment and procedures to ensure that a safe system of work is being implemented .

Types of Work Permits
 Hot work permit  Cold work permit  Confined space entry permit  Radiography work permit

Activities Covered & No permit Required
        Routine production operations Routine drilling operations Production and flow testing operations Wireline operations Routine material handling Routine heli-deck operations ( refueling ) Routine domestic activities ( Catering , etc.) Cold works inside workshops

Equipment required ICC
 The equipment which may require an isolation confirmation certificate are :  Process fluids and pressure  Mechanical drive  Control systems  Source of electricity

A work permit becomes invalid if :  Plant , well or condition of process changes at any time  The permit is cancelled for any reasons by AO  The method of isolation is disturbed  The special instruction written on the permit are not observed  A warning of an emergency is given  Work is stopped for unforeseen circumstances ( Acts of God )  Any change in the specified work requirements occurs  Period of validity expires

Work Permit Distribution
 Original - Performing Authority
 First copy – To be posted in the Control room  Second copy – Area Authority  Third copy – Person responsible for the work

Isolation Methods
 Positive Isolation , such as Spool removal ,spade isolation ( Is required for hot work , long duration isolation more than one week )  Double Block and Bleed ( DBB ) Consists of closure of two block valves in series with an intermediate bleed valves  Single Valve Isolation ( SVI ) Consists of closure of a single block valve , additional closing several valves can improve the security of isolation

LOCKOUT AND TAGOUT PROCEDURES Step 1: Preparation and notification
 Before servicing or installing equipment , you must be able to answer the following  questions :  What is the type of energy source on the equipment ?  What are the potential hazards related to the energy source?  What steps are necessary to control the energy source?  Who needs to be notified that the equipment will be shutdown for service?  Once these questions have been answered notify all affected employees that a lockout procedure is about to being (and that the equipment will be) shutdown for service.

LOCKOUT AND TAGOUT PROCEDURES Step 2: Shutdown the equipment :  Follow work procedure and/or manufacturer's instruction for shutdown. be aware that some equipment has special shutdown procedures (e.g. computer controlled equipment) make sure all energy sources have been located and shutdown (some machines have more than one power source all must be shut down).

Step 3: ISOLATE THE EQUIPMENT  Equipment should be isolated by :  Shutting of the main breaker or control switch .  Closing valves  Disconnecting process lines  Pulling plugs Note : for complex machines or equipment , refer to manufacturer's control diagram detailing the locations of all isolation points , including breaker panels , switches , valves, ..etc.

Step 4: Attach the lock and tag

 Each authorized employee who is performing maintenance is responsible to inform lockout and tag out authority for locking and tagging the equipment.  Each employee whose duties require them to work on equipment must provided with their own lock and key. If more than one employee is involved in maintenance, multiple locking devices must be used to allow each maintenance employee to lock and tag. This prevents one employee from accidentally starting up the equipment while another employee is still working.

Step 5: Release any stored energy
 After locking and tagging equipment, you must make sure that any stored energy on the equipment is released this is done by :  Inspecting equipment to make sure all parts have stopped moving. Bleeding electrical capacitance (stored charge).  Venting or isolating pressure or hydraulic lines from the work area, leaving vent valves open.  Draining tanks and valves.

Step 6 : Test equipment to verify that all energy has been released and controlled:  To make sure that all kinetic and stored energy has been released or controlled , you must :  Clear personnel from danger area.  Test the start switches on the equipment to confirm that all power sources have been shutdown and switches can't be moved to the "on " or " start" position.  Secure all blocks, clamps, chains and cribs.  Secure blanks and make sure they are not leaking.  Check electrical circuits to make sure that voltage is at zero.  Once you have confirmed that all energy sources have been controlled and locks and tags are in place, it is safe to begin the maintenance work.

LOTO Video

 Once the maintenance or installation is completed , the equipment can be re-started , these are the procedures to follow for safe start-up. STEP 1, PREPARING FOR START-UP You must sure that the area is safe for restart by  Making sure all equipment components are fully assembled and operational.  Removing all tools from equipment and the work area.  Reconnecting all pressure tubing , pipes and hoses and closing all valves .  Clearing the work area from all personnel

STEP 2: REMOVE LOCKOUT DEVICES AND TAGS  Each lockout device and tag must be removed by employee who put it on except in emergencies. STEP 3: NOTIFY AFFECTED EMPLOYEES  Notify all personnel in the area that maintenance, servicing or installation activities is complete, lockout and tag out has been removed and the machine and equipment is ready to be restarted.  Once all the above mentioned three steps are completed , it is safe to start-up the equipment.

Hot Work (including tie-in) Cold Work (including tiein) Crane Operations

C10 Pressure testing

Hot Work (including tie-in) Cold Work (including tie-in) Vessel Entry Crane Operations Scaffolding Instrument / Electrical Work Maintain Emergency / Utility Systems Painting Radio Communications Pressure testing Commissioning Operations Production / Process Operations Access to SIMOPS Area Radiography

R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14













C14 Radiography

Vessel Entry

Y – Permitted combination of activities R – Restricted combination of activities N – Not permitted activity combination

C13 Access to SIMOPS Area

Radio Communications

Instrument / Electrical Work Maintain Emergency / Utility Systems

Commissioning Operations Production / Process C12 Operations C11

SIMOPS Activity Matrix Key


Painting C8










Description of Restrictions on Activities
R1C3 R3C1 Hot work not permitted on vessel or pipe work connected to vessel due to potential welding fumes

R3C7 R1C8 R2C10 R4C10 R6C10 R4C11 R6C11 R9C11 R9C12 R10C11 R10C12 R1C13 R3C13 R5C13 R7C13 R9C13 R11C13 R2C12 R5C12 R8C12

R7C3 R8C1 R10C2 R10C4 R10C6 R11C4 R11C6 R11C9 R12C9 R11C10 R12C10 R13C1 R13C3 R13C5 R13C7 R13C9 R13C11 R12C2 R12C5 R12C8 R2C13 R4C13 R6C13 R8C13 R10C13 R12C13 R4C12 R6C12 R10C12 R13C2 R13C4 R13C6 R13C8 R13C10 R13C12 R12C4 R12C6 R12C10 R3C10 R5C10 R8C10 R5C11 R8C11 R11C12 R10C3 R10C5 R10C8 R11C5 R11C8 R12C11

If firewater / F&G systems not available
Availability of breathing air supply to be considered Potential fire risk Work not permitted on, or adjacent to system under pressure

Radio channels may be reserved for these activities

Restrictions if systems are adjacent System under test to be segregated from operational system Access to worksite restricted to permitted personnel

All activities in operational area subject to operational PTW system

Fire Triangle

Explosion mixture diagram

Explosive limit

Explosion mixture

Gas concentration s diluted




Hot Tapping - General considerations
 Hot-tapping is potentially hazardous a decision on whether hot-tapping is to be applied shall be based on careful considerations including at least the following aspects: - safety; - condition of the pipe/equipment under consideration; - configuration of the connection; - code/statutory requirements; - operating conditions; - technical capabilities of the drilling equipment under the operating conditions (pressure, temperature, nature of product); - Related welding problems; - environmental/pollution aspects.

Hot Tapping Work Procedure
 Procedures shall be prepared for all aspects of the physical work, including items such as: - site preparation; - pipe preparation; - welding; - NDT; - hydro-testing; - drilling/perforation; - reinstatement.

Hot Tapping – Safety considerations
- access to and around the hot-tap location for personnel and the welding and hot-tapping equipment, including requirements for scaffolding; - roles of dedicated personnel and their responsibilities on site; - monitoring of operating conditions (flow rate, pressure, welding temperature) and gas levels; - foreseeable hazards and contingency actions; - communications on site; - warning system and emergency shutdown; - means of escape; - fire fighting equipment and personnel; - safety equipment and services; - first-aid facilities. Emergency procedures shall also be specifically addressed .

H2S & Toxic Gases Safety

Hydrogen Sulfide H2S ( Toxic Gas )
Threshold Limit Value TLV

Time Weighted Average ( TLV – TWA ) Short – Term Exposure Limit ( TLV – STEL )

Ceiling Limit ( TLV – C )

Hydrogen Sulfide H2S ( Toxic Gas )
 Hydrogen Sulphide Characteristics: Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) is a colorless gas that smells like rotten eggs. Hydrogen sulphide is called ” sewer gas” hydrogen sulfide is highly poisonous.

It is found in petroleum and natural gas and sometimes present in ground water.

H2S Methane


LEL UEL AT the LEL point, 100% will show on the gas monitor. This tells you that you are in the explosive range of the gas. The range of methane gas is from 5% to 15%. H2S gas has a range of 4.3% to 44%. If the concentration is below the LEL the mixture is to lean to burn, if it is above the UEL it is to rich to burn.

Respiratory Protective Equipment
 SCBA - 30 minute, Self Contained Breathing Apparatus
 SABA – Supplied Air Breathing Apparatus  10 Minute Escape Packs  Compressed Airline Breathing Apparatus – cascade system used with wireline and well servicing operations.  Note: It is your responsibility to familiarize yourself with the SCBA at your location.

Hydrogen Sulfide H2S ( Toxic Gas )
Health Effects:
 Hydrogen Sulphide is a potent chemical asphyxiant, combining with hemoglobin and thus rapidly stopping oxygen from access to cellular metabolism (just like gases such as carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide). Indeed H2S is arguably as toxic as Hydrogen Cyanide HCN.  Hydrogen Sulphide very foul smells but very quickly paralyses the sense of smell, and can go on to overcome the victim and eventually cause death  Hydrogen Sulphide is also an irritant of mucous membranes including the eyes and respiratory tract

Hydrogen Sulfide H2S ( Toxic Gas )
 How Hydrogen Sulphide is Formed?
 Hydrogen sulphide is formed as a result of decomposing animal manure.

 Properties of Hydrogen Sulphide:
• Colorless gas • “Rotten-egg” odor (low concentration less than 1 ppm). • Approximately 20 % percent heavier than air, with a specific gravity of 1.19. • In concentrations of 150 ppm or greater ,the ability to smell the gas is lost instantaneously and relying on sense of smell is very dangerous.

• Hydrogen Sulfide H2S ( Toxic Gas )
 Chemical and Physical Information:
 Chemical Identity:
• Chemical Formula H2S(hydrogen sulphide)

• Odour
• Boiling Point • TLV- TWA • TLV- STEL • Ceiling • Specific Gravity • CAS registry

Rotten Egg (low concentration)
600 C 10 PPM 15 PPM 20 PPM 1.19 7783-06-4

• Hydrogen Sulfide H2S ( Toxic Gas )
    
  Physiological Response of Adult Humans to Hydrogen Sulphide:  Effect of H2S (10,000 parts per million = 1 percent) 1 ppm - - - Can be smelled. 10 ppm - - - Occupational Exposure Limit ( TLV ) for 8 hours 15 ppm - - - STEL , allowable for 15 minutes of exposure. 20 ppm - - - Ceiling . At this level workers must wear appropriate breathing apparatus. 100 ppm - - - Loss of sense of smell in 2 to 15 minutes. Possible headache, nausea, throat irritation. 200 ppm - - - Sense of smell lost rapidly. Burns eyes and throat. 300 ppm - - - Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) level. Positive pressure breathing apparatus required. 500 ppm - - - Loss of reasoning and balance. Respiratory disturbances in 2 to 15 minutes. 700 ppm - - - Immediate unconsciousness. Death will result if not rescued promptly. 1000 ppm - - - Causes immediate unconsciousness. Causes loss of control of bowel and bladder. Breathing will stop and death will result if not rescued promptly. Immediate resuscitation needed.

 

Radiation Hazards
 Gamma ray isotopes ( Exposure Hazards )  X-ray Machines ( Exposure Hazards )  Naturally Occurred Radioactive Material ( NORM ) ( Exposure & Contamination Hazards )

Radar Video Surveillance (RVS)
 Radar Video Surveillance (RVS) is a key element in guarding against potential attacks  RVS provides 24/7 vigilance that is not dependent on humans, while enabling early detection and advance warning of approaching vessels within the Area Of Interest (AOI). This allows personnel to implement countermeasures such as:  Sound alarms on the platform  Alert the company and other counter-threat support (onshore, Coast Guard, etc.)  Illuminate the platform and the suspected craft  Initiate other response procedures

Security CCTV cameras for platform monitoring
 Security CCTV cameras have two important roles in an overall security plan for an offshore platform. The first role is assessing any detected alarm and validating the root cause of that alarm. The second role is that surveillance .  Platform owners/operators should consider providing CCTV camera coverage for the following areas:       Main accesses to the platform structure Vulnerable and critical areas not under direct supervision Radio room IT main server room Main electrical room Access points between decks

Hazards Of Pressure Testing

Hazards Of Pressure Testing

Hot Bolting
Hot bolting is defined as the sequential removal and replacement of flange bolts and nuts, one at a time, on piping or process systems containing pressurized fluids (i.e., oil, water, gas, air, etc.). Precautions:  Make sure the following conditions are met (or are not applicable) before proceeding:  The flange to be “hot bolted” must have a minimum of eight (8) bolts.  The operating pressure must be less that 75% of the maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) of the piping or process system to be hot bolted. For example, if the MAWP is 1440 PSI, the operating pressure must be less than 1080 PSI (1440 x .75).  The process temperature must be between 0F and 160F.

Hot Bolting

Hot Bolting- Precautions

All flanges and associated system equipment must be adequately supported and not subject to excessive vibration, pulsation, or shock/impact loading. The gasket area must not show signs of leakage and the piping, flanges, and bolts and nuts must not be significantly corroded (i.e., to the point of affecting the integrity of the metal). Existing flange bolts/nuts must be the correct size and grade and must be tight. No simultaneous hot work operations are being conducted in the near vicinity; a leak may develop during hot bolting. The proper tools and materials needed to complete the work are available and in good condition: properly-sized hammer wrenches and hammer; properly-sized bolts and nuts.

Hot Bolting - Precautions

       

Use gas detector to sniff our area to ensure gas-free before hammer-striking wrenches. Know that hammer-striking may result in flying fragments. Know that all personnel must be aware of and stay alert to hammerswinging. If air saws required for procedure, complete “non-welding hot work permit”. If possible for someone to walk under work site, install caution tape to prevent entry. Place pollution protection under work site; leaks may occur from flange. Communicate with other contract personnel; communicate what you are doing and identify what they are doing. If applicable, check fuel and oil in air compressor to ensure it will not stop or be damaged during procedure. Ensure air hoses are out of walkways and work areas; use pins and whip checks if needed.

Hot Bolting Procedure
Procedure: 1.0 Verify ALL conditions identified in “Precautions” section are met (or are not applicable); if ANY not met, STOP and add necessary steps to JSA to make process safe. CAUTION : Wipe hammer handle if wet or contains foreign material. If possible, use mechanical device to hold wrench when striking with hammer. Keep fingers and hands out of the way. Wear gloves, safety glasses at all times.

Hot Bolting Procedure
2.0 Using proper sequence from diagram below,
– – – – carefully and safely loosen one nut on first bolt using hammers and hammer wrenches, use impact wrench to complete removal of nuts, use hammer to beat bolt out; if necessary, use cold cut saw to cut bolt to complete removal, and replace new bolt and nuts and carefully and safely tighten nuts using impact wrench and/or hammers and hammer wrenches.

Hot Bolting Procedure
3.0 Carefully and safely repeat step #2 until all old bolts/nuts are replaced with new ones.  CAUTION Maintain communications with the customer representative regarding “precautions”; if a significant change occurs or leaks are detected, STOP the “hot bolting” process; correct all unsafe conditions before continuing. 4.0 Once all bolts and nuts are replaced, conduct final tightening following same number sequence.  NOTE If leak develops and absorbent pads are used to collect liquids, properly dispose in DOT drums. Place all scrap iron into scrap iron basket and all paper and plastic waste in trash dumpster. 5.0 Pick up the tools and materials and return them to their proper storage locations. Leave the work area cleaner than you found it.

The basic elements of an effective management of change system
1.0 Responsibilities . 2.0 Written procedures.
2.1 Initiation of change . 2.2 Review and approval . 2.3 Interface with document control system , training and physical modification 2.4 Pre startup safety review and approval. 2.5 Commission of change. 2.6 Close out .

3.0 Training . 4.0 Document Control. 5.0 Assessment . 6.0 Corrective action 7.0 Records.

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