Review for the Fisheries Technologist PRC Examination


May 17-18, 2011 Butuan City, Caraga Region

Review Outline: 1. Introduction 2. Scope of capture fisheries 2.1 Oceanography 2.1.1 Geological 2.1.2 Physical 2.1.3 Chemical 2.1.4 Biological 2.2 Fish Biology 2.2.1 Taxonomy and classification 2.2.2 Morphology and anatomy 2.2.3 Physiology and function 2.2.4 Important fishery resources 2.3 Meteorology Meteorology, Seamanship & 2.3.1 Elements 2.3.2 Weather and climate Navigation

2.4 Fishing Science 2.4.1 Fishing methods 2.4.2 Fishing gears 2.4.3 Philippine fishing grounds 2.4.4 Philippine fishery laws 2.5 Marine ecology 2.6 Fish resources management 2.7 Seamanship and navigation
Oceanography (environment) Marine Ecology

Capture fisheries
Biology (fishes) Fishing Science (methods/gears) Fish Resources Management

INTRODUCTION  fish provide about 3% of all protein consumed worldwide  fish contribute about 10% of all animal protein consumed  in the third world, about 60% t 80% of animal protein diet comes from fish  present production is about 100 million metric tons per year • 60% of the catch are used as food • 40% are used as fish oil and fish meal  200 million metric tons: estimated maximum yield that can be harvested from the ocean Fishery Science – is the study of the use of the living resources of the waters  Marine fisheries – the study of the use of living resources of the marine environment  Freshwater fisheries – the study of the use of living resources of the freshwater environment

2. and biological features of the ocean Limnology – is the science which deals with the study of the physical. human behavior. their ecology and life cycles in the ocean. and biological features of fresh waters (lakes. Biological oceanography – study of the marine flora and fauna. Chemical oceanography – study of the chemistry of seawater including dissolved substances and chemical cycles in the ocean. 6. 4. Ocean engineering – development of technology for oceanic research and exploration. . Marine policy – application of social sciences such as economics. salinity. chemical. dams) Six disciplines of oceanography: 1. brooks. and political science toward the use and management of the ocean. law. 5. Physical oceanography – study of physical properties of seawater such as temperature. pressure. chemical. rivers. Geological oceanography – study of the sediments and topography of the ocean floor and the processes involved in their formation and changes. density.OCEANOGRAPHY Oceanography – is the science which deals with the study of the physical. light and sound in the ocean. and transmission of electricity. 3.

that sets our planet apart *differences in density of the earth's materials. it is the ocean. not the landmasses. K.000oC *inner core (solid) *outer core (liquid) b) mantle -.extremely thin.mostly made up of alloys and iron. Ca. allowed some to settle at the center of the earth while others floated (when the earth was still molten) *internal structure: a) core -. Al .7 thickness (km) 5 20-50 age young can be very old color dark (basaltic) light (granitic) composition rich in Fe. like a rigid skin floating on top of the mantle *oceanic crust *continental crust comparison of the characteristics of continental and oceanic crusts: Characteristic Oceanic crust Continental crust density (g/cm3) 3.OCEANOGRAPHY (Structure of the Earth) *the earth is called the water planet for good reason. temperature is 4.liquid but more thicker c) crust -.0 2. Mg rich in Na.

deepest and largest ocean.a little larger than the Indian Ocean c) Indian Ocean -.2 4188 Atlantic 86.OCEANOGRAPHY (Geography of the Oceans) *oceans cover 71% of the earth's surface *about 2/3 of the earth's land area is found in the Northern Hemisphere. materials and some organisms to move from one ocean to another *average depths and total areas of the four major ocean basins: Ocean Area (millions of km2) Average depth (m) Pacific 166.5 1330 .similar in average depth to Atlantic Ocean d) Arctic Ocean -. only 61% ocean *Southern Hemisphere is 80% ocean *oceans are traditionally classified into 4 large basins: a) Pacific Ocean -.5 3736 Indian 73.4 3872 Arctic 9.continuous body of water that surrounds Antarctica. allow seawater. connect the four oceans.the smallest and shallowest ocean e) 'Southern Ocean' -. almost as large as all the others combined b) Atlantic Ocean -.

the sea floor is geologically distinct from the continents .OCEANOGRAPHY (Geography of the Oceans) – cont… *connected or marginal to the main ocean basins are various shallow seas: a) Mediterranean Sea k) Yellow Sea b) Gulf of Mexico l) Sea of Japan c) South China Sea m) Sea of Otsohsk d) Red Sea e) Persian Gulf f) Bering Sea g) Gulf of California h) North Sea i) Baltic Sea j) Caribbean Sea *some seas of the Philippines: a) Philippine Sea b) Sulu Sea c) Visayan Sea d) Celebes Sea e) Samar Sea *the oceans are not just places where the land happens to be covered by water.

accumulation of sediments) e) sub-marine canyons (eroded part of continents by rivers and glacier. sudden change of slope) c) continental slope (steeper than the shelf) d) continental rise (base.OCEANOGRAPHY (Geological Provinces of the Ocean) major features of the sea floor: *continental margin (submerged edges of the continental crusts) a) continental shelf (shallow. 2o) continental rise . biologically richest part of the ocean) b) shelf break (end of the continental shelf. 6o) trench. no rise *left side of the South American continent: passive *right side of the South American continent: active Passive margin wide shelf gentle slope (approx. only recently submerged by water) types of continental margins: Active margin little or no shelf steep slope (approx. gently sloping.

East Pacific Rise *central rift valley (center of the ridge) d) transform faults e) trenches .OCEANOGRAPHY (Geological Provinces of the Ocean) – cont… *deep-sea floor (oceanic crust) *most of the deep-sea floor lies at a depth of 3.Vityaz Trench .000 to 5.Peru-Chilean Trench .New Hebrides Trench .Kuril Trench .Japan Trench .Middle America Trench .Puerto Rico Trench .000 m *most parts are plain a) abyssal plains/ocean basins b) abyssal hills c) mid-oceanic ridges .Mariana Trench .Bouganville Trench .Yap Trench .Java Trench .Aleutian Trench .Tonga Trench .Philippine Trench .Kermadec Trench .Cayman Trench - .Mid-Atlantic Ridge .

375 million km3 Average depth: 3.033 (Vitiaz Deep in the Marianas Trench.OCEANOGRAPHY (Geological Provinces of the Ocean) – cont… f) seamounts/volcanoes .800 m Deepest point: 11.1 million km2 or about 71% of the earth’s surface Volume: 1. biogenous Classification of sediments by distance from land: Terrigenous. pelagic .848 m) Maximum altitude of fish occurrence: 4. Mount Everest 8. neritic. hydrogenous. cosmogenous.572 m (Andes Mountains) Classification of sediments by source: Lithogenous.guyot (flat-topped seamounts) .island arc (group of seamounts) *Aleutian Islands *Hawaiian Islands *Mariana Islands g) hydrothermal vents or deep-sea hot springs General information about the marine habitat: Area: 361.

Neritic province – the shallow water over the continental shelf. zone of primary production 2. Oceanic province – the deep water beyond the continental shelf Vertical classification of the pelagic zone  Based on light penetration 1. usually not deeper than 200 meters 2.OCEANOGRAPHY (Divisions of the marine environment) “The classification of the marine environment takes into account the different conditions of life in different parts of the ocean” Two major divisions of the marine environment 1. Aphotic zone – layer of the ocean where light is insufficient for plants to carry on with photosynthesis . Photic zone (euphotic zone) – layer of the ocean that receives ample sunlight for photosynthesis (photosynthesis exceeds respiration). Pelagic zone – comprise the whole body of water forming the seas and oceans 2. Benthic zone – comprise the entire sea bottom Horizontal classification of the pelagic zone 1.

it is the layer of water over ocean trenches Classification of the benthic zone 1.000 meters. Abyssalpelagic zone – layer of the ocean between 4. temperature is about 10ºC (around 700-1. Epipelagic zone – layer of the ocean from the surface to about 200 meters deep.000 and 6. Littoral zone (eulittoral zone) – intertidal zone 3.OCEANOGRAPHY (Divisions of the marine environment)  Based on depth and other physical characteristics 1. Bathypelagic zone – layer of the ocean between 1. Bathyal zone – continental slope 5. it is the uppermost layer of the aphotic zone.000 m) 3. Mesopelagic zone – layer of the ocean from 200 to 1.000 meters deep. benthic zone below the neritic zone 4. equivalent to the photic zone 2. Hadalpelagic zone – layer of the ocean below 6.000 meters.000 and 4. temperature is about 4ºC 4. Supralittoral zone – spray zone 2. Abyssal zone – abyssal plains and continental rise 6. layer of water over the plains and ocean basin 5.000 meters. Sublittoral zone – continental shelf. Hadal zone – ocean trenches .

Water has a high heat storage capacity *compared to other substances. the heat released to cool 1 m3 of water by 1C will be enough to raise the temperature of 3.OCEANOGRAPHY (Physical properties of water) Heat and temperature (temperature is measured using a reversing thermometer) Two unique properties of water 1.118 m3 of air by 1C 2. water has a lower rise in temperature after absorbing a given amount of heat (much of the heat absorbed by water is used to change its internal structure) *for example. Water has a low heat transmission capacity. *the heat stored in the upper layer of the ocean can only be very slowly transported to the deeper portion *the heat transport in the ocean is mainly due to current movements and vertical circulation .

Thermocline – discontinuity layer 3. condensation of water vapor Because heat absorption is limited to the surface the following layers in the ocean are produced: 1. Conduction of heat from the atmosphere 3. Psychrosphere – cold deep layer with slight decrease in temperature Latent heat – heat which do not raise the temperature of the substance but instead changes its state . Radiation from the sun and the sky 2.OCEANOGRAPHY (Physical properties of water) Heat and temperature (cont…) The ocean is heated by: 1. Evaporation The ocean is cooled through: 1. back radiation to the atmosphere 2. conduction of heat back to the atmosphere 3. Thermosphere – zone of surface mixing 2.

Stenothermic organisms – organisms who can withstand only a small range of temperature change 2. Homeothermic organisms (warm-blooded animals) – organisms who have the ability to regulate their own body temperature regardless of the temperature of the water environment Types of organisms according to their temperature tolerance: 1. invertebrates) 2. reptiles. Eurythermic organisms – organisms who can survive in a wide range of temperature change Kelvin scale – absolute scale of temperature . amphibians. Poikilothermic organisms (cold-blooded animals) – organisms whose body temperature do not differ with that of the environment (ex: fish.OCEANOGRAPHY (Physical properties of water) Heat and temperature (cont…) Classification of marine organisms according to their capacity to regulate body temperature: 1.

77 19.OCEANOGRAPHY (Physical properties of water) Salinity Salinity – is the total amount of inorganic materials dissolved in seawater expressed as weight in grams per kilogram of seawater Major components Sodium Chloride Sulfate Magnesium Calcium Potassium Bromide Strontium Chemical symbol Na Cl SO4 Mg Ca K Br Sr Amount in seawater (g/kg) 10.71 1.067 0.008 Layers of the ocean in relation to salinity: 1. A thick zone of relatively uniform salinity.41 0. A well mixed thin surface zone (upper 50 to 100 meters) 2.40 0.30 0.000 meters) – Halocline 3.34 2. usually extending to the ocean floor . A zone of large salinity change (100 to 1.

By measuring electrical conductivity of seawater *electrical conductivity is the ability of seawater to conduct electrical current. By measuring the refractive index of water (note: principle of refractometer) .OCEANOGRAPHY (Physical properties of water) Salinity (cont…) Types of organisms according to their salinity tolerance: 1. By measuring chlorinity or chlorine content of water and converting to salinity So/oo = 0. which is controlled by the movement of ions through the water *the more ions dissolved in the water the greater is the conductivity and the higher is the salinity 3. Euryhaline organisms – those that can accommodate large changes in salinity Ways of measuring salinity: 1.030 + (1.805 x Clo/oo) 2. Stenohaline organisms – organisms that can tolerate only little change in salinity 2.

7 psi) (note: effect of pressure on fishes with and without swimbladder) Density Density – weight per unit volume Density is controlled by three factors: salinity.OCEANOGRAPHY (Physical properties of water) Pressure The pressure at any depth in the water is equivalent to the weight of the atmosphere and the weight of the water column The weight of the water column is equivalent to one atmosphere for each 10 meter increase in depth (1 atm = 14. temperature and pressure *density increases with increasing salinity *density increases with increasing pressure (or depth) *density increases with decreasing temperature .

A layer of large density changes – Pycnocline 3.9oC (note: Do fishes drink water?) Sound The speed of sound in water is more than 4 times (4-4.OCEANOGRAPHY (Physical properties of water) Density (cont…) Layers of the ocean in relation to density 1. Deep dense layer of the ocean Density of freshwater is highest at 4oC Density of saltwater is highest at -1.33oC Saltwater freezes at -1.6 times) faster than in air * speed of sound in air – 340 m/sec *speed of sound in water – 1400-1550 m/sec . A well mixed zone of relatively uniform density (upper 100 meters) 2.

OCEANOGRAPHY (Physical properties of water) Sound (cont…) Speed of sound in water is influenced by 3 factors: salinity.5 m/sec for every 1oC increase in temperature *speed increases with increasing depth (about 1.7 m/sec for every 100 m increase in depth) .3 m/sec for every 1o/oo increase in salinity *speed increases with increasing temperature (about 4. temperature and pressure (depth) *speed increases with increasing salinity (about 1.

Provide energy for photosynthesis 2. Regulate behavior of some animals When light strikes the surface of the ocean. reproduction. and migration) 3. a certain amount is reflected back depending upon the angle at which light strikes the surface *within the first 10 cm – virtually all infrared portion of the light spectrum is absorbed and converted to heat *within the first 1 meter – about 60% of the entering radiation is absorbed *within the first 10 meters – about 80% of the radiation is absorbed *within 150 meters – only 1% of radiation remains .OCEANOGRAPHY (Physical properties of water) Light Different uses of light in the ocean: 1. Enables animals with eyes to see (important for feeding.

wave diffraction Cycle – time it takes for a wave to move from 0o to 360o period in a complete sequence of movement as from crest to crest . sea wave Wave refraction vs.OCEANOGRAPHY (Physical properties of water) Wave Water wave – disturbance of the water that move outward and away from the point of disturbance Crest – highest part of the wave Trough – lowest part of the wave Wavelength – distance between two successive crests or troughs Wave height – vertical distance from the top of the crest to the bottom of the trough Amplitude – equal to one-half the wave height Progressive (running) waves vs. standing waves Wave period – time required for two successive crests or troughs to pass a point in space Swell wave vs.

OCEANOGRAPHY (Physical properties of water) Tide Tide – best known as the rise and fall of the sea around the edges of the land Ebb tide vs. flood tide Diurnal tide vs semidiurnal tide/mixed tide Low water vs high water Dynamic theory of tide vs equilibrium theory of tide Spring tide vs. neap tides .

longshore current Downwelling vs. upwelling Divergence vs convergence Western boundary currents vs eastern boundary currents Thermohaline circulation vs. wind-driven circulation Eddy vs.OCEANOGRAPHY (Physical properties of water) Currents Current – horizontal movement of water Rip current vs. current Eulerian method vs Langrangian method Global patterns of surface ocean currents (name of currents): Equatorial Counter Current North Equatorial Current South Equatorial Current Kuroshio Current Gulf Stream West Wind Drift etc… .

Other chemical reaction . Respiration of plants and animals 3. the greater is the solubility of oxygen in water example: at 0oC seawater (35o/oo) contains about 8 ml/liter of oxygen while only 5.OCEANOGRAPHY (Chemical properties of water) Oxygen (O2) *Gases may be dissolved in water *Seawater may contain as much as 8 ml/liter oxygen whereas air has as much as 21 ml/liter *The solubility of gas in water is dependent upon temperature *The lower the temperature. Dissolution of oxygen from water to atmosphere 2.5 ml/liter at 20oC Seawater has three sources of oxygen: 1. Polar creep Oxygen is removed from the water through: 1. Photosynthesis 3. Atmosphere as it comes in contact with the water surface 2.

result is increased biological productivity. however. Phosphate.4 Others *Nitrogen. Supersaturated layer (upper 10-20 meters) 2. Iron and Manganese *Dissolved organic matters Eutrophication – most common cause of this is the influx of phosphorus-rich waters mainly from domestic sewage. Nitrate. at the expense of diminished water quality .5 – 8. Silicate. Oxygen-minimum zone (between 500 to 1.000 meters) 3.OCEANOGRAPHY (Chemical properties of water) Oxygen (O2) – cont… Layers of the ocean in relation to oxygen content of water: 1. Cold oxygen rich zone (through “Polar creep”) Carbon dioxide (CO2) *it is very abundant in seawater *it is an important raw material for photosynthesis *it determines the acidity and alkalinity of seawater *pH value of seawater: 7.

39 10.27 0.30 1.52 11.35 Cl 19.47 0.40 11.45 1.8 0. Fragile and simple forms of life can exist because water affords support.39 0.44 1. floatation.94 . skeleton and protective covering 5.52 2.41 0.50 Mg 1.5 0.8 SO4 2. The body fluids of major groups of marine invertebrates have virtually similar composition as that of seawater (isotonic with seawater) Category Seawater Jellyfish Polychaete worm Crab Green mussel Inorganic components (g/kg) Na K Ca 10. transport and protection. Water is relatively opaque to ultraviolet light and therefore provides protection against its harmful effects 4.49 0. This minimizes the need for structural parts such as organs for locomotion.71 1.8 0.40 0.41 10.9 19.0 20. The transparency of the water and the presence of abundant amount of carbon dioxide allows for photosynthesis at the upper layer of the ocean 3.46 2.2 0.23 1.6 18.3 19.OCEANOGRAPHY (Biological properties of seawater) Some biological features of the marine environment brought about by the combined effects of the environmental factors: 1. Many scientists believe that life originated in the sea 2.6 0.

Benthos – attached organisms Classification of plankton: 1. Zooplankton – floating animal or any of its life stages .OCEANOGRAPHY (Biological properties of seawater) 6. Conditions in the marine environment are remarkably constant over great areas and many plants and animals have wide distributions 8. or any of its life stages 2. Nekton – swimming organisms 3. Plankton – drifting organisms 2. Phytoplankton – floating plant organism. The sinking of cold and well oxygenated water to the bottom makes animal life possible at all depths 7. Changes in environmental conditions take place slowly giving time for organisms to acclimatize Living organisms of the oceans Three different ocean life forms: 1. usually one-celled.

Meroplankton (temporary plankton) – organisms whose life cycle is part planktonic and part nektonic or benthic .OCEANOGRAPHY (Biological properties of seawater) Living organisms of the oceans (cont…) Different forms of phytoplankton: 1. Diatoms – microscopic phytoplankton organisms enclosed by two overlapping valves 2. Holoplankton (permanent plankton) – organisms that remain planktonic all throughout their life cycle 2. Dinoflagellates – microscopic phytoplankton organisms possessing two locomotory flagellae (whip) and possess characteristics of plants (presence of chlorophyll) and animals (capable of ingesting food) 3. Nanoplankton – very small organisms that cannot be retained by the plankton net Different forms of zooplankton: 1.

Photosynthesis – the synthesis of organic compounds from inorganic materials by plants using light energy 6CO2 + 6H2O -> C6H12O6 + 6O2 . Pelagic species – marine organisms living in the water column (this refers particularly to highly migratory marine animals found near the surface) 2. Benthic species – marine organisms attached to the bottom or living in interstitial spaces of the bottom of the ocean 3.OCEANOGRAPHY (Biological properties of seawater) Living organisms of the oceans (cont…) Classification of marine organisms for resources management purposes: 1. Demersal species – marine organisms living near the bottom and uses the benthic environment for their shelter and source of food Organic production and food chain Primary production – the synthesis of organic compounds from inorganic materials Two sources of primary production: 1.

using sulfur. Chemosynthesis – the synthesis of organic compounds from inorganic materials by certain bacteria in the absence of sunlight.OCEANOGRAPHY (Biological properties of seawater) Organic production and food chain (cont…) 2. Autotrophic organisms – organisms that manufacture their food from inorganic compounds through photosynthesis or chemosynthesis 2. methane. Heterotrophic organisms – organisms which utilize organic compound for food 3. metals and hydrogen gas as sources of energy Classification of organisms according to food production: 1. Decomposers – organisms that break down dead cells and release simple chemical substances for use by other organisms Trophic levels – successive stages of food production in the food chain 1st trophic level – Primary producers (plants) 2nd trophic level – Primary consumers (herbivores) 3rd trophic level – Secondary consumers (carnivores) 4th trophic level – Tertiary consumers (decomposers) .

and the energy relationship among the organisms involved Marine and terrestrial production compared: Category Marine Primary producers Microscopic Single-celled Short life Primary production Light limited Nutrient limited Nutrients Sinks away to the bottom Terrestrial Macroscopic Multi-celled Long life Water limited Nutrient limited Available most of the time . consumption. including its production.OCEANOGRAPHY (Biological properties of seawater) Organic production and food chain (cont…) As the energy is passed from level to level the majority of it is lost through the metabolism of the organism (between 80% to 95%) Only about 5% to 20% is converted by the organism into tissues and biomass Food web – the interconnected food relationship in an ecosystem. decomposition.

OCEANOGRAPHY (Biological properties of seawater) Organic production and food chain (cont…) Marine and terrestrial production compared: Category Marine Nutrient cycle 1.000-2.5-2.0 Homoiotherms 20% of world animal production 50% of world plant production .000 years Plant biomass 90% consumed utilization (less indigestible materials) Plant biomass turnover Every 1-3 days P/B ratio (plants) 100-300 Dominant animal Poikilotherms group of the higher trophic level Biomass production 80% of world animals production 50% of world plant production Terrestrial Weeks – years 5-15% consumed (more indigestible material) Every year 0.

it could reach a difference of 53 feet 6 inches (equivalent of a 3-story building) Coral reef – considered as the “rainforest of the sea” Southern Ocean – in 2000. upwelling renders the coastal waters of Peru to be among the most productive especially in the production of the Peruvian anchoveta which drastically declined following the El Nino of 1972 El Nino – associated with anomalously warm sea surface temperatures interacting with the air above it in the eastern and central Pacific Ocean resulting to severe dry seasons and droughts . at some times of the year. the International Hydrographic Organization created the fifth and newest world ocean Engraulis ringens – scientific name of the Peruvian anchoveta.OCEANOGRAPHY Hypsographic curve – shows the relative proportions of the earth’s surface at elevations above and below sea level Antarctic Circumpolar Current – also called the West Wind Drift which is the strongest current system in the world. and the only one that travels the entire distance around the earth Mid-Atlantic Ridge – bisects the Atlantic Ocean into East and West basins and runs from Iceland into the South Atlantic Bay of Fundy – where we can find the highest tide in the world.

FISH BIOLOGY Biology – the science of life and life processes Fish biology – study of fishes as living organisms Ichthyology – zoology specializing in the study of fishes Scope of Ichthyology: 1. Fish taxonomy – science of biological classification of fishes 2. Fish ecology – the study of the relationship of fishes to one another and to the factors that comprise their environment . Fish physiology – study of the functions of organs and systems in the body of fishes 4. Fish anatomy – the branch of ichthyology dealing with the study of the shape and structure of fishes 3. Fish evolution and genetics – the study of the origin of fishes and the sequence and manner in which modern fishes evolved from previous ones and the mechanisms by which changes have come about 5.

propelling and balancing itself by means of limbs modified into fins where skin is either naked or generally covered with scales . breathing air dissolved in water by means of gills.FISH BIOLOGY Two approaches in ecology: Autecology – study of the relationships between a singles species and its environment Synecology – study of the interrelationships among communities of organisms and with their environment 6. typically with backbone. Fish ethology – the study of individual and social behaviors of fishes 7. Fish conservation – wise use and management of fish resources Fish – a cold-blooded animal living in water.

48.05% .8 % amphibians .FISH BIOLOGY Some general biological features of fish objectives (to understand the following): a) how fishes live in the aquatic environment b) how fishes sense its surroundings c) how fishes breath d) how fishes eat e) how fishes excrete wastes f) how fishes reproduce g) how fishes grow = to study the structure.10.14.600 species of recent vertebrates: fishes . and ethology (behavior) of fishes *fishes are the most numerous of the vertebrates (about 20. physiology.7 % reptiles .4 % mammals .1 % birds -20.000 recent species) *percentage composition by groups of some 41.6.

Demersal fishes like flatfishes) d) Filiform . pelagic fishes like moonfishes) c) Depressiform .most ideal form (torpedo-shaped). habitat-dependent) a) Fusiform . hydrodynamically advantageous example: fast swimmers like tunas b) Compressiform .balloon-like (example: pufferfishes) g) Boxiform .snake-like (example: eels) f) Globiform .box-like (example: trunkfishes) .flattened laterally (ex.ribbon-like (example: cutlassfishes) e) Anguilliform .flattened dorsoventrally (ex.FISH BIOLOGY External features Body forms (very diverse.

with backward –pointing spine covered by enamel and a basal plate of dentine in the dermis (example: sharks) c) Modifications i) Corselet . Eels) .hard scales found on the lateral line (ex. Tunas) ii) Scutes . Carangids) iii) Keels . thin) i) Cycloid .tiny spines in the exposed hind part (ex. Parrotfishes) ii) Ctenoid . Perches) spines in the exposed hind part (ex. having distinct comb-like teeth on their exposed free posterior margin iii) Ganoid .FISH BIOLOGY Body coverings a) Naked .hard bones found in the caudal peduncle (ex.bony & capped w/ ganoin (hard.mucuous secretions to prevent abrasions (ex.fine scales forming a hard covering on the anterior portion of the trunk (ex.without scales (example: catfishes) b) With dermal scales (overlapping. Acanthurids) iv) Slimy covering . enamel-like substance) example: early ray-finned fishes iv) Placoid . glassy.

tapering to a point (ex. Carangids) -> rounded .just below the anus. median and unpaired .convex-shaped (ex. Groupers) -> lunate .just behind the operculum.crescent-shaped (ex. Gobies) c) Dorsal fin .FISH BIOLOGY Appendages (fins) a) Caudal fin . equally lacking typical fin rays) iii) first and second fins may be separate or united d) Pectoral fin .paired.median and unpaired i) first: spiny-rayed ii) second: soft-rayed or adipose (fleshy fin-like projection behind the rayed dorsal fin. may unite to form a sucking disk (ex. Groupers) -> pointed .V-shaped (ex.angular (ex. lateral and paired e) Anal fin .median and unpaired i) types by skeletal support -> heterocercal: vertebrae extends to the tip and is bent upward -> homocercal: vertebrae do not extend to the tip -> diphycercal: vertebrae extends to the tip but is not bent upward ii) types by form -> forked . pufferfishes) -> emarginate . Gobies) b) Pelvic or ventral fin .

organ of balance rather than for sound detection -> otolith: bone in the ear used to determine age of fishes (number of rings) Lateral line . spots. etc…) for camouflage .FISH BIOLOGY Sensory organs Eyes .e. respond to lowfrequency pressure stimuli in the surrounding water ("touch response") Other external features a) Spines .without lids (i.chemoreception (sense of smell for dissolved materials) Ears .defense against enemies/predators (ex.distinct markings (lines.slender canal with many openings to the surface.used to attract prey (ex. triggerfishes) b) Lures . others see color. some don't Nostrils . do not close eyes). lanternfishes) c) Coloration .

ex.for burst swimming ii) dark muscles . Gobies) -> burrowing (ex.ex.FISH BIOLOGY Internal features In relation to locomotion and movements a) type of skeleton i) cartilagenous . Sharks and rays ii) bony . Flyingfishes) -> crawling (ex. Mudskippers) -> soaring (ex. Blennies) . Ray-finned fishes b) type of muscles i) white muscles . Remoras in the back of sharks) ii) non-swimming locomotion -> leaping (ex.for sustained swimming c) types of locomotion in fishes i) swimming locomotion -> active swimming (‘wig-wag’-type and ‘dolphin’-type) -> passive swimming (ex.

Tunas) -> limnodromous . Eels) In relation to digestion a) Mouth (position) i) terminal .migrate within freshwaters -> diadromous . Salmons) *catadromous: from freshwater to marine to spawn (ex. mouth is situated between the dorsal and the ventral portions of the upper and lower jaws ii) superior .equal upper and lower jaw (example: tunas).FISH BIOLOGY d) long distance movements (migration) i) residential (territorial) vs.shorter lower jaw (example: sharks) Buccal – pertains to the mouth Hyoid apparatus – formed by pieces of bones supporting the tongue .migrate in both marine and freshwaters *anadromous: from marine to freshwaters to spawn (ex.shorter upper jaw (example: hemiramphidae) iiI) inferior .migrate within marine waters (ex. migratory (schooling) fishes ii) Types of migratory fishes -> oceanodromous .

cloaca i) tongue do have taste buds ii) digestive tract similar to other vertebrates d) methods of feeding i) seizers . intestine. esophagus. Anchovies) iv) engulfers . Parrotfishes) .prefer plants (ex. Barracudas) ii) suckers .strain organisms from the water (ex. Butterflyfishes) iv) modifications (beak-like) .seize their prey with the jaws (ex.flat and not sharp (ex. Parrotfishes) c) Tongue.pointed and sharp (ex.united to form one teeth (ex. Barracudas) ii) herbivorous .prefer animals (ex. stomach. Balistids) iii) villiform .FISH BIOLOGY b) Teeth (types) i) caniniform .suck food in by expanding the mouth (ex. Barracudas) ii) molariform . Anglerfishes) e) types by preferred food i) carnivorous . Ponyfishes) iii) strainers .minute and many (ex.engulfing the prey by sudden opening of the mouth (ex.

Ponyfishes) In relation to reproduction and care of the young a) Sexes i) Bisexual . most fishes) *sexual dimorphism: male and female show distinct characteristics ii) Hermaphroditic . sequential in most groupers) *sex reversal: change of sex dependent on some factors b) Fertilization i) Internal . v) detritivores .prefer detritus (ex.eggs and sperms are layed in the environment Gonopodium – an enlarged anal fin modified as a copulatory organ . prefer animals when adult -> simultaneous: feed on both plants and animals at the same life stage iv) scavengers .FISH BIOLOGY iii) omnivorous .sexes not separate (ex.prefer both plants and animals -> sequential: prefer plant when young.presence of modified organ (clasper in sharks) for copulation ii) External .separate sexes ( on dead animals (ex.

Syngnathidae) -> nesters: build nests (ex.give birth to young and source of nutrition is mother iii) Ovoviviparous .planktonic.high fecundity.give birth to young but source of nutrition is yolk d) Life history i) Eggs and larvae . give care and attention to the young -> brooders: hide in mouth (ex. dispersed to greater distances ii) Fry and fingerlings .look for food and spawn when mature e) Investment on the offspring i) non-guarders .FISH BIOLOGY c) Types (source of nutrition) i) Oviparous . do not care for the young ii) guarders . Tilapia) or pouch (ex.lay eggs ii) Viviparous .low fecundity. Salmons) Dimorphism – condition in which different fishes differ notably in character or proportions of body . move to preferred habitats iii) Adult .capable of swimming.

N2.protect gills against hard particles d) Swim bladder .salt content is higher in the body.FISH BIOLOGY In relation to respiration a) Gills . their body absorbs water from the environment. exchange of O2 and CO2 occur b) Gill slits and operculum .help in suction or forcing of water to the gills c) Gill rakers . serve as a sense organ. hydrostatic organ for floating -> aid in respiration. gases like O2.ability to maintain the in the body a reasonably constant proportion of salt and water Freshwater fishes . so they do not drink water . and sound production Labyrinthine organ – accessory organ for air breathing in the form of a series of intricate wide passages found in air-breathing fishes Weberian apparatus – the chain of small bones developed in connection with the modified anterior vertebrae and connecting the air-bladder with the ear In relation to body salt maintenance Osmoregulation .breathing organ.

ex.larger or carnivorous fishes attacking smaller fishes (ex. Cleaner wrasse) Negative interactions parasitism . herrings) mutualism . Sharks) .aggregation of pelagic fishes (ex. since their body losses water to the environment. they drink large quantities of seawater and eliminate the excess salts In relation to defense against enemies Spines .FISH BIOLOGY Marine fishes .salt content is lower in the body.both fishes benefit from the interaction (ex.presence of toxic chemical to stung enemies or prey (ex: scorpionfishes) Other biological features (associations) Positive interactions shoaling or schooling . Tunas. Cyclostomes (sucking blood of host fishes) predation .presence of sharp spines in head or other parts of the body (ex: triggerfishes) Toxic substances .

boxfishes. the horns are used in capturing prey or driving it into its wide mouth Protogyny – kind of hermaphrodite where an organism is female first and sex change later into male The mucous coating of the anemone fish provides the immunity not to be stung by the anemone Bristletooths – other name for chaetodonts or butterfly fish Plectognaths – represented by puffers. triggerfishes .FISH BIOLOGY Caudal peduncle – tapering portion of the fish body behind the base of the last ray of the anal fin Chemoreception – the process of receiving chemical stimuli from the environment when taste and smell are not distinctly identified It is not true that lobsters and other crustaceans rely primarily on their vision to detect food Neuromast – basic sensory unit in the mechano-sensory lateral line system of fishes and amphibians Masking – mechanism which analyzes the various sound stimuli received and being able to ignore the other sound sources relative to the sound to be perceived most Mauthner cells – giant nerve-endings that connect the auditory nerve to the brain Manta ray – its head has horny projections which suggests the popular notion of the devil and makes it unlike all other rays.

with usually big mouth.FISH BIOLOGY Wrasseheads – referring to large males of some parrotfish species with developed large prominent forehead Rheotaxis – behavioral response of fishes to currents which help young aquatic animals to counteract passive drift Hearing generalist – term referring to fishes having no connection between inner ear and the swimbladder Abyssal fishes – fishes of extraordinary shape and appearance. small or no eyes at all and sometimes carry with them a kind of luminous organ Endemic – when a certain species is confined to or occurring nowhere except in the place in question .

Mesosphere – layer (from about 50 km) where air temperature becomes isothermal and then decreases once again (stratopause) 4. Exosphere – region where atoms and molecules shoot off into space. isothermal zone. Synoptic meteorology – sciences which deals with the analysis and prediction of weather and climate Layers of the atmosphere: 1.METEOROLOGY Meteorology – study of the atmosphere Two branches: 1. Stratosphere – layer (from about 20 km) where temperature increases with increase in height. represents the upper limit of atmosphere . Troposphere – region of circulating air extending upward from the earth’s surface to where the air stops getting colder with height (tropopause – boundary separating the tropopause and stratopause. varies with latitude and season) 2. Thermosphere – layer (from about 85 km) where air temperature becomes isothermal and then increases with height (mesopause) 5. ozone layer 3. Dynamic meteorology – study of the atmospheric motions of the lower atmosphere and their causes 2.

08 20. Wind (speed and direction) 6. Cloud (type and cover) 7. Humidity – water vapor content of air 2. Atmospheric pressure 4.METEOROLOGY Composition of the atmosphere: Gas Nitrogen Oxygen Carbon Dioxide Water vapor Others Symbol N2 O2 CO2 H2O % by volume 78.95 0. Air temperature 5. Precipitation 3. Visibility Hydrologic (water) cycle .03 0–4 about 1 Weather elements: 1.

and local winds except for atmospheric winds Doldrums – is a low pressure belt near the equator that lies roughly between latitudes 10o South and 10o North Fronts – boundaries between two air masses with different temperatures or densities Beaufort wind scale – used by mariners and meteorologists to indicate wind velocity Ionosphere – the upper part of the atmosphere consisting of several layers of electricity-charged particles . atmospheric pressure. temperature begins to decrease with height Winds maybe classified into the following major types: prevailing winds. etc… except seasons It is false to say that in the stratosphere. precipitation. from the sea to the land. seasonal winds. it is caused by the temperature difference when the surface of the land is warmer than the adjacent body of water Weather elements are temperature.METEOROLOGY Sea breeze – a diurnal coastal breeze that blows inshore.

seas. etc. lakes. Types of fishing:  Commercial – for profit  Sustenance – for food  Sports – for recreation Fishing gear – tool or instrument used to capture fish (note: a fishing gear may make use of several fishing methods or combinations of methods) Fishing method – the manner or system of operation of a particular gear to effect fish catch .FISHING SCIENCE Fishing – involves the recovery of fish and other aquatic products from bodies of water Fish and other aquatic products: fishes. mammals. rivers. invertebrates. plants Bodies of water: oceans. birds.

which are mostly demersal (i. free-living (capable of movement like crawlers. Gathering sessile marine organisms is easy. residential fishes. more imagination and creativity is needed to catch crawling crabs and lobsters. Benthic organisms are either: a.FISHING SCIENCE Review: 1. For example: if you want to gather bivalves and univalves. burrowers & slow swimmers 3. live near the sea bottom). . 2. catching marine organisms that are capable of movement is not easy. A little imagination and creativity is needed to catch burrowing crabs and bivalves. 2. migratory fishes. Two basic subdivisions: the benthic and pelagic environments. are usually fast swimmers Catching: 1. sessile (not capable of movement) b. and more than imagination and creativity is needed to catch active swimmers that can easily avoid any fish gear. nektonic (active swimmers) i. you simple go to the area where they are abundant and pluck them out. which are truly pelagic. However. planktonic (passive swimmers) b. Pelagic organisms are all free-living but there two types: a. are slow swimmers ii.e.

lobsters). etc…) 4. or spawning. For our purpose. fishers also were able to create various types of fishing methods. several modifications can be found.FISHING SCIENCE 3. squids). different fishing method is used in shallow waters compared to deeper waters. for example. however. Demersal fishes are more territorial (i. For a particular method. Now. However. crustaceans (shrimps. Likewise. usually live alone or in small groups) Diversity of fishing gears and methods: 1. feeding.e. because of the diversity of fishing methods classifying them become difficult. They usually group when migrating. I will introduce to you some popular classifications . and bony fishes (tunas. 2. bivalves. because of the diversity of marine habitats or marine environments where different marine animals of different characteristics and behavior live. Important behavior of pelagic fishes is schooling. echinoderms (sea urchin. Fishing gears are therefore classified into major groups. Groups of marine animals that are being exploited are the molluscs (univalves. Different fishing methods are used in the pelagic environment compared to the benthic environment. crabs. cartilagenous fishes (sharks and rays). sea cucumbers).

multiple handlines. or traditional fishing) spears dredges scoops cover pots lines (simple handlines.FISHING SCIENCE 3. sustenance. municipal or commercial c) Passive or active fishing gears d) Weight of fishing vessel used e) Gear material used Different fishing methods a) Hand instruments (one fisher) b) Passive fishing (one or more fisher) c) Active fishing (more than one fisher) Hand instruments (artisinal. pole and lines) . jiggers. Fishing methods can be classified according to: a) Non-motorized or motorized method b) Artisanal.

otter trawl) . purse seines. trammel nets) Active fishing gears (mobile impounding nets) cast nets drive-in nets lift nets (bagnets. beam trawl. troll lines) traps (fish/crab pots. fish shelters) barriers (barricades. fish corrals) impounding nets (filter nets. drift gill nets. skimming nets) pull nets seines (beach seines.FISHING SCIENCE Passive fishing gears lines (set longlines. fyke nets) entangling nets (set gillnets . ring nets) dredge nets trawls (danish trawl. encircling gillnets. drift longlines. lever nets) push nets (scissor nets.

Ars. shelter) others (electricity. baits) Destructive fishing methods use of poisonous chemicals (cyanide) use of explosives (dynamite) use of inappropriate fishing gear (trawling near coral reefs) use of fine-meshed nets (filter nets) non-selective fishing gear (fish corral.FISHING SCIENCE Fishing accessories attraction devices (light) fish lures (jiggers) aggregating devices (payaw. trawls) .

etc… Bobbing – done by a simple up and down movement or jerking of the line in the water which stimulates movement of possible prey. Squid jigger Dragging & pushing – movement is either parallel or vertical to the shore. competitors. ex. acoustical or tactile in nature. Muro-ami . either positive (to lure the fish) or negative effect (frighten it away). ex. ex. certain gears such as drag nets and push nets sometimes use a scareline accessory to drive fish toward the gear. chemical. ex. pulling or towing the fishing gear at a constant rate to catch fish. drag nets Dredging – used to catch bottom fish dwellers. requires scraping or scratching the surface of the seabed to collect seashells and fish Drive-in – frightening fish and leading it towards the fishing gear. or sexual partners and attracts the predator to grab the gear. by pushing. payaos. fish are also driven by the noise created by striking the water. Push nets. Light. stimuli attracting fish can be optical. artificial baits & lures. bait. and also works against the current.FISHING SCIENCE (Fishing Methods) Attracting – used to draw the fishes and other marine animals to the gear to effect capture.

by being driven.FISHING SCIENCE (Fishing Methods) Entangling – use nets for its operation. would make harvesting of catch easier for the fishers Gilling – passive way of catching fish. Trammel nets Falling – catching fish by covering the prey with the fishing gear. net used is specifically designed to its target fish species and size Grasping – simply catching fish and other aquatic animals through the use of hands. passively waiting for the fish to pass through. fish or crabs entangle themselves in the netting by coming into the single. limits the space and constrict the catch to the bottom and/or within the parameters of the gear. baits are also used to lure marine animals into the net. curtains of nets are set vertically along the swimming path of the fish. double or triple walled nets voluntarily or forcibly. ex. that is. and when entangled. this method makes it difficult for the captured prey to get away. means of gathering marine resources without or with minimal use of fishing gears .

hooking happens when the fish bites into the hook. it is a passive method. or be done indirectly by instigating disruption to the fish habitat using an environment-altering device that can cause paralysis to the fish .FISHING SCIENCE (Fishing Methods) Hooking & Ripping – use of a line with hooks or any angular piece of metal with sharp end. method could passively wait for the fish to get in close proximity to the gear before lifting or it could actively look for the prey before positioning the net and lifting it to produce same effect Setting – a simple process of positioning the gear in the fishing area with minimal motion applied to capture fish. can be directly inflicted on the fish or marine animals. and when fish swim over the gear. the gear is lifted from the water resulting to fish capture. optical or other sensory stimuli are also applied to attract the target species to the gear Stupefying – to paralyze or stun the prey temporarily to make collection easier for the fishers. improved with the aid of a bait or lure placed in the hook. ripping refers to the event then the fish gets in contact with the hook and is cut or pierced by it because of the jerking motion applied to the line Lifting – process involves the setting or lowering of a net into the water.

highly selective and labor intensive .FISHING SCIENCE (Fishing Methods) Trapping/Impounding – allow the prey to enter the trap voluntarily then make escape from the catching chamber or net bag impossible. lured by the bait. in the process. trapping can also be implemented with the use of the water current that drive the fish to the set net and remain concentrated at the cod end Wounding – catch is primarily incapacitated first by wounding. similar gears used for hunting terrestrial animals and catching aquatic prey. the prey is stunned. integrates designs in the traps that make it difficult for the fish to find its way out. or it could be allowed to enter the trap by chance. or even killed. fish could be guided to the trap.

harpoons. rakes & hand dredges. crab lift nets. snares. anchovy. drift gillnet. stationary lift nets. pole & line. drive-in gillnet) Trammel nets: 2-ply. spear guns. octopus luring device). scoops & dip nets. mobile lift nets.FISHING SCIENCE (Fishing Gears) Hand Instruments: spears. multiple handlines (including multiple troll line). sardine and mackerel gillnet. jiggers. encircling gillnet. floating/surface set gillnet. troll line. bag nets. cover pots Traps: fish pots. fish corrals. blanket nets). longlines (drift longline. 3-ply Lift nets: skimming nets. Lines: simple handlines (dropline. drift hook & line. typical gillnets (bottom set gillnet. typical lift nets (simple lift nets. set longline) Gillnets: fixed gillnets. lever nets. round haul seines .

single-boat trawling. spanish trawl). fry bulldozers Falling nets: cast nets. fry filter nets Destructive & stupefying: electrofishing. otter trawl. irish trawl. mid-water trawling Push nets: typical push nets. push nets with scaring devices. poisons .FISHING SCIENCE (Fishing Gears) Surrounding nets: stop seines. purse seines. blast fishing. boat push nets. cover nets Tidal nets: filter nets. double stick seine) Trawls and boat dredges: boat dredges. ring nets Seines: seine nets (beach seine. japanese trawl. trawls (beam trawl. bottom trawling. danish seine. lampara nets. twoboat trawling or pair trawling. vigneron-dahl trawl. hoop nets.

FISHING SCIENCE (Philippine Fishing Grounds) .

medium scale commercial fishing – fishing utilizing active gears and vessels of 20. business.1 up to 150 gross tons 3. where or not the same are subsequently recovered .FISHING SCIENCE (Philippine Fishery Laws) RA 8550 (Philippine Fisheries Code) Definition of terms: Catch ceilings – refers to the annual catch limits allowed to be taken.1 up to 20 gross tons 2. gathered or harvested from any fishing area in consideration of the need to present overfishing and harmful depletion of breeding stocks of aquatic organisms Closed season – the period during which the taking of specified fishery species by a specified fishing gear is prohibited in a specified area or areas in Philippine waters Commercial fishing – taking of fishery species by passive or active gear for trade. large scale commercial fishing – fishing utilizing active gears and vessels of more than 150 gross tons Electrofishing – the use of electricity generated by batteries. to be further classified as: 1. electric generators and other source of electric power to kill. small scale commercial fishing – fishing with passive or active gear utilizing fishing vessels of 3. disable or render unconscious species. or profit beyond subsistence or sports fishing. stupefy.

FISHING SCIENCE (Philippine Fishery Laws) RA 8550 (Philippine Fisheries Code) – cont… Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) – an area beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea which shall not extend beyond 200 nautical miles from the baselines as defined under existing laws Fine mesh nets – net with mesh size of less than 3 cm measured between 2 opposite knots of a full mesh when stretched or as other determined by the appropriate government agency Fishery refuge and sanctuaries – a designated area where fishing or other forms of activities which may damage the ecosystem of the area is prohibited and human access may be restricted Fishery reserve – a designated area where activities are regulated and set aside for educational and research purposes Fishing – the taking of fisheries species from their wild state or habitat. with or without the use of fishing vessels Fishing gear – any instrument or device and its accessories utilized in taking fish and other fishery species 1. Passive fishing gear . Active fishing gear 2.

FISHING SCIENCE (Philippine Fishery Laws) RA 8550 (Philippine Fisheries Code) – cont… Fishing with explosives – ex. or from any fishery species or group of fishery species. or a combination of area and species and normally would not exceed the MSY . one year) on a sustainable basis under existing environmental conditions Municipal fishing – refers to fishing within municipal waters using fishing vessels of 3 gross tons or less. or fishing not requiring the use of fishing vessels Municipal waters – …marine waters included between 2 lines drawn perpendicular to the general coastline from points where the boundary lines of the municipality touch the sea at low tide and a third line parallel with the general coastline including offshore islands and 15 km from such coastline…. Total Allowable Catch (TAC) – the maximum harvest allowed to be taken during a given period of time from any fishery area. Use of dynamites Fishing with noxious or poisonous substances – ex. Use of cyanide Gross tonnage – (100 cubic feet = 1 gross ton) Limited access – a fishery policy by which a system of equitable resource use and allocation is established by law through fishery rights granting and licensing procedures Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) – is the largest average quantity of fish that can be harvested from a fish stock/resource within a period of time (e.g.

Development. Management. Conservation and Allocation System of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Section 7 Access to Fishery Resources Section 8 Catch Ceiling Limitations Section 9 Establishment of Closed Season Article I Municipal Fisheries Sections 16-25 Article II Commercial Fisheries Sections 26-44 Chapter VI Prohibitions and Penalties Sections 86-107 .FISHING SCIENCE (Philippine Fishery Laws) RA 8550 (Philippine Fisheries Code) – cont… Chapter II Utilization.

FISHING SCIENCE Fish corral – are guarding barriers which are so constructed as to lead fishes during the course of their migration to an enclosure where they are caught Western Central Pacific – the Philippines belonged to this FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization) Statistical Area Aggregation – movement of fish gathering over an extended period of time .

Benthos – organisms attached to bottom substrate Other classification: Phytoplankton – drifting microscopic plants Zooplankton – drifting microscopic animals Holoplankton (permanent plankton) – organisms whose entire life is planktonic Meroplankton (temporary plankton) – organisms whose part of life is planktonic and another part nektonic or benthic. plants General forms of marine organisms according to oceanic life style: 1. invertebrates. Marine organisms: fishes. birds. Nekton – swimming organisms 3. mammals. Plankton – drifting organisms 2. .MARINE ECOLOGY Marine ecology – the study of the relationships of marine organisms to one another and to the factors that comprise their environment.

MARINE ECOLOGY Pleuston – passively floating organisms partially exposed to air and moved mainly by wind Neuston – small swimming organisms inhabiting the surface water film Epineuston – on the aerial side Hyponeuston – on the water side Seston – fine particles suspended in water Factors that comprise the environment  Biotic factors = biological factors (animals and plants comprising the environment of the organisms)  Abiotic factors = non-biological factors 1. Physical factors (light, temperature, salinity, density, pressure, tides, waves, currents) 2. Chemical factors (oxygen, carbon dioxide, sodium chloride, sulphate, magnesium, etc.) Relationships:  Predator-prey relationship  Competition  Symbiosis  Parasitism  Commensalism

MARINE ECOLOGY Marine ecosystems Ecosystem – an ecological unit composed of the organisms and the abiotic factors of the environment Some important marine ecosystems: 1. Coral reef – association of bottom-living and attached organisms and their hard calcareous and stony skeletons (note: role of zooxanthella) Types of reefs: a. fringing reef – a coral reef that forms immediately adjacent to an island or continental landmass b. barrier reef – a coral reef that is separated from the landmass by a lagoon or channel c. atoll – a ring-shaped reef arising out of deep water far from land masses that usually encloses a lagoon 2. Mangrove forest – a variety of tropical inshore communities dominated by several species of shrubs or trees that have the ability to grow in salt water (halophytes) 3. Estuary – a partially enclosed coastal embayment where freshwater and seawater meet and mix

MARINE ECOLOGY Marine ecosystems (cont…) 4. Seagrass community – association of flowering plants that have adapted to live submerged in seawater and other living marine organisms 5. Shore communities *Rocky shore *Muddy shore *Sandy shore Some world renown ecosystems: *Sargasso Sea, Atlantic Ocean *Great Barrier Reef, Eastern coast of Australia (about 2,000 km in length) *Antarctic Marine Ecosystem *Peru Current *Thermal vents

MARINE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Fish resource management – study of exploited fish resources and their optimum utilization Different perspective in managing fish resources  Environment => Biodiversity  Resource => Capital  Livelihood => Income (note: Russel’s axiom. MSY and MEY .

tide and current Navigation – the science of conducting a boat or ship by method of determining its position. .SEAMANSHIP AND NAVIGATION Seamanship – the art of managing or handling a ship or boat under varying conditions of weather. course and distance travelled.

207p. 1972. Ross DA. London. 403p. 351p. J . New York. 1977. New Jersey. and J. USA. Commercial fishing methods. 1986. 240p. Bardach. 506p. a view of the earth. Jr.. London. Wootton. Prentice-Hall Inc. 438p. Cech. Biology of Fishes. New York. . 3rd edition. 590p. 1996. Carl E. B. 2nd edition. J. 1977. 1972. Fishes: An Introduction to Ichthyology. Fish catching methods of the world. New Jersey. 1990. Lagler K. Fishing New Book Ltd. John Wiley and Sons. W. Moyle. Introduction to oceanography. Philadelphia. Academic Press. 1979. Prentice-Hall.. Von Brandt A. Prentice-Hall Inc. Nybakken JW. 514p.. Royce WF. an ecological approach. May Passino. Marine biology. Chapman and Hall. 1987. Robert J. Saunders Company. 514p.. Harper and Row.E. Miller and D. Introduction to fishery sciences. Oceanography. R. Bond. Sainsbury JC. R. 406p. 1988. New Jersey. R. B. Fishing News Book Ltd.SUGGESTED REFERENCES: Gross MG. London.L. Ecology of Teleost Fishes. P. Ichthyology.

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