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In today's world water is becoming an increasingly scarce resource and planners are forced to consider any sources of water which might be used economically and effectively to promote further development. At the same time, with population expanding at a high rate, the need for the treatment of waste water has long been recognized. Expansion of urban populations and increased coverage of domestic water supply and sewerage give rise to greater quantities of municipal wastewater. With the current emphasis on environmental health and water pollution issues, there is an Click to edit Master subtitle style increasing awareness of the need to treat & dispose of these wastewaters safely and beneficially. There are a large variety of treatment techniques designed to remove pollutants from wastewater. The objective of wastewater treatment is to separate wastes from water. In one sense, all wastewater treatment processes can be considered separation processes. There are physical, chemical and biological separation 4/13/12 processes. Sedimentation and screening are examples of physical

Municipal wastewater is mainly comprised of water (99.9%) together with relatively small concentrations of suspended and dissolved organic and inorganic solids. Among the organic substances present in sewage are carbohydrates, lignin, fats, soaps, synthetic detergents, proteins and their decomposition products, as well as various natural and synthetic organic chemicals from the process industries.

Characteristics of Municipal Waste Water

Strong Medium Weak

Constituent ( Concentration, mg/l)

Total Solids Dissolved Solids Suspended Solids Nitrogen (as N) Phosphorus (as P) Chloride Alkalinity (as CaCO3 ) Oil & Grease BOD (five days) 4/13/12 COD

1200 850 350 85 20 100 200 150 300 910

700 500 200 40 10 50 100 100 200 455

350 250 100 20 6 30 50 50 100 230

Management of Municipal Waste Water Associated Tasks Elements of Wastewater

Source of generation Quantification of wastewater, evaluation of techniques of wastewater reduction and determination of wastewater characteristics Design of onsite systems to provide partial treatment of the wastewater Design of sewers used to remove wastewater from the various sources of generation Design of large sewers used to transport wastewater to treatment facilities Selection, analysis and design of treatment operations and processes to meet specified treatment objectives related to the removal of wastewater contaminants of concern Design of facilities used for the disposal and reuse of treated effluent in the

Source control


Transmission and pumping


Disposal and reuse 4/13/12

Collection of Sewage


Typical scheme for Municipal waste Water Treatment


Typical Flow Diagram of Municipal Waste Water Treatment


Conventional Wastewater Treatment Plant

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Treatment Options
Different Type of Municipal Waste Water Treatment Plant A . Waste Stabilization Pond
Waste water stabilization pond technology is one of the most important natural methods for wastewater treatment. Waste stabilization ponds are mainly shallow man-made basins comprising a single or several series of anaerobic, facultative or maturation ponds .

B. Oxidation Ditch
The oxidation ditch (OD) is a sort of equipment used for a long-term aeration. It consists of a long channel of an elliptical or circular shape equipped with an aeration equipment called a rotor for generating a water flow and stirring water in the channel to supply oxygen. Thought it requires a relatively large area, it has a simple structure and can be easily operated as well as being able to remove nitrogen easily. Thus, it has recently been widely used in relatively small wastewater treating plants.

C . Sequential Batch Reactor

The Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) is an activated sludge process designed to operate under non-steady state conditions. An SBR operates in a true batch mode with aeration and sludge settlement both occurring in the same tank.

4/13/12 D . Activated Sludge Process

Treatment Options
Different Type of Municipal Waste Water Treatment Plant

E.FAB (Fluidized Aerobic Bioreactor) or MBBR (Moving Bed Bio Reactor)

A packing medium comprised of a spherical net-like shell, plastic stuffing, and a perforated hollow duct for biological reactors was investigated. In this study, we examined a bio film process that employed the packing medium for combined aerobic carbonaceous substances removal, nitrification, and denitrification.

G.UASB (Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket)

Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) technology, normally referred to as UASB reactor, is a form of anaerobic digester that is used in the treatment of wastewater. The UASB reactor is a methanogenic (methane-producing) digester that evolved from the anaerobic digester. UASB used as pre treatment along with the activated sludge process.

H.MBR (Membrane Bio Reactor)

The MBR process can be employed in activated sludge processes, using the 4/13/12 membranes as liquid-solid separation instead of the usual settling. Suspended

Different Type of Waste Water Treatment

Waste Stabilization Pond

Oxidation Ditch

Sequential Batch Reactor


Activated Sludge Process

Different Type of Waste Water Treatment

SAFF reactor

FAB/MBBR reactor


Membrane Bio


The activated sludge process has been employed extensively throughout the world in its conventional form and modified forms, all of which are capable of meeting secondary treatment effluent limits. This chapter presents the different modifications of the conventional activated sludge process, including general bases for design, methods of aeration, and design factors for aeration tanks, final sedimentation units and sludge handling systems.

Conventional Activated Sludge Process



Other Type of Activated Sludge Process





Units of Activated Sludge ProcessBar Screens and Influent

Pumping Station Raw wastewater is received at the WWTP through gravity and force mains. Three types of wastewater enter the facility: domestic or municipal wastewater, combined domestic and industry wastewater, and industrial wastewater. The raw wastewater first passes through traveling bridge bar screens that remove large debris, rags, cigarette butts, etc. Figures 1 and 2 shows the influent bar screens.


Units of Activated Sludge Process through the After passing

bar screens, the screened wastewater is pumped up to the head works, by one of four centrifugal
Figures 4 and 5 show a centrifugal pump and motor which provides energy to the pump.


The screened wastewater is pumped from the influent pumping station to the headwork. Wastewater flows by gravity from this point through the treatment process.

Figures 6, 7, and 8 show the different types of wastewater entering the treatment train. Each of the influent chambers in aerated to mix and aerate the wastewater.


Wastewater flows from each influent chamber through a parshall flume. These flumes are used for measuring the wastewater flowrate. Figure 9 shows one of the parshall flumes

Measurement of Waste Water Inflow

After the flow is measured, the wastewater flows through an aerated, concrete, channel to the grit chamber (Figure 10). Figure 10 shows one of the aerated grit chambers.


Figure 11 shows a grit washer used for removing organics from the grit.

Fine Screening Arrangement

A micro screen is used for removing additional materials that were not removed by the bar screens (Figure 12).

Figure 13 shows the materials removed by the micro screen. They are emptied into a dumpster and transported to the landfill for disposal.

Grit from the grit washers is discharged into a dumpster and hauled to a landfill for disposal (Figure 14).


Secondary Treatment
After preliminary treatment, the wastewater three trains. flows into one of






consists of aeration followed by secondary clarification. Substrate is used by microorganisms during


Secondary Treatment
Thickened sludge or biomass in the secondary clarifiers is returned to the head of the aeration basin in order to maintain a specified concentration of microorganisms or solids in the aeration basins. The recycled sludge or biomass is called return activated sludge (RAS) and must be pumped back to the head 4/13/12

Units in Secondary Treatment


Alternative Options for Aeration & clarifier

Diffuser Network

Air Blower

4/13/12 Tube Settler

Tube Pac Media

After secondary clarification, the wastewater flows by gravity to the sand filters that remove additional suspended solids that were not removed during clarification

Tertiary Treatment/Filtration Unit

Figure 19 shows a picture of the mud well and Figure 20 is a photo of the sand filters that receives the backwash water. There are a total of eight sand filters in operation at this WWTP.

Alternative option for filtration :Pressure Filters


After filtration, the wastewater must be disinfected prior to discharge. Chlorine is added to the wastewater before it enters the chlorine contact chamber where it remains approximately 30 minutes. This allows enough time for the chlorine to kill pathogens in the wastewater. Oxygen is also added to the wastewater through diffusers. The chlorine residual is measured continuously and must be removed from the wastewater before discharge. Chlorinators are used for dissolution of chlorine gas into water prior to injection into the wastewater.

Other Disinfection options Left- Ozonator; right-UV 4/13/12

Sludge, or biosolids from the secondary clarifiers is waste to the gravity thickeners (figure 30).Here the sludge is thickened prior to sending it to the aerated holding tanks (Figure 31). From the aerated holding tanks, the thickened sludge is pumped to the belt filter press (Figure 32). Polymer is added to enhance dewatering of the sludge. The dewatered sludge is loaded onto trucks (Figure 33) and hauled to a processing facility, which composts the sludge, and then land applies it onto agricultural land.

Sludge Disposal & Treatment

Filter Press ( Plate & Frame type )Other options for Sludge dewatering