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Capacitance of a single core cable

Capacitance of a single core cable


Single core cable consists of two long co-axial cylinders. Inner cylinder is conductor and outer cylinder is a lead sheath.
R=D/2 R=d/2

Radius of the cylinder is = x

According to gauss law

Flux density = Here charge=Q Surface area =2 Radius =2 x


Flux density , Dx Cm

Electric Field intensity at point P is given by,

Since

Potential Difference between Conductor and sheath is given by R=D/2 r=d/2

Since

or

Capacitance for cable is given by


or Substitute the values of F/m

or

Dielectric Stress

Dielectric Stress: Here dielectric stress is equal to electric field intensity at point p

Since

Now voltage is given by

Substitute Q in

Maximum stress will be at the surface of the conductor, x=r Since,r=d/2

Minimum stress will be at the Sheath, x=R Since,R=D/2

So dielectric stress is

Grading of cables

Grading of cables
Maximum stress will be at the surface of the conductor and minimum stress will be at the sheath. To avoid breakdown of insulation it is necessary to have uniform distribution of stress all along the insulator The process of obtaining uniform distribution of stress in the insulation of cables is called grading of cables

Types of Grading
Use of inter sheaths for grading Capacitance grading

Use of inter sheaths for grading


In this method of grading the between the core and lead sheaths number of metallic sheaths are placed which are called as inter sheaths
Radius of the conductor =d/2 Radius of the intersheath1=d1/2 Radius of the intersheath1=d2/2 Radius of the lead sheath=D/2

Use of intersheaths for grading


Let V1 be the voltage between core and inter sheath1 Let V2 be the voltage between intersheath1 and inter sheath2 Let V3 be the voltage between intersheath2 and Lead sheath

Maximum stress between core and sheath given by


Let V1 be the voltage between core and inter sheath1 Let V2 be the voltage between intersheath1 and inter sheath2 Let V3 be the voltage between intersheath2 and Lead sheath

We can write Maximum stress between core and inter sheath1 as

Similarly, Maximum stress between inter sheath1 and inter sheath2 is

Similarly, Maximum stress between inter sheath2 and Lead sheath is

Now

Voltage between conductor and lead sheath is

Capacitance grading

Capacitance grading
In this type grading is done by using layers of dielectrics having different permittivitties between core and sheath Let d be the diameter of conductor Let d1 be the diameter of dielectric with permittivity Let d2 be the diameter of dielectric with permittivity

As we know, dielectric stress is given by

Here the stress at inner dielectric is given by (1) Here the stress at outer dielectric is given by

(2)

Total voltage can be expressed as

Since

We know

From (1) the maximum stress at the surface of conductor is ,i.e x=d/2
(3)

From (2) the maximum stress at the surface inner dielectric is , i.e x=d1/2

(4)

Substitute the value of Q in (3)

Similarly Substitute the value of Q in (4)