You are on page 1of 57

ELEMENTS OF

RESEARCH

RESEARCH DEFINED
2

It is the scientific investigation

of phenomena which includes collection, presentation, analysis and interpretation of facts that links an individual speculation with reality.

RESEARCH DEFINED
3

It is the systematic study of trend

or event which involves careful collection, presentation, analysis and interpretation of quantitative data or facts that relates mans thinking with reality.

TYPES OF RESEARCH
4

Basic Applied Developmental

BASIC RESEARCH
5

also called fundamental or pure

research seeks to discover basic truths or principles intended to add to the body of scientific knowledge as well as to discover new facts has no immediate practical utility

APPLIED RESEARCH
6

involves seeking new applications of

scientific knowledge to the solution of a problem produces new knowledge a method, a product, or a procedure of practical use to man

DEVELOPMENTAL RESEARCH
7

A decision-oriented research

involving the application of the steps of scientific method in response to an immediate need to improve existing practices.

CLASSIFICATION OF RESEARCH
8

Library Research

Field Research Laboratory Research

LIBRARY RESEARCH
9

done in the library where

answers to specific questions or problems of the study are available is applicable to historical method

FIELD RESEARCH
10

is conducted in a natural

setting is applicable to descriptive survey and experimental methods

LABORATORY RESEARCH
11

aims to test hypotheses derived

from theory, to control variance under research conditions, and to discover the relations between the dependent and independent variables

LABORATORY RESEARCH
12

is conducted in artificial or controlled

conditions by isolating the study in a thoroughly specified and equipped area is applicable to experimental, descriptive, and case study methods

VALUES OF RESEARCH
13

It improves quality of life. It improves instruction.

It improves students achievement.


It improves teachers competence.

It satisfies mans needs.

VALUES OF RESEARCH
14

It reduces the burden of work. It has deep-seated psychological

aspects. It improves the exportation of food products.

VALUES OF RESEARCH
15

It responds to the economic recovery

and austerity measure of the country. It trains graduates to become more responsive to the economic development of the country and compete globally.

CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH
16

Empirical Logical Cyclical Analytical

Critical Methodical Replicable

EMPIRICAL
17

It is based on direct experience or

observation by the researcher The collection of data relies on practical experience without giving consideration to scientific knowledge or theory.

LOGICAL
18

It is based on valid procedures

and principles. Scientific study is done in an orderly manner enabling the researcher to draw valid conclusions.

CYCLICAL
19

Research starts with a problem

and ends with a problem.

ANALYTICAL
20

Research utilizes proven

analytical procedures in gathering data, whether historical, descriptive, experimental, or case study.

CRITICAL
21

Research exhibits careful and

precise judgment.

METHODICAL
22

Research is conducted in a

methodical manner without bias using systematic method and procedures.

REPLICABLE
23

Replicability means using the same

instrument, method, and procedure but to different subjects and venue. The research design and procedures are repeated to enable the researcher to arrive at valid conclusive results.

QUALITIES OF A GOOD RESEARCHER


24

R - esearch-oriented E - fficient S - cientific E - ffective A - ctive R - esourceful C - reative

H - onest
E - conomical R - eligious

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RESEARCHER 25


Intellectual Curiosity Prudence Healthy Criticism Intellectual Honesty Intellectual Creativity

INTELLECTUAL CURIOSITY
26

A researcher:
undertakes

deep thinking and inquiry of the things, problems, and situations around him is keen to get information on these problems and situation raises questions to answer

INTELLECTUAL CURIOSITY
27

A researcher:
continues

to read the related literature and studies makes use of his/her experience exercises creativeness and inventiveness

PRUDENCE
28

The researcher:
is

careful to conduct his/her study at the right time and at the right place wisely, efficiently, and economically does the right thing at the right time

HEALTHY CRITICISM
29

The researcher is always doubtful

as to the veracity of the results.

INTELLECTUAL HONESTY
30

An intelligent researcher is honest

to collect or gather data or facts in order to arrive at honest results.

INTELLECTUAL CREATIVITY
31

A productive and resourceful

researcher:
always

creates new researches enjoys inventing unique, novel, and original researches considers research as his hobby is innovative

RESEARCH PROCESS
32

1. PROBLEM/OBJECTIVES 2. HYPOTHESES 3. THEORETICAL/CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 4. ASSUMPTIONS 5. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

RESEARCH PROCESS
33

6. RESEARCH DESIGN 7. DATA COLLECTION 8. DATA PROCESSING AND STATISTICAL TREATMENT 9. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 10. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

CHAPTER 1 PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND


34

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

HYPOTHESES
THEORETICAL/CONCEPTUAL

FRAMEWORK SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM


35

Factors to Consider:
The

problem is existing in the locality but there is no known solution The solution can be answered by using statistical methods and techniques There are probable solutions but they are not yet tested.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM


36

Factors to Consider:
The

occurrence of phenomena requires scientific investigation to arrive at precise solution. It is a serious need/problem of the people.

CHARACTERITICS OF A RESEARCH PROBLEM 37

SPECIFIC

MEASURABLE
ACHIEVABLE

REALISTIC
TIME-BOUND

CRITERIA OF A GOOD RESEARCH PROBLEM 38


INTERESTING
INNOVATIVE

COST-EFFECTIVE
RELEVANT

MEASURABLE AND TIME-

BOUND

HYPOTHESES
39

are wise guesses that are formulated and

temporarily adopted to explain the observed facts covered by the study guide the researcher by describing the procedure to follow in conducting the study tell the researcher what to do and how to go about solving a research problem

TYPES OF HYPOTHESIS
40

NULL
a

denial of an existence of a trait, characteristic, quality, value, correlation or difference of the result. is always stated in negative form
ARTIFICIAL
opposite

extreme of the null hypothesis

THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL41FRAMEWORK


Provide clear explanation regarding the

relationships of variables

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
42

shapes the justification of the research

problem/objectives in order to provide the legal basis for defining its parameters identifies key concepts for better understanding

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
43

symbolic construction using abstract concepts, facts or laws, variables and their relations that explain the phenomenon

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
44

presents

specific and well-defined concepts which are called constructs

VARIABLES
45

a quantity (numerical values or

categories) susceptible of fluctuation or change in value or magnitude under different conditions

TYPES OF VARIABLE
46

INDEPENDENT DEPENDENT MODERATOR CONTROL INTERVENING

INDEPENDENT VARIABLE
47

the stimulus variable chosen by

the researcher to determine its relationship to an observed phenomenon

DEPENDENT VARIABLE
48

The response variable observed

and measured to determine the effect of the independent variable

MODERATOR VARIABLE
49

A secondary or special type of

independent variable chosen by the researcher to determine if it changes or modifies the relationships between the independent and dependent variables

CONTROL VARIABLE
50

is controlled by the researcher

in which the effects can be neutralized by eliminating or removing the variable

INTERVENING VARIABLE
51

interferes with the independent

and dependent variables, but its effects can either strengthen or weaken the independent and dependent variables

ASSUMPTIONS
52

are presumed to be true statements

of facts related to the research problem give readers foundation to form conclusions

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY


53

The explanation of the significance of

the study is presented either in the inductive or deductive perspective. The researcher should prove that the study has important contributions in :
solving

the problem and need bridging a knowledge gap

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY


54

improving

social, economic and health

conditions enriching research instruments, methods and strategies, and supporting government thrusts

SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS


55

includes the coverage of the study area,

the subjects, the research apparatus, equipment or instrument, the research issues and concerns, the duration of the study, and the constraints that have direct bearing on the result of the study

DEFINITION OF TERMS
56

TWO WAYS OF DEFINING THE KEY

TERMS
CONCEPTUAL

DEFINITION is based on concepts or hypothetic ones which are usually taken from dictionary, encyclopedia, and published journals.

DEFINITION OF TERMS
57

TWO WAYS OF DEFINING THE KEY

TERMS
OPERATIONAL

DEFINITION is based on observable characteristics and how it is used in the study is preferable when defining technical terms