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Theory of Interpersonal Relations

Hildegard E. Peplau

Overview
Born

in Reading, Pennsylvania [1909] Graduated from a diploma program in Pottstown, Pennsylvania in 1931. Done BA in interpersonal psychology from Bennington College in 1943. MA in psychiatric nursing from Colombia University New York in 1947. EdD in curriculum development in 1953.

Overview
 Professor

emeritus from Rutgers university  Started first post baccalaureate program in nursing  Published Interpersonal Relations in Nursing in 1952  1968 :interpersonal techniques-the crux of psychiatric nursing  Worked as executive director and president of ANA.  Worked with W.H.O, NIMH and nurse corps.  Died in 1999.

Psychodynamic Nursing
Understanding To To

of ones own behavior

help others identify felt difficulties

apply principles of human relations to the problems that arise at all levels of experience

Psychodynamic Nursing
Discussed

the phases of interpersonal process, roles in nursing situations and methods for studying nursing as an interpersonal process.

Nursing

art, assisting an individual who is sick or in need of health care.

is therapeutic in that it is a healing

Psychodynamic Nursing
Nursing

it involves interaction between two or more individuals with a common goal. attainment of goal is achieved through the use of a series of steps following a series of pattern.

is an interpersonal process because

The

Psychodynamic Nursing
The

both become mature and knowledgeable in the process.

nurse and patient work together so

Key Terms
Person

- a developing organism that tries to reduce anxiety caused by needs - existing forces outside the organism and in the context of culture

Environment

Key Terms
 Health

- implies forward movement of personality and other ongoing human processes in the direction of creative, constructive, productive, personal and community living.
- A significant therapeutic interpersonal process. It functions cooperatively with other human process that make health possible for individuals in communities

 Nursing

Roles of the Nurse
Stranger Teacher Resource

Person Counselors Surrogate Leader

Roles of the Nurse
Stranger

- receives the client in the same way one meets a stranger in other life situations provides an accepting climate that builds trust. - who imparts knowledge in reference to a need or interest

Teacher

Roles of the Nurse
Resource

Person - one who provides a specific needed information that aids in the understanding of a problem/new situation - helps to understand and integrate the meaning of current life circumstances, provides guidance and encouragement to make changes

Counselors

Roles of the Nurse
Surrogate

- helps to clarify domains of dependence, interdependence and independence and acts on clients behalf as an advocate - helps client assume maximum responsibility for meeting treatment goals in a mutually satisfying way

Leader

Additional Roles
Technical

expert Consultant Health teacher Tutor Socializing agent Safety agent

Manager

of environment Mediator Administrator Recorder observer Researcher

Theory of Interpersonal Relations
Middle-range

theory

descriptive classification

Influenced

by Harry Stack Sullivan's theory of inter personal relations (1953)

Also

influenced by Percival Symonds , Abraham Maslow's and Neal Elger Miller

Theory of Interpersonal Relations
Identified

four sequential phases in the interpersonal relationship: 1. 2. 3. 4. Orientation Identification Exploitation Resolution

Orientation
Problem Starts

defining phase

when client meets nurse as stranger

Defining

problem and deciding type of service needed

Orientation Phase
Client

seeks assistance, conveys needs, asks questions, shares preconceptions and expectations of past experiences responds, explains roles to client, helps to identify problems and to use available resources and services

Nurse

Exploitation Phase
Use

of professional assistance for problem solving alternatives of services are used is based on the needs and interests of the patients

Advantages

Individual

feels as an integral part of the helping environment

Exploitation Phase
They

may make minor requests or attention getting techniques principles of interview techniques must be used in order to explore, understand and adequately deal with the underlying problem

The

Exploitation Phase
Patient Nurse

may fluctuate on independence

must be aware about the various phases of communication aids the patient in exploiting all avenues of help and progress is made towards the final step

Nurse

Resolution Phase
Termination

of professional relationship and dissolving the link between the nurse and the client. patients needs have already been met by the collaborative effect of patient and nurse.

The

Resolution Phase
Sometimes

may be difficult for both as psychological dependence persists. drifts away and breaks bond with nurse and healthier emotional balance is demonstrated and both becomes mature individuals.

Patient

Interpersonal Theory & Nursing Process
Both

are sequential and focus on therapeutic relationship use problem solving techniques for the nurse and patient to collaborate on, with the end purpose of meeting the patients needs

Both

Interpersonal Theory & Nursing Process
Both

use observation, communication and recording as basic tools utilized by nursing

Interpersonal Theory & Nursing Process
Assessment
Data

Orientation
Non

collection and analysis [continuous] May not be a felt need

continuous data collection Felt need Define needs

Interpersonal Theory & Nursing Process
Nursing Diagnosis and Planning
Mutually

Identification
Interdependent

goals

set

goal setting

Interpersonal Theory & Nursing Process
Implementation
Plans

Exploitation
Patient

initiated towards achievement of mutually set goals May be accomplished by patient , nurse or family

actively seeking and drawing help Patient initiated

Interpersonal Theory & Nursing Process
Evaluation
Based

Resolution
Occurs

on mutually expected behaviors May led to termination and initiation of new plans

after other phases are completed successfully Leads to termination

Theory of Interpersonal Relations
Additional Reading:
Hays .D. (1961) Phases and steps of

experimental teaching to patients of a concept of anxiety.