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Greece: world power from 7th century b.

c-1 AD

Thinkers Started Here

1. Environment

It is surrounded by seas and divided by rough mountains.

The location is strategic doormat of TRADE. The Ports are venues to exchange ideas.




Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 November 14, 1831

Dialogue with other person: Kasunduan Sharpening of intellect

The city-states are independent People in the North travel not by land but by sea. Theres unity of culture due to division The rough mountain is an advantage to them intellectually. Meeting at the portsforms unity of thoughts Their constant contact with one another paves a way for more exchange.

The Greeks were the first ones to PLAY. When you have to understand. You use your mind to know the rules.



Eidos=the look, the sight/ metaphors of sight

Can you see my Point? Can you understand my point?



The Greeks invented the coined money.

LEISURE Studying Arts & Sciences Facilitates and improves their lives




Imaginative: using words Descriptive Imageryrepresentation of sense language through words.

Expression of feeling through Arts, Literature to capture experience in the most creative and beautiful manner.

Abandoned the mythological style in explaining the phenomenon of the world. They presented arguments based on reason alone. Main concern: What the world is made of?

What the world is

made of?

The world is made up of water.

The first recorded philosopher THALES


world is made up of Apeiron-a boundless, immaterial principle.



world is made up of Air.

Change is just an illusion.

The world is made up of numbers. Things are numbers.


is nothing permanent in this world except CHANGE.


world is made up of ATOMS

Naturalists: Focused on physical science and nature of souls: mundane concerns of human relations received little attention -Naturalist: school structures and design also teach. What is education? It depends on the Philosopher/ Teacher/Administrator. Pedagogy: use of materials in the teachinglearning process and the utilization of hypothesis. Teacher is expected to be more organized and with order. Such concrete realities also teach, and learning process is manifested.


Background 546-508: Tyranny returns. Democracy restored. Sophism becomes important for success
490 480 BCE: Persian Wars. Athens sacked, but Greeks ultimately win. Athens is one city-state among many, but exerts leadership over anti-Persian coalition 469: Socrates born; Athens becoming increasingly imperialistic 461-445: First Peloponnesian War. Pericles leads Athenian democracy into war against Sparta. 440s: Socrates criticizes values of everyday citizens. Often viewed as a harmless crank by others. Marries but lives in poverty, supported by charity from students

Socratic Method- asking questions and offering counterexamples in a manner which ultimately leads the other person to reach the right (or at least a better) conclusion. Socrates opposes written philosophy! He wrote nothing, because paper cant talk back and question the reader. Solve problems by answering a series of questions aimed at eliminating incorrect assumptions and ineffective solutions. This negative method underlies the contemporary process of positing and rejecting hypotheses.


Socrates convicted (vote: 28 to 22) and executed (vote: 36 to 14!) for impiety and corrupting the youth of Athens.

Metaphysics Belief in immortality of the soul. People should be concerned with the welfare of their souls rather than with material possessions and worldly success.

True knowledge is that which is gained beyond the senses. The invisible world is the most intelligible. Physical events are shadows of their real existence.
The unexamined life is not worth living.

Allegory of the Cave (as told by Plato)

Lifelong prisoners in a cave see only the shadows of events in the real world cast upon the wall of the cave they face.
A prisoner who was released to see the real world would have difficulty convincing the other prisoners of this reality.

Lessons of the Cave Allegory: 1. Constantly challenge what we consider to be reality. 2. Think dialectically (idea, counter-idea, new idea). 3. Rely upon reasoning over false material indications of reality.


What should be done.

Socratic Method/ pedagogy: legal education


of Vision-Mission Values Orientation

Motivation: use of essential questions (UBD)

Research: Statement of the ProblemConclusion-Recommendation-Hypothesis

Greek Philosophy: The Ideal Society

Plato (424 B.C. to 328 B.C.)
If knowledge is gained only from experience, then because the world is in constant flux, this knowledge is mere opinion. Knowledge gained through abstract reasoning has more lasting appeal.

The importance of abstract theorizing.

Meiutic method:

Philosophical dialogue aims to help people to give birth to their own ideas, not simply to persuade others or provide them with information.

A. Communism: Most people ascribe Marxism to Marx. But communism was defended by Plato, and Rousseau was even used to justify the regime of Pol Pot! B. Liberalism: Liberal notions of democracy are founded on the individualist approaches of Hobbes and Locke, the emphasis of Rousseau on popular sovereignty, and the social contract approach of all three C. Fascism: The nationalism of Rousseau and elitism of Plato were used to justify fascist and theocratic regimes (Ayatollah Khomeini was influenced by The Republic)

Social Structure Society is best ruled by the few.

These philosopher kings have expertise and love the truth. Society must be diversified to include farmers, merchants, craftsmen, etc. The importance of the elite, even within a democracy.

Education would be holistic, including facts, skills, physical discipline, and music and art, which he considered the highest form of endeavor.
Autocratic style of leadership and gives emphasis on meritocracy. Use of apologetics Use of conceptual framework Educational innovations Use of deductive method in TLP

Aristotle (384 B.C. to 322 B.C.)

The Logic of Science

Synthesis of philosophy and science. Using induction from basic elements to discover reality.
Development of logic to understand reality and arrive at sound conclusions.

Aristotle refers to biology as a paradigm for making sense of the world, much as Plato refers to mathematics.

his philosophy is much more empirically oriented than Platos.

Aristotle rejects the idea that we can only make sense of this world by appealing to invisible entities beyond it.

Aristotle (384 B.C. to 322 B.C.)

Four Types of Causes
1. Material: Basic elements of the

event or condition. 2. Formal: Fundamental principles or general laws. 3. Efficient: The independent variable of cause. That which causes something. 4. Final: The purpose or goal of an event.

Implications to Education
From idealism to realism.
Aristotle: Induction from events
Aristotle considered human nature, habit and reason to be equally important forces to be cultivated in education, especially among administrators.
He considered repetition to be a key tool to develop good habits. =Law of exercise: You are what you repeatedly do. He also mentioned the importance of play-Learning by Doing. One of education's primary missions for Aristotle, perhaps its most important, was to produce good and virtuous citizens for the polis: Traits of Ideal Graduates




Material Object

All things
Formal Object quo

Ultimate causes
Formal Object quod
Under the light of human reason alone

The Edict of Milan decreed religious tolerance in the Roman Empire

Philosophia: Ancilla Theologia Theology: the queen of all sciences

Do you wish to understand? Believe. . . . If you have not understood, said I, believe. For understanding is the reward of faith. Therefore do not seek to understand in order to believe, but believe that you may understand; since, except ye believe, you shall not understand."
St. Augustine (Tractate 29)

All perspectives were explained by Philosophy and Theology Influenced by Ancient Platonic idea Christianized Platonic teachings highlighting the soul. God: His nature was an object of Philosophy.

Christian Philosophy of Education: Fides et Ratio
Religion as the core of the curriculum-for Catholic schools

Perennialists believe that one should teach the things that one deems to be of everlasting importance to all people everywhere. They believe that the most important topics develop a person. Since details of fact change constantly, these cannot be the most important. Therefore, one should teach principles, not facts. Since people are human, one should teach first about humans, not machines or techniques. Since people are people first, and workers second if at all, one should teach liberal topics first, not vocational topics. Perennialism focuses first on personal development- IT IS teacher-centered.

Revolutionary changes in Science and Technology, political and economic areas and the peoples conception of themselves. The Holy Roman empire crumbled due to abuses. In the 8th and 9th century-European alliedand formed the Holy Roman Empire to continue the legacy The 11th-13th century was the dark ages of the Church.

When the Holy Roman Empire failed, many kingdoms became independent of each other and the Churchs power has abated

Renaissance (1400AD)


the past. We will express our views again.

Martin Luther led the Protestant reformation in the 16th century

The sun is

The earth duh !

Fourteen years after Pope John Paul II said the Catholic Church erred when it condemned the 17th-century astronomer Galileo Galilei, the Vatican secretary of state said the astronomer was "a man of faith" who recognized God as creator of the cosmos.

Scientific revolution Industrial revolution

Social revolution

Ancient & Medieval


There is being

Focuses on the knowability of this being

Concerned with all things

Inquiry into human understanding

Facilities development

Scientific Method Rationalist Humanism




Anglo Americans (England) Initiated by Mill

Analysis of Language Empericists & Pragmatists

Analysis of Language Use of expressions and they are nominalists

Everything could enter through language

Text: that which you understand, that which makes you understand.
The world: ground for you to understand anything

Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 29 April 1951) was an Austrian-British philosopher

But how many kinds of sentences are there? Say assertion, question and command?there are countless kinds: countless different kinds of uses of what we call symbols, words, sentences and this multiplicity is not something fixed, given once for all; but new types of language, new language games, as we may say, come into existence, and others become obsolete and get forgotten

The grammatical structure of the sentence The purpose/s of the user of the sentence. The effect of the use of language might have.


used to state a fact or make an assertion-language or the sentence. Expressively: used to express emotion or an attitude. Directively: used to command, or request or instruct

Continental European (Germany, France etc)

Search for Meaning May refer also to language but focuses on existentialism. It is a search for meaning in life. Experience of man as a living man. Interpretation of the deepest core of our being

Rely on your decisionhave leap of

faith. -Soren Kierkegaards (5 May 1813 11
November 1855) Danish

Help one another, do not rely on God if theres God. He left us to forlorness. -Jean Paul Sartre (1905-1980) French
Life in this world is boringroutinary. We are following a routine-not worth living. To find meaningsuicide! Albert Camus November 19134 January 1960 French Life is meaningful. We are all pilgrims. We have a final heaven. Gabriel Marcel 1889, Paris 8 October 1973, french

To have a meaningful life is to deal with other people authentically. -Martin Buber 1878, June 13, 1965, Austrian Jew

To live a meaningful life is to decide for yourself.

Locke's Some Thoughts Concerning Education is an outline on how to educate this mind:

He expresses the belief that education maketh the man, or, more fundamentally, that the mind is an "empty cabinet", with the statement, "I think I may say that of all the men we meet with, nine parts of ten are what they are, good or evil, useful or not, by their education." ^

"Associationism", as this theory would come to be called, exerted a powerful influence over eighteenth-century thought, particularly educational theory, as nearly every educational writer warned parents not to allow their children to develop negative associations

Development of theories
Multiple intelligences by Howard Gardner

PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is an American philosophical tradition centered on the linking of practice and theory. It describes a process where theory is extracted from practice, and applied back to practice to form what is called intelligent practice.

Post modernity- it is not a system but a transition from contemporary to the future of Philosophy

It started in the ARTS: Freedom of man and of expression

Deconstruction: destroy and construct anew one. Destroy past assumptions/beliefs and system

Marked with subjectivism and pluralism

Care less about knowledgethey are more on attitude. Philosophy: a way of life. A continuous quest to understand.

In the beginners mind there are many possibilities, but in the experts there are few.
(Suzuki, 2006, p. 21)

a person seeking enlightenment is asked to look at things as they are, without preconceived notions

Me and Society Now







More Enlightened Me and Society?

Clear and Distinct Ideas

A Benevolent God

Cogito Ergo Sum

EDUCATIONAL PROGRESSIVISM is the belief that education must be based on the principle that humans are social animals who learn best in real-life activities with other people.

Typical progressivist slogans are "Learn by Doing!" and "Learn by Discovery."

Critical pedagogy is a philosophy of education described by Henry Giroux as an "educational movement, guided by passion and principle, to help students develop consciousness of freedom, recognize authoritarian tendencies, and connect knowledge to power and the ability to take constructive action."

Has no fixed definition. It is affected by different eras and trend.

TRUTH Philosophy IDEALS Is a mental framework. A system of ideas. It constitutes our ideals and aims in life. IDEALS VALUES L I


Philosophers are not important because they could provide answers to perplexing questions. Rather, philosophers are important because they dared to ask those questions.

In the most general forms In its special forms

The world


Non-living world

The living world

Vegetative Sentient rational

As a compound of body and soul In the operations Of his mind Correct thinking Validity of knowledge In the operations Of his will








We should begin with the world around us

Cosmology Theodicy Finally, contemplate GOD

Then consider man himself


Then study the inner workings of the mind.

Logic and Epistemology And of the will

Investigate Being in itself


Ontology Philosophy Notes by Lourdes Cedeo Philosophy for Life by George Reolly Philosophy Resources, DLSU Philosophy Department, DLSU Press, Manila